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vailed; for, in the heavier cards, the fric-gentlemen reported, on their return, remain here many days, before parties tion, upon the points of suspension was that
ventured on shooting excursions, and inuch too great to be orercome even by •The remains of Esquimaux habitations three men, who had missed their way, the ship's attraction, and they conse- were found in four different places. Six were absent ninety-one hours, and exquently remained indifferently in any po of these, which Captain Sabine had an opposed during three nights to the incleFor the purposes of navigation, therefore, tuated on a level sandy' bank, at the side mency of the weather. the compasses were from this time no of a small ravine near the sea, are de- Captain Parry still attempted to longer consulted; and, in a few days af- scribed by him as consisting of stones gain a passage to the westward, and terwards, the binnacles were removed as rudely placed in a circular or rather ellip- succeeded in getting along the coast useless lumber, from the deck to the car- tical form. They were from seven to ten of Melville Island to some distance, penter's store-room, where they remained feet in diameter; the broad flat sides of but there being no hope of penetrating during the rest of the season, the azimuth the stones standing vertically, and the further at that season, and the ice setcompass alone being kept on deck, for the whole structure, if such it inay be called, ting in very rapidly, he was induced to purpose might take place in the directive power of huts of the Esquimaux, which had been return to Hecla and Griper Bay, which the needle: and the true courses and di- seen at Hare Island, the preceding year.
he regained on the 24th of September. rection of the wind were in future noted Attached to each of them was a sınall cir- It was now necessary to cut a canal in the log-book, as obtained to the near-cle, generally four or five feet in diameter, through the ice, and to draw the ships est quarter-point, when the sun was visi- which had probably been the fire-place.' up it into the harbour. Two parallel ble, by the azimuth of that object and the The whole encampment appeared lines were cut, distant from each other apparent time.
to have been deserted for several years; little more than the breadth of the large On the following day (the 8th of but very recent traces of the rein-deer ships, and the ice then divided into August), the directive power of the and musk-ox were seen in many places. rectangular pieces, which were again magnet seemed to be weaker than | The steering of the vessels now be- subdivided diagonally, and floated out ever; for the North Pole of the needle, came very difficult, and, says our aua of the canal. Ît was afterwards found in Captain Kater's steering compays, thor:
necessary to sink the pieces of ice una in which the friction is almost entirely • The circumstances under which we der the floe as they were cut. At thrée removed by a thread suspension, was were sailing, were, perhaps, such as never o'clock, of the third day spent in these observed to point steadily towards the occurred since the early days of naviga: operations, the vessels reached their ship's head, in whatever direction the tion. To the northward was the land ; latter was placed. An accidental cir- the ice, as we supposed, to the southward; inter quarters, an event which was cumstance convinced Captain Parry pletely obscured by a fog, so thick that united ships' crews. The group of
hailed with three bearty cheers by the
compasses useless; and the sun comthat there was no current setting con- the Griper could only now and then be islands that were discovered were called stantly in one direction. A small pieces seen, at a cable's length astern. We the North Georgian Islands. of wood was picked up, which appear had literally, therefore, no mode of reed to have been the end of a boat's gulating our course but by once more
The ships had now reached that stayard, and which caused sundry amus-irusting to the steadiness of the wind; tion, where, in all probability, they ing speculations among the gentlemen and it was not a little amusing, as well as
were destined to remain for at least on board, who felt rather mortified to novel, to see the quarter-master conning eight months, during three of which
they were not to see the face of the think that a ship had been there before the ship by looking at the dog vane.' them, and that, therefore, they were
On the 2nd of September a star was sun. Every precuution was inmedinot entitled to the honour of the first seen, being the first that had been vi- ately taken for the security of the ships discovery. A stop was suddenly put days afterwards, namely, on the 4th, stores; the masts were dismantled, es
sible for more than two months. Two and the preservation of the various to this and other ingenious inductions, at a quarter past nine P.'m., the ships cept the lower ones
, and the planks of by the information of one of the sea- crossed the meridian of 110° west from the housing erected, and afterwards men that he had dropped it out of his Greenwich, in the latitude of 74° 44' roofed over with a cloth composed of boat a fortnight before.
20", by which they were entitled to wadding tilt. The crews of both vesThe vessels continued their pro- the reward of £5000. In order to sels were in excellent health, which gress, aud severat bays, capes, and commemorate the event, a bluff bead- great care was still taken to preserve, headlands were discovered, and receiv- land that they had just passed was by keeping the births and bed places ed names by the voyagers. On the called Bounty Cape. On the following as warm and dry as possible. The al22nd they had a clear and extensive day they dropped anchor, for the first lowance of bread was reduced to two view to the northward, free from ice; time since quitting the English coust, thirds; a pound of Donkin's preservand they now felt that they had actu in a roadstead, which was called the ed meat, together with one pint of regeally entered the Polar Sea. The
Bay of the Hecla and Griper, and table or concentrated soup per man, magnificent opening, through which the crews landed on the largest of a was substituted for a pound of salt their passage had been effected, from groupe of islands, which was called beef weekly; a proportion of beer and Baffin's Bay to a channel dignified Melville Island. The ensigns and wine was served instead of spirits; and with the name of Wellington, was pendants,' says Capt. Parry, 'were a small quantity of sour krout and called Barrow's Straits, after the Se- hoisted as soon as we had anchored, pickles, with as much vinegar as could cretary of the Admiralty.
and it created in us no ordinary feel- be used, was issued at regular interIo latitude 75° 03' 12," long. 103 ings of pleasure to see the British flag vals. . The daily proportion of lime 44' 37", an island was discovered, and waving, for the first time, in these re- juice and sugar, mixed with water, was Captain Sabine, with two other offi- gions, which had hitherto been consi- | drank by each man, in presence of an cers, landed on it near the east point, dered beyond the limits of the habita- officer appointed to attend to this which was called Cape Gilman. The ble part of the world.'-They did not I duty. When any game was procured,
it was served in lieu of the established seen our people in a state so exactly be the latter, by scraping off the ice, so as to allowance of meat; and in no one jo- sembling that of the most stupid intoxi-prevent its wetting the deck by any acci. stance, neither in quantity nor quality, cation, that I should certainly have charg. dental increase of temperature. In this was the slightest preference given to ed them with that offence, had I not respect, the bed-places were particularly the officers.
been quite sure that no possible means troublesome; the inner partition, or that
were afforded them on Melville Island, to next the ship's side, being almost invarialu regard to clothing, equal attention was paid to the comfort of every water.' procure any thing stronger than snow. bly covered with more or less dampness
or ice, according to the temperature of individual on board; and, now being The 4th of November was the last the deck during the preceding night. in a state of leisure and inactivity, Capt. day that the sun was seen above the This inconvenience night, to a great deParry projected the amusements of a horizon, but the weather was not suffi- gree, have been avoided, by a suficient theatre, of which Lieut. Beechey was ciently clear to allow the scientific quantity of fuel to keep up two good tires stage manager; and a weekly newspaper, gentlemen to make any observations ty-four hours; but our stock of coals to be called the North Georgia Gazelle on the disappearance of that cheering would by no means permit this, bearing and Winter 'Chronicle, of which Cap-orb, of this great world both eye and in mind the possibility of our spending a tain Sabine undertook to be the editor. and soul.' The next day the theatre second winter within the Arctic circle; These had the happy effect of divert- was opened, and Miss in her Teens and this comfort could only, therefore, be ing the mind from the gloomy pros- performed ; a new Christinas piece allowed on a few occasions, during the pect which would sometimes obtrude was also produced, with the most most severe part of the winter. itself on the stoutest heart. brilliant success,' as a London manag.. the lower deck, I had always an opportu
• In the course of my examination of Some deer having been seen near er would say, though the director of nity of seeing those few inen who were on the ships on the 10th of October, a the North Georgia Theatre announces the sick list, and of receiving from Mr. party was despatched after them, and the event more modestly. The cir- Edwards a report of their respective being led on by the ardour of pursuit, cunstances under which the crews cases; as also of consulting that gentleforgot Captain Parry's order that every were situated being such as never be man as to the means of improving the person should be on board before sun. fore occurred, it cannot be uninterest. warmth, ventilation, and general comfort set:
ing to know in what manner they pass of the inhabited parts of the ship. Have John Pearson, a marine belonging to ed their time, during three months of ing performed this duty, we returned to on board, had his hands severely frost nearly total darkness, in the middle of spected the men; after which, they were bitten, liaving imprudently gone away
a severe winter, and in a climate where sent out to walk on shore when the wea without mittens, and with a musket in his Europeans never wintered before :- ther would permit, till noon, when they hand. A party of our people most provi- The officers and quarter-masters were returned on board to their dinner. When dentially found him, although the night divided into four watches, which were the day was too inclement for them to was very dark, just as he had fallen down regularly kept, as at sea, while there. take this exercise, they were ordered to a steep bank of snow, and was beginning mainder of the ship's company were al run round and round the deck, keeping to feel that degree of torpor and drowsi. lowed to enjoy their night's rest undis- step to a tune on the organ, or, not unfreness which, if indulged, inevitably proves turbed. The hands were turned up at a quently, to a song of their own singiog. fatal. When he was brought on board, quarter before six, and both decks were Among the men were a few who did not his fingers were quite stiff, and bent into well rubbed with stones and warm sand at first quite like this systematic mode of the shape of that part of the musket he had before eight o'clock, at which time, as taking exercise ; but when they found been carrying; and the frost had so far de usual at sea, both officers and men went that no plea, except that of illness, was stroyed the animation in his fingers on one to breakfast. Three-quarters of an hour admitted as an excuse, they not only wil. hand, that it was necessary to amputate being allowed after breakfast for the men lingly and cheerfully complied, but made three of them a short time after, not with- to prepare themselves for muster, we then it the occasion of much huinour and trolic standing all the care and attention paid to beat to divisions punctually at a quarter anong theinselves. him by the medical gentlemen. The ef past nine, when every person on board at- The officers, who dined at two o'clock, fect which exposure to severe frost has, in iended on the quarter-deck, and a strict were also in the habit of occupying one benumbing the mental as well as the cor- inspection of the men took place, as to or two hours in the middle of the day in poreal faculties, was very striking in this their personal cleanliness, and the good rambling on shore, even in our darkest man, as well as in two of the young gen condition, as well as sufficient warmth, of period, except when a fresh wind and a tlemen who returned after dark, and of their clothing. The reports of the officers heavy snow drift confined them within whom we were anxious to make inqui- having been made to iné, the people were the housing of the ships. It may be well ries respecting Pearson. When I sent for then allowed to walk about, or, more imagined, that, at this period, there was them into my cabin, they looked wild, usually, to run round the upper deck, but Iittle to be mct with in our walks on ** spoke thick and indistinctly, and it was while I went down to examine the state of shore, which could either amuse or inter
impossible to draw from them a rational that below, accompanied, as I before est us. The necessity of not exceeding answer to any of our questions. After mentioned, by Lieutenant Beechey and the limited distance of one or two miles, being on board for a short time, the men- Mr. Edwards. The state of this deck lest a snow-drift, which often rises very tal faculties appeared gradually to return inay be said, indeed, to have constituted suddenly, should prevent our return, with the returning circulation, and it was the chief source of our anxiety, and to added considerably to the dull and tedinot till then that a looker on could easily have occupied by far the greatest share ous monotony which, day after day, prepersuade himself that they had not been of our attention at this period. Whenever sented itself. To the southward was the alrinking too freely. To those who have any dampness appeared, or, what more sea, covered with one unbroken surface of been much accustomed to cold countries, frequently happened, any accumulation ice, uniform in its dazzling whiteness, exthis will be no new remark; but I cannot of ice had taken place during the preced- cept that, in some parts, a few hummucks help thinking, (and it is with this view that ing night, the necessary means were im- were seen thrown up somewhat above the I speak of it,) that many a man may have mediately adopted for removing it; in general level. Nor did the land otfer been punished for intoxication, who was the former case, usually by rubbing the much greater variety, being almost enouiy sulfering from the benumbing ef- wood with cloths, and then directing the tirely covered with snow, except here decis of frost, for I have more than once warm air-pipe towards the place; and in and there a brown patch of bare ground
in some exposed situations, where the hope of the complete accomplishment of | will not fail us. The probability of ohwind had not allowed the snow to re- our enterprise, before the close of the taining occasional supplies of wood, main. When viewed from the summit of next season. In entertaining such a hope, game, and anti-scorbutic plants; the the neighbouring bills, on one of those however, we had not rightly calculated chance of being enabled to send inforiacalm clear days, which not unfrequently on the severity of the climate with which tion by means of the natives; and the occurred during the winter, the scene was we had to contend, and on the conse comparative facility with which the lives such as to induce contemplations, which quent shortness of the season, (not ex- of the people might be saved, in case of had, perhaps, more of melancholy than ceeding seven weeks,) in which it is pos- serious and irreparable accidents happenof any other feeling. Not an object was sible to perform the navigation of that ing to the ships, are also important consito be seen on which the eye could long part of the Polar Sea. Although it must derations, which naturally serve to recomrest with pleasure, unless when directed be admitted, that there is something mend this route. Should the sea on the to the spot where the ships lay, and peculiar about the south-west end of coast of America be found moderately where our little colony was planted. The Melville Island, extremely unfavoura. deep, and shelving towards the shore, smoke which there issued from the seve- ble to navigation, yet it is also certain, (which, from the geological character of the ral fires, affording a certain indication of that the obstructions we met with from known parts of the continent to the south, the presence of man, gave a partial cheer- ice, both as to its thickness and extent, and of the Georgian Islands to the north, fulness to this part of the prospect; and were found generally to increase, as we there is reason to believe would be the case the sound of voices which, during the proceeded westward, after passing through for a considerable distance to the westcold weather, could be beard at a much Barrow's Strait. That we should find this to ward), the facility of navigation would be grealer distance than usual, served now be the caje, might perhaps have been much increased, on account of the groundand then to break the silence which reasonably anticipated, because the proxing of the heavy mases of ice in water reigned around us,-a silence far different imity to a permanently open sea appears sufficiently deep to allow the ships to take from that peaceable composure which to be the circumstance' which, of all shelter behind them, at such tinies as the characterizes the landscape of a cultiva. others, tends the most to temper' the se- foes close in upon the land. Farther to ted country; it was the death-like still-verity of the Polar regions, in any given the westward, where the primitive formaness of the most dreary desolation, and parallel of latitude. On this account Ition, and perhaps even a continuation of the total absence of aniinated existence. should always expect to meet with the the Rocky Mountains, is to be expected, Such, indeed, was the want of objects to most serious impediments about mid-way, a steep and precipitous shore would proafford relief to the eye or amusement to between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; bably occur, a circuinstance which the the mind, that a stone of more than usual and having once passed that barrier, i foregoing narrative has shewn to be atsize appearing above the snow, in the di- should as confidently hope to find the dif- tended with much comparative uncer. rection in which we were going, imine. ficulties lessen in proportion as we ad tainty and risk. diately became a mark, on which our vanced towards the latter sea; especially The question which naturally arises, eyes were unconsciously fixed, and to- as it is well known, that the climate of any in the next place, relates to the most wards which we mechanically advanced.' given parallel on that side of America is, likely means of getting to the coast of
Leaving, for the present, our enter- no matter from what cause, very many de- America, so as to sail along its shores. prising countrymen to pass their grees more temperate than on the eastern It would, in this respect, be desirable lo Christinas at New Georgia, we shall coast.
find an outlet from the Atlantic into the interrupt trae narrative to notice Capo mate does not wholly depend on latitude, rallel of latitude in which the northern
But, although it is evident, that cli- Polar Sea, as nearly as possible in the patain Parry's remarks as to the proba. but on other circumstances also, (princi- coast of America may be supposed to lic; ble existence and accoonplishment of a pally, perhaps, those of locality above- as, however, we do not know of any such north-west passage into the Pacific inentioned,) yet it can scarcely be doubt- outlet from Baffin's Bay, about the parallels Ocean. He says,
ed that, on any meridian to the north of of 690 to 70°, the attempt is, perhaps, to Of the existence of such a passage, and America, for instance, 114° west, where be made with better chance of success in that the outlet will be found in Behring's we were stopped, the general climate a still lower latitude, especially as there is Strait, it is scarcely possible, on an inspec. would be found somewhat better, and the a considerable portion of coast that may tion of the map, with the addition of our navigable season longer, in the latitude of reasonably be supposed to offer the delate discoveries, and in conjunction with 690 than in that of 75°, near which we sired cominunication, which yet remains those of Cook and Mackenzie, any longer wintered. For this reason, it would per- unexplored. Cumberland Strait, the pas, to entertain a reasonable doubt. In dis haps be desirable, that ships endeavouring sage called Sir Thomas Rowe's Welcoine, covering one outlet from Baffin's Bay in- to reach the Pacific by this route, should lying between Southampton Island and to the Polar Sea, and finding that sea keep, if possible, on the coast of Ameri- the coast of America, and Repulse Bay, studded with numerous islands, another ca, and ihe lower in latitude that coast appear to be the points most worthy of link has at least been added to the chain may be found, the more favourable will it aitention; and, considering the state of of evidence upon which geographers have prove for this purpose.
uncertainty in which the attempts of formlong ventured to delineate the northern • Our experience, I think, has clearly er navigators have left us, with regard 10 coast of America, by a dotted line from shewn that the navigation of the Polar the extent and communication of these Icy Cape westward, to the rivers of Mac- Seas can never be performed with any openings, one cannot but entertain a reakenzie and Hearne, and thence to the degree of certainty, without a continuity sonable hope, that one, or perhaps each known part of the coast to the north of of land. It was only by watching the oc- of them, may afford a practicable passage Hudson's Bay, in the neighbourhood of casional openings between the ice and the into the Polar Sea. Wager River; while, at the same time, shore, that our late progress to the west- •So little, indeed, is' known of the considerable progress has been made toward was effected ; and had the land con- whole of the northern shore of Hudson's wards the actual accomplishment of the tinued in the desired direction, there can Strait, wbich appears, from the best infordesired passage, which has for nearly three be no question that we should have con- mation, to consist chiefly of islands, that centuries engaged the attention of the ma- tinued to advance, however slowly, to the geography of that part of the world ritime nations of Europe.
wards the completion of our enterprise. may be considered altogether undeterThe success which attended our er. In this respect, therefore, as well as in the mined; so that an expedition, which forts during the season of 1819, after improvement to be expected in the cli- should be sent to examine those parts, passing through Sir James Lancaster's mate, there would be a inanifest advan- would soon arrive upon ground never be Sound, was such as to inspire even the tage in making the attempt on the coast of fore visited, and in which, from an inspecleast sanguine ainong us with reasonable America, where we are sure that the land tion of the map in its present siate,
there certainly does seem more than bellishments, which consist of twenty of the Abbeys of Fossa Nuova and of
A second Sicilian Society, almost
unknown to the rest of Europe, was uncertain as it was two hundred years Memoirs of the Secret Societies of the called the Beati Paoli, and much reago, and which possibly may not exist at South of Italy, particularly the Car- sembled, in their motives and actions, all.
bonari. Translated from the Origi- the Free Knights in Germany: PerIn the course of the foregoing narra- nal MS. 8vo. 235. London, 1821. sons of all ranks united themselves setive, it may have been remarked, that in the last number but one of the Li- cretly, and proceeded agaiost the great the westerly and north-westerly winds lerary Chronicle, we gave a brief no
barons and the tribunals, whose power were always found to produce the effect tice of the Carbonari," from Mr. Kep was such, that they were not to be North Georgian islands of ice, while pel Craven's work. The subject is reached openly. This institution, vi. they always brought with them clear wea- one which has attracted great attention cious and horrible in itself, did, how. ther, which is essentially necessary in and much curiosity in Europe, and we ever, produce some partially salutary prosecuting discoveries in such a naviga- are now happy in being able (as we effects, restraining the arbitrary licention. This circumstance, together with hope) to gratify our readers by the tiousness of the great, by the terror the fact of our having sailed back in six volume before us, which contains the which it inspired. The punishments days from the meridian of Winter Har- most interesting details of this very ex
inflicted by the Beati Paoli were death ter's Sound, a distance which it required traordinary and powerful institution. by poison, or the dagyer, mutilation, ter's Sound, a distance which it required. The author declares, that he never be destruction of property by fire, and, five weeks to traverse when going in the opposite direction, seems to offer a rea. louged to any secret society, not even for the slightest crimes or faults, the sonable ground for concluding, that an to freemasonry, and it may, therefore, severest beating. The ramifications of attempt to effect the north-west passage appear singular, how he has penetrated this society were spread over the whole might be made, with a better chance of the mystery with which the Carbonari island; and a cavera is shown at Pasuccess, from Behring's Strait, than from
enveloped themselves. The fact is, I lerino, in a street called de 'Canceddi, this side of America. There are some that when the Carbonari of Naples had near the church of Santa Maria di Gecircumstances, however, which, in, my effected the revolution in July, 1820, sù, where they held their meetings. altogether impracticable, at least for they imagined that they had no cause Neither the severest laws nor the heute British ships. The principal of these for further concealment. They boast- viest penalties had any effect on the arises from the length of the voyage which ed of their success; they revealed their Beati Paoli, but the change in the must first be performed, in order to arrive secret proceedings; they pronulgated state of society, and the improvement at the point where the work is to be be decrees, and posted up proclamations. of manners, at length put an end to the gun. After such a voyage, admitting that the press multiplied their cathechisms, association. A lively recollection of no serious wear and tear have been ex- the transactions of their societies, and it, however, still remains among the petienced, the most important part of a the results of their deliberations. It Sicilians; and they often excluim, on reShip’s resources, namely, the provisions is froin such sources that the author has ceiving an injury or loss, for which they ed, and this without the possibility of drawn his materials; and he gives the cannot apply to justice, . Ah, se fossero renewing them, to the extent necessary titles of forty-seven books and pam- ancora i Beati Paoli! Ah, if the Befor such a service, and which can alone phlets on the subject, to which he fre-ati Paoli were still in being ! give confidence in the performance of an quently refers in the coure of the work. The Carbonari, anxious to be enterprize of which the nature is so pre- These Memoirs contain a plain inarti- thought an old institution, derive the carious and uncertain.
ficial narrative, without any strict me- proofs of their antiquity from Germany. * Nor should it be forgotten how inju- thodical arrangement. For this the au- The necessity of mutual assistance, it and extreme a change of climate would in thor apologizes, and declares, that he is said, induced the colliers, (literally all probability prove, as that which they
relies wholly on the interest of the sub-charcoal burners or charrers), who inmust necessarily experience in going at ject, and on the consciousness of never habit the vast forests of Gerinany, to once from the heat of the torrid zone into having altered facts, to adopt them ei- unite themselves agaiost robbers and the intense cold of a long winter upon ther to prejudice or theory.'
enemies, and, by conventional signs, the northern shores of America. Upon The existence of the Carbonari has known only to themselves, they claimthe whole, therefore, ! cannot but consi- been long known in Naples, but it was ed and afforded mutual assistance. der, that any expedition, equipped by the late revolution which brought them These associations, in the course of Great Britain with this view, will act with greater advantage, by at once em
iuto public notice. The practice of time, acquired more consistency, and ploying its best energies in the attempt creating a state within a state, and of spread themselves
Germany, to penetrate from the eastern coast of erecting secret tribunals to redress France, and the Netherlands. The America, along its northern shore.' wrongs, has existed in all barbarous Society of Hewers (Feudeurs) resem,
Although we shall return to this and turbulent times. It is of very an- bled that of the colliers. Amongst volune iu our next, yet it may be ne- cient date in the kingdom of the two their symbols of imitation, we find the cessary now to observe, that its em- Siciljes. According to the Chronicles trupk of an old tree, together with
other allusions to their occupations in The novices were told that, in imitation and painted on the patents of the inio the woods,
of their grand master, Christ, they must tiated, are numerous, and consist of the The Carbonari have a curious tradi- necrssarily pass through sufferings to pu: trunk of a tree, linen cloth, water, salt, tionary story of their origin, which they rity and happiness; ihey were crowned
a crown of white-thorns, a cross, leaves, trace to the time of Francis the First, their hands. A dramatic representation sticks, fire, earth, a ladder, a bundle King of France; and at their feasts, the exhibited part of the agonies of the Sa- of sticks, a ball of thread ; three rib: grand master drinks to the health of viour, and it was solemnly announced, bous, or. blue, one red, and one black, Francis l., the founder of the order.' that the great requisites were to preserve with the axe, mattock, and shovel, Whatever antiquity the Carbonari may their faith, and mutually to assist each The symbols are thus explained :claiin, it is certain that they never rose other.
«« The cross should serve to crucify "'The following extract, from the list the tyrant who persecutes us, and trous to any importance, nor acted any conspicuous part until the French revolu- chap. of the statutes of Carbonarism, will bles our sacred operations
. The crown iend to explain the real or pretended of thorns should serve to pierce his head: tion. Their restoration is ascribed by the grand masters, at Naples, to ani unprinciples of the sect.
The thread denotes the cord to lead him known oficer, who had spent some time of the General Doctrine of the Order. in Spain. The next efficient supporter ly founded on religion and virtue.
• Art. 1. Good Cousinship is principal. mount. The leaves are nails to pierce
to the gibbet ; the ladder will aid him to of the sect fus they are called), was
his hands and feet. The pick-axe will
• Art. 2. The place of meeting is calo penetrale his breast, and shed the impure Maghella, a native of Genoa, who was led the Baraccu; the space surrounding blood that flows in his veins. The axe originally employed in a counting-it, the Forest or Wood; the interior of the will separate his head from his body, as house, but afterwards became minister lodge, the Vendita.
Årt. 3. The members are called Good The salt will prevent the corruption of
the wolf who disturbs our pacific, labours, of police in the Ligurian Republic, and in favour with Murat, whom he Cousins ; they are divided into two clas- his head, that it may last as a monument advised to abandon Bonaparte before ses apprentices and inasters.
of the eternal infamy of despots. The the Russian campaign, in 1812, and norals, and not Pagan* qualities, render rant upon. The furnace will burn his
• Art. 4. Tried virtue and purity of pole will serve to put the skull of the ty: proclaim the independence of Itals. men worthy of belonging to the Carbo- body. The shovel will scatter his ashes In 1815, Maghella endeavoured to nari. rouse Italy to independence, and in Art. 5. An interval of six months is to the wind. The baracca will serve to
prepare new tortures for the tyrant. The the name of Mirat, he organized the necessary bufore an apprentice can ob, fountain will purify us froin the vile Papal provinces of which he had taken tain the rank of master. The principal blood we shall have shed. The linen will possessiou ; and it was there that the obligations imposed on him are, to prac. wipe away our stains, and render us clean lodges of the Carbonari were establish-Lise benevolence, to succour the unfortu. and pure. The forest is the place where ed. He then introduced the sect into malice against Carbonari, and to enrich portant a result. The trunk with a single
the Good Cousins labour to obtain so im. Naples, assuring Murat that such an his heart with virtue. justitution would draw the attention * Art. 6. By this article it is forbidden ation, we shall become equal to the N. C.”
branch signifies that, after the great oper. of the populace from the remembrance to talk directly or indirectly against reof their ancient sovereigns, and gain ligion, and by
• One would be tempted to doubt the them over to the new order of things.
Art. 7. All conversation on religion bols, if it were not given in the minutes
reality of the last explanation of the syin. The doctrine preached to the inhabia in general, or against good morals, is pro- of a legal trial. Perhaps the compiler of
hibited. tants of the Calavrias and the Abruzzi, was, however, adapted to their ioclinac rois obliged to preserve inviolable secresy what he thought he had read in the cate
• Art. 8. Every Good Cousin Carbona- the notes may have confounded the verbal
depositions of some of the witnesses, 'with tions. It depended, for effect, on the concerning the mysteries of the order. two-fold excitement of religious fanati- · Art. 9. No G: C. C. may communi.
chists of the sect.' cism and pecuniary interest; for while cate what is done or decided upon in his
The Carbonari are called a sect, and the imitation of Jesus Christ himself, Vendita, to those who belong to another, the appellation does not displease them. the Grand Master of the order, was the much less to persons not joitiated. The fanatics of the society detail the devotional object proposed, they were
• Art. 10. The greatest reserve is re- miraculous conversions which it has shown, at the bottom of the scene, a
commended to the members, towards all already wrought. The ferocious Lazpolitical change, which must infallibly quainted, but more especially in the bo- gauds of the Calabrias and the Abruzpersons with whom they are not well ac
Zaroni of Naples, and the wildest bridiminish the taxes.'
so ms of their own families.' To give stability to the sect thus in- The capital was the centre of the zi, have been known, immediately on troduced at Naples, and to graft it on Carbonari, where the Alta Vendita or
their initiation to perforın the most an old stock, all freemasons were ad principal lodge, consisting of houotary I striking acts of benevolence and jusmitted simply by ballot, and without members and deputies from other tice. Under this pretext of bringing the preparatory trials required from lodges, was held. It was the business back the wicked to the puths of viue. ordinary candidates. Hence it was, of this lodge to grant charters of orga
distinguished brigand chiels are adthat the Pope issued his decree against nization to new lodges, or to contirm mitted into the order. The notorious
Gaetano Vardarelli hinnself was a Car. freemasonry, considering all the secret such as were subunitted for its appro
bonaro:societies of Italy as derived from it. bation. It has been eclipsed by the
• So far is this system 'carried, that an One consequence of the amalgamation superior activity of the Carbonari ma
assassin, condemned to the chain, is per of freemasonry with Carbonarisin bas gistracy of the Western Lucanian Re- mitted to take his place in the Vendita of been a toleration of all the Christian public, for so the province of Princi- the Castle of St. Elmo, where he is 'con. sects which masonry contained :- pato Citra is teined.
tined with other galley-slaves, and the • But, though such free toleration is al- The symbols used at their meetiógs, commander of the fort, hiinseif a Carbolowed, the ceremonies of admission par- Pagano may be translated prophane, be naro, has not dared to exclude him, but is take of an almost fanatic superstition. longing to the uninitiated.'
obliged to sit by his side.