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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 14, 1821.
Review of New Books. ground for supposing any fortifica- in recovering his kingly prerogatives, and
tion of importance ever did exist on endeavouring to shake off the yoke which The History and Antiquities of the
its site until some years after the Nor- / had been thus imposed upon hiin, civil Tower of London, with Biographical structure, now called the White Tower, tinued in charge of the Tower till after
war ensued; the barons remained masman conquest, when the principal ters of the city, and the Archbishop conAnecdotes of Royal and Distinguish was built by command of King Wil the arrival of the French in the following ed Persons, deduced from Records, liam the First, under the superintends year, when it was given up to Prince Slate Papers, and Manuscripts, and
ance of that celebrated inilitary archi- Lewis, who had been invited into Engfrom other Original and Authentic Sources. By John Bayley, Esq. Several additions were made to the tect, Gundulplı, Bishop of Rochester. land to take possession of the crown.'
King Henry the Third frequently F. A.S. one of His Majesty's Commissioners on the Public Records.
buildings by William Rufus and Hen- resided at the Tower, and not only
ry the First; and, so early as the reign strengthened it, but also adorned the Jo Two Parts., Part I. 4to. pp. of the latter
, the Tower was used as a chapels with paintings and pieces of 306. London, 1821.
place of confinement for prisoners of sculpture. It was during the reign When we first saw this work announc- state. In the year 1100," soon after of this King, in 1949, that the addied, we felt happy that a place of such the death of William Rufus, Ranulph tional line of fortifications which he had interest and importance as the Tower, Flambard, Bishop of Durhamn, was ien- but just completed, were, on the night the history of which has been long ne-prisoned there by the order of the king. of St. George, destroyed as if by an glected, was at. length to possess It does not, bowever, appear to have earthquake. The foundations gave its share of illustration, and that it been used as a royal residence until way, and a noble portal, with the walls was undertaken by a gentleman 60 the year. 1140, when King Stephen re- and bulwarks, all fell down; and, competent to the task. From the pretired to it with but a slender retinue, strange to tell, no sooner were the face we learn that the work was begun and kept his court there during the works restored, than, in 1241, the whole some considerable time ago; and that, festival of Whitsuntide. It was soon again fell down, on the very, same about the middle of the year 1819, after fortified against hiin, by the Go- night, and, as we are told, at the self when a large portion of it had gone vernor Geffrey de Mandeville
. In the same hour that had proved destructive through the press, it was destroyed, to-reign of Richard the First, the charge to them the year preceding: In the gether with the manuscript, by the fire of the Tower was confided to Long- latter part of the reign of Henry, the at Messrs. Bensley's printing office. champ, Bishop of Ely, who strength Tower forms a prominent feature of
This must have been a sad mortifica l'ened its fortifications and surrounded history, as its possession was strongly tion to Mr. Bayley, who had to begin it with a deep ditch. It appears that contested in the war between Henry his work de novo, under circumstances King John often kept his court at the and the barons. so disadvantageous and discouraging. Tower, and made considerable addi- Neither King Edward the First nor The portion of the work now sub- tions to its fortifications :
the Second evinced much partiality mitted to the public, contains a com
• In the year 1215, the long kindling
for the Tower, though the latter occapressed chronological and general his- flames of discord broke out between Jobi sionally retired to it as a place of safetory of the Tower
, as a palace and for- and his barons ; and at the very com- ty. Here he left his Queen and famitress, with a description of all its mate- mencement of hostilities, the latter took ly when he marched against his unruly rial buildings. The Second Part will possession of the capital at the invitation barons; and here bis eldest daughter contain an account of the Tower as a of the citizens, and laid siege to the Tow
was born, who, from that circumstance, state prison, with biographical notices er; but, although there were only few
was called Jane of the Tower. In the of the most distinguished personages signing of the great charter; when, as a se
within to defend it, it held out until the reign of Edward the Third, the Tower that have been contined there; an ac
was peopled with some illustrious incount of the ancient customs, jurisdic- ditions, exacted with that celebrated code, mates, among whom was King David tions, and privileges attached to the the king was obliged to agree that the City Brus, who, with several Scottish chiefs, Tower. This part, which is promised of London should reinain in the posses- was taken prisone" at the battle of to be published next season, will be sion of the rebels, and the Tower be de- Neville's Cross :the most interesting.
livered in trust to the Archbishop of Can- • The King was conveyed from York It has been a common opinion, terbury till the 15th of August, or the fulo under an escort of twenty thousand inen, though unsupported by historical evi- filling of this agreement, when both were and the day of his entering the capital was dence or any local discovery of a sa
to be restored to the royal authority. one of as great joy and satisfaction to tisfactory nature, that the Tower owes tained by force, John thought himself but which the brave Caractacus was brought
Engagements, however, which were ob- the people, as that was to the Romans on its foundation to the Romans. This little bound to observe ; and, aided by the in chains to the imperial city. David was idea is rejected by Mr. Bayley, who terrific power of the Pope, he had no seated on a high black courser, so that he says that there is not the "slightest sooner the means than he employed them inight be seen to the multitudes who had
assembled to witness the glorious specta- Bloody Tower] which it is generally sup- preparations were actually made for cle. At the entrance to the metropolis, posed to have derived from the circum- Prince Edward to have attended the he was met by all the craft, clad in their stance of the two young princes, Edward coronation of his uncle, Richard the respective liveries, and, with a great shew the Fifth and his brother, Richard Duke Third, as appears from the wardrobe of bonour, was conducted from street to of York, sons of King Edward the Fourth, street, till he came to the Tower, where, having, as it is said, been put to death in account for the year 1483, which is on the 2d of January, 1347, in the presence this particular spot, by order of their un
here quoted. Mr. Bayley, after exof the Lord Chancellor and the Lord Trea-cle, the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards amining the account given by Sir Thoşurer, he was delivered into the charge of King Richard the Third. It has alreadymas More and others, of the murder of Sir John Darcy, the constable of that for- been noticed that the whole story of the the young princes, proves how little retress.'
two royal youths comes to us in soʻ“ques- liance can be placed upon them, and Charles of Blois, one of the compea tionable a shape," that it can never been shows, that whether they were mordertitors for the crown of Brittany, the va- tertained without some serious doubts ; if ed at all or not, still remains an historic liant John of Vienne, the Governor of we admit, however, that the young princes doubt." Calais, with twelve of the bravest de really came to a violent death in the
In the reign of Henry the Eighth, fenders of their native city; and last- Tower, the idea of this place having been
the Tower was peopled with many disly, John, King of France, and his son authority; and the story which the war-tinguished tenants, including more Philips
, were added to the Scots King, dens, whose trade it is * to tell a wonder than one of his wives; and, among the as prisoners in the Tower.
ous tale," so gravely propagate, respecting memorabilia of this reign, Stowe reIn the memorable insurrection of the discovery of their bones under the lit-lates that, Wat Tyler, the young King Richard tle stair-case above alluded to, is still
• In the year 1546, the 27th of April, the Second, with his mother and seve
more glaringly false ; bones, it is true, being the Tuesday in Easter week, Wilral of the nobility, took refuge in the King Charles the Second, and they were the Tower of London, fell a-sleep, and so
were found in ihe Tower
, in the reign of liam Foxley, pot-maker for the Mint, in Tower; and while he was on the point looked upon to be those of children, of continued sleeping, and could not be of going out to meet the rebels, by ap: ages corresponding with the two princes; wakened with pricking, cramping, or pointment, at Mile End, a chosen band but it is most decidedly known that they otherwise burning whatsoever, till the first of them rushed into the fortress, and were discovered in a very different part day of term, which was fourteen days and committed the most barbarous cruel of the fortress; namely, on the south side fifteen nights. "The cause of his thus ties; pillaging the royal apartments, of the White Tower, at the foot of a stair: sleeping could not be known, though the and dragging the Archbishop of Can-case, which leads to the chapel in that
same were diligently searched after by building. terbury, the Chancellor, and Sir Ro
the king's physician and other learned
• Without dwelling on the seeming in- men ; yea, the king himself examined the bert Hales, the treasurer, to instant ex- consistency of the epithet bloody being ap: same William Foxley, who was in all ecution. Richard afterwards became plied to a building, because, as it points found at his wakening, to be as if a prisoner in the tower, and it was here is imagined, two children were smothat he resigned the crown to Henry of thered in it, it may not be amiss brief
he had slept but one night; and he lived Lancaster.
more than forty years after in the said ly to inquire how far it is likely that
Tower.' In the contest between the Houses of its name can be connected with that
King Edward the Sixth held his first York and Lancaster, there are many King Edward the Fourth, his two sons circumstance. Soon after the death of
court at the Tower, where he resided circumstances connected with the history of the Tower which are very inter-charge of their uncle, with the professed it became the prison of the protector,
were conveyed to the Tower, under the for some time; and, during his reign, esting; particularly thesuccession of Ed. intent of secluding them froin the bustle the Duke of Somerset, who was afterward the Fifth, the young King's impri- of the court, whilst preparations were to be wards executed on the adjoining hill. soument in the Tower, the accession of made for the eldest's coronation. Is it Lady Jane Grey and her husband were Richard, and the final disappearance of then to be supposed, whatever might also confined in the Tower, where they the young princes. The latter circun- have been the protector's design as to the remained till the period of their execustance is involved in much obscurity, ultimate fate of his nephews, that the and Mr. Bayley defers attempting to princes were not lodged in the royal tion; that of Lady Jade on the green develop so intricate and important a
apartments, and paid all the respect due walk, in the Tower, and her husband question to the second part of his should have had them shut up in the dark to their rank? Is it likely that 'Richard on Tower Hill.
The sanguinary reign of Mary was work, in order to take the chance of any and wretched dwelling of one of the por- not likely to leave the Tower unpeofurther information he may gain on ters of the gates? If he had wanted in pled, and therefore we find her sending the subject. In the description of the humanity, would policy have dictated her sister, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, • Bloody Tower,' however, he returns such a course? No*; it must at once have
among others, to its safe keeping. to it, and offers some very cogent rea- betrayed some fouil design, without adding When this princess first entered the sons for believing that the traditional But a strongera proof we need not have, fortress, at the traitor's gate, she said: story of the young princes is not the that the name of the building did not ori- with her usual dignity, here landeth most correct. He says,
ginate in the circumstance in question, is as true a subject, being a prisoner, as In the careful and very minute survey its not having assumed the appellation till ever landed at these stairs, and before which was taken of the Tower in the reign upwards of a century after the supposed thee, O God, I speak it.' of Henry the Eighth, this building is It has already been shown, that in
Queen Elizabeth kept her court at called the Garden Torver, by reason of its the early part of the reign of King Henry the Tower until her coronation, but not contiguity to the constable's or lieutenant's the Eighth, it was known by a different afterwards, nor did any thing interestgarden, which now forms a part of what title, and it was not before the latter end is terned the Parade. In the year 1597, of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, that we ing occur respecting it in her reigo, another survey was made of the fortress, tind it marked out as the scene of some except as a state prison. by order of Queen Elizabeth, and it was horrid deed.'
James the First, after holding his then known by its present appellation, [the It is not a little remarkable that court a short time at the Tower, sent
as prisoners to it, Sir Walter Ralegh, A prisoner, of the name of Clarke, But death, more gentle than the law's decree, lady Arabella Stuart, who died there, has left the following words, curiously Hath paid my ransom from captivity, the Earl of Northumberland, who was inscribed :
Buried, June 23, 1794, by a fellow
prisoner in the Tower of London.' confined in it upwards of fourteen •T. C. I leve in hope and I gare cre. The description of the jewels and years, and other.celebrated characters. dit to mi frinde in time did stande me regalia is less minute thau we should
In the reign of Charles the First, se- most in hande, so would I never do have expected; but there is an interestveral members of the House of Com. againe, except I had him suer in hande; ing, though rather coarse account of mons were committed to the Tower; and to al men wishe I so, unles ye sus
the notorious attempt of Blood to steal and when the troubles of that reign laine the leke lose as I do.
the crown on the 9th of May, 1673. commenced, the parliamentary faction Unhappie is that mane whose acts doth procuer The care of the regalia was at that took possession of it. From this pe
The misere of this hous in prison to induer.
1576, Thomas Clarke.' time entrusted to Talbot Edwards, an riod the history of the Tower possesses little interest , except as a state prison, of the above prisoner's name, and, in a family, and from whom is derived the
In another part, there is a repetition old confidential servant of the Talbot and therefore Mr. Bayley does not con- third place,
relation of the transaction:tinue his chronological account later
• About three weeks before this audathan the reign of Jaines the Second.
• Hit is the poynt of a wyse man to try, and
cious villain made his attempt upon the We now pass on to the local descrip- For happy is he who fyndeth one that is juste, crown, he came to the Tower in the hation, fron which, however, our extracts
bit of a parson, with a long cloak cassock, shall be brief. The Beaucham;) Tow- The sincerity of the following in- and canonical girdle, accompanied by a er, from its having been one of the scription will scarcely be doubted :- woman, whom he called his wise. They principal state prisons, and the place
desired to see the regalia, and, just as their
• Thomas Miagh, which liethe here alone, wherein many illustrious and unfortu- That fayne wold from hens begon,
wishes had been gratified, the lady feignate persons have been confined, ex
By torture straunge, my troth was
ed sudden indisposition; this called forth
the kind offices of Mrs. Edwards, the ciles à degree of interest, which is
Tryed, yet of my libertie denied.
keeper's wife, who, having courteously heightened by the numerous inscriptions, coats of arms, and other devices, other inscriptions :
In the same part of the room are invited her into their house to repose her
self, she soon recovered ; and, on their left on its dreary walls by those un.
departure, professed themselves thankful
• The uppermost is a rude piece of for this civility. happy sufferers. "These memorials were sculpture, by "Thomas Willyngar.” It discovered so recently as 1796, on mako is without date, and consists of a bleeding bringing a present to Mr. Edwards, of four
• A few days after, Blood came again, ing some alterations, for the purpose of heart, with the letters T. W., the initials pairs of white gloves, from his pretended converting the building into a mess of his own name on one side, and P. A., wife ; and having thus begun the acquainthouse for the officers of the garrison. most likely those of his mistress, on the They have, most of them, been print- other; there is also a figure of death, ance, they made frequent visits to im
After a short respite of their ed, though not very correctly, in the hour glass in the right; and, on the op- turned again; and, in conversation with thirteenth volume of the Archaeologia, posite side of the bleeding heart, are the Mr. Edwards, said, that his wife could and we shall, therefore, only notice one words-Thomas Wyllingur, goldsmithe.- discourse of nothing but the kindness of or two of them.
A young Fleming or My hart is your's tel dethe. No account those good people in the Tower; that Brabanter, of the pame of Charles has been preserved of this person; but it she bad long studied, and at length beBailly, who was an adherent of Mary, may be conjectured from his profession, thought herself of a handsome way of reQueen of Scots, has left some curious that bis offence was that of clipping or quital. You have, quoth he, a pretty inscriptions, of which Mr. Bayley has counterfeiting the coin of the realm.
young gentlewoman for your daughter, given a fuc-simile engraving.
In the uppermost story of the Beau- and I have a young nephew, who has two panel, ornamented with lozenges, are champ tower there are also several in- or three hundred a year in land, and is at the following reflections, which have scriptions. One prisover, whose name my disposal. If your daughter be free, not lost their value in their anti- is unknown, has thus recorded the te- and you approve it, I'll bring him bere to quity :- J. H. S. dious period of his confinement:
see her, and we will endeavour to make 1751, die 10° Aprilis.
it a match. This was easily assented to •Close prisoner 8 montbes, 32 weekes, Wise men ought circumspectly to se 224 dayes, 5376 houres. On the wallson to dive with him on that day; he rea
by old Mr. Edwards, who invited the parwhat they do; to examine before they at the Beauchamp, tower, there lately dily accepted the invitation; and, taking speake; to prove before they take in existed two epitaphs on a cat and a hand; to beware whose company they goldfiuch, supposed to have been writ- great seeming devotion, and, casting up
upon him to say grace, performed it with use; and, above Blitbrings, to whom thej ten by John Augustus Bonney, who his eyes, concluded it with a prayer fer In another place, there is the follow
was a prisoner there for high treason, the king, queen, and royal family. After łowing inscription :
along with Horne Tooke and others, dinner, he went up to see the rooms, and Principium sapiente timor Domini.
in 1794. Although they are neither observing a handsome case of pistols hang 1. H. S. X. P. S. Be frend to one, be valuable by their antiquity, nor by them, to present to a young lord, who was ennemye to none, Anno D. 1571, 10 any particular merit which they possess, his neighbour ; a pretence, by which he Sept. The most unhappy man in the yet we shall quote the latter, and then thought of disarming the house against world is he that is not pacient in adversi- close this buge inemorial of misfor- the period intended for the execution of ties; for men are not killed with the ad- tune;'
his design. At his parture, “which versities they have; but with ye impaci
' Epitaph on a Goldfinch.
was a canonical benediction of the good ence which they suffer.
Where Raleigh pin'd within a prison's gloom, company, he appointed a day and hour · Tout vient apoient, quy peult attendre I chearful sung, nor murmur'd at my doom;
to bring his young nephew to see his misGli sospiti ne son testimoni veri dell angos- When heroes bold and patriots firm could tress; which was the very day that he cia mia.
made his daring attempt.”
ready to receive his guest, and the daugh- longed to the house; and, perceiving the Travels of Cosmo the Third, through ter was in her best dress to entertain her person to be a stranger, told hiin, that if expected lover; when, behold, Parson he had any business with his father, that
England, during the Reign of King Blood, with three more, came to the jewel he would acquaint him with it, and so
Charles the Second. house, all armed with rapier blades, in hastened up stairs to salute his friends.
(Concluded from p. 405.) their canes, and every one a dagger and a This unexpected accident spread confu- From the Cock-pit, where we last left brace of pocket-pistols. Two of his com- sion among the party, and they instantly the Grand Duke, bis highness passed panions entered in with him, on pretence decamped with the crown and orb, leave to the principal danciny schools of the of seeing the crown, and the third stayed ing the sceptre yet unfiled. at the door, as if to look after the young * The aged keeper now raised himself metropolis, frequented both by marlady, a jewel of a more charming de Jupon his legs, forced the gag from his ried and unmarried ladies; and scription, but in reality as a watch. The mouth, and cried treason! murder! which thence to the gladiators or fencing-masdaughter, who thought it not modest to being heard by his daughter, who was, ters. The Earl of Arlington, the come down till she was called, sent the perhaps, anxiously expecting far other Archbishop of Canterbury, and the inaid to take a view of the company, and sounds, ran out and reiterated the cry: Earl of Devonshire all received visits bring a description of her gallant ; and The alarm now became general, and from Cosino, who also weut as far as the servant conceiving that he was the in- young Edwards and his brother-in-law, Vauxhall to see an hydraulic machine, tended bridegroom who stayed at the Captain Beckman, ran after the conspira by the celebrated Márquis of Worcesdoor, being the youngest of the party, re- tors; whom a warder put himself in a po. turned to soothe the anxiety of her young sition to stop, but Blood discharged a
ter, which raises water more than mistress with the idea she had formed of pistol at him, and he fell although unhurt, forty geometrical feet, by the power of his person.
and the thieves proceeded safely to the one man only, and, in a very short •Blood told Mr. Edwards, that they next post, where one Sill, who had been a space of time, will draw up four veswould not go up stairs till his wife came, soldier under Cromwell, stood sentinel; sels of water, through a tube or chan. and desired bim to shew his friends the but he offered no opposition, and they nel not more than a span in width.' crown to pass the time till then; and they accordingly passed the draw-bridge. haci no sooner entered the room, and the Horses were waiting for them at St. Ea: | Harnpton Court was also visited, of
which we have a rather curious acdoor as usual shut, than a cloak was therine's gate, and as they ran that way,
count:thrown over the old man's head, and a along the Tower wharf, they themselves gag put into his mouth.
cried out, stop the rogues; by which they • The numerous towers and cupolas, 'i'hus secured, they told him, that passed on unsuspected, till Captain Beck: judiciously disposed at irregular distances their resolution was to have the crown, man overtook them. At his head Blood all over the vast pile of building, form a globe, and sceptre ; and if he would qui- s fired another pistol, but missed him, and most striking ornament to it, whether etly submit to it, they would spare his was seized. Under the cloak of this dar viewed near or at a distance. The groundlife; otherwise he was to expect i10 mer-ing villain was found the crown, and al- floor is divided into twelve courts, two of cy. He thereupon endeavoured to though he saw himself a prisoner, he had which, being much superior to the others make all the noise he possibly could, to get the impudence to struggle for his in size, as well as beauty, contain the be heard above; they then knocked him prey; and when it was finally wrested gardens, which are adınirably laid out. down with a wooden mallet, and told froin him, said, “ It was a gallant attempt, l'hey are divided into very large, level, him, that if yet he would lie quietly, they however unsuccessful; it was fora and well-kept walks, which, separating would spare his life ; but, if not, upon crown!”
the ground into different compartments, his next attempt to discover them, they • Parrot was also taken; but Hunt, forin artificial parterres of grass, being would kill him. Mr. Edwards, however, Blood's son-in-law, reached his horse, and themselves formed by espalier trees, partaccording to his own account, was not in- rode off, as did two other of the thieves ; ly such as bear fruit, and partly ornatienidated by this threat, but strained him- but he was soon afterwards stopped, and mental ones, but all adding to the beauty self to inake the greater noise, and in con- likewise committed to custody.' sequence received several more blows on the head with the mallet, and was stabbed
Blood and his accomplices, after be- slate, after the Italian style, and distri
ther augmented by fountains, made of in the belly; this again brought the poor ing a short time in prison, were par- buted in different parts of the garden, old man to the ground, wliere he lay for doned. He represented to the king whose jets d'eaux throw up the water in some time in so senseless a state, that one that he was conected with a formido various playful and fanciful ways. There of the villains pronounced him dead. Ed. able band, who would revenge the pun- are also in the gardens soine snug places wards had come a little to himself, and ishment inflicted on any one of its of retirement in certain towers, formerly hearing this, lay quietly, conceiving it inembers,
intended as places of accommodation for best to be thought so. The booty was now to be di posed of, and one of them
the king's mistresses. The chapel, by the
The description of the several apart- elegance of its structure, contributes much named Parrot * , put the orb in his ments in the Tower loses inuch of its to the splendour of this great edifice, in breeches. Blood held the crown under interest from not containing an which they pretend that the number of his cloak; and the thirel was about to file count of the prisoners, and we think rooms exceeds four hundred; those which the sceptre in two, in order that it might this division of the work rather injudi- constitute the royal apartments are most be placed in a bag brought for that pur- cious. Mr. Bayley is not an elegant worthy of observation, the ceilings being pose; but, fortunately, the son of Mr. writer, but his style is plain and intel composed of cedar and timber from IreSir John Talbot, and, on his landing in Ligible, and, from the anxiety he dis- land, which has the property of keeping
covers to ascertain the truth, we be do not even spin their webs or make their England, had obtained leave to come
lieve him to be a very faithful histori- nests upon it; consequently, the gold reaway post to visit his father, happened to arrive while the scene was acting; and, an.
The embellishments of the work tains so much the greater lustre upon the on coining to the door, the person that consist of twenty-seven plates, repre- furniture with which the rooms are enslood centinel asked, with whom he would senting various parts of the Tower, riched, and the valuable paintings with speak? to which he answered, that he be- and are well engraved by Pye, from which they are decorated; and on this * He was a silk-dyer, in Southwark, and, drawings by Nash.
account, one of thein is called Paradise. in the rebellion, lad been a lieutenant under
Corresponding with the apartments, two Major.General Harrison.'
very long galleries, which, after the death