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prospered; the conduct of the prisoners den. In Russia, a prison discipline Thursdays, and Saturdays, six ounces of

for dinner on Sundays, Tuesdays, has been wonderfully improved, and the society was formed by the indefatigable clods, stickings, or other coarse pieces of greatest decorum now prevails in every exertions of a valuable member of the clods, stickings

, or other coarse pieces of • During the last year, the number of committee in England, Mr. Walter with half a pint of the broth made therecommitments was less than one-halt that Vending. This gentleman sacrificed from, and one pound of boiled potatoes. of former years, and not one of those who healtlı, interest, comfort, and society, On Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, received instruction has been re-commit to encounter vice, misery, disease, and one quart of broth for the males, and one ted for any offence. Several depraved even death. Like Howard, he was pint for the females, thickened with females, it is known, have returned to the devoted to the task of assuaging the Scotch barley: rice, potatoes, or pease,

patlis of virtue and industry, in conse iniseries and promoting the improve- and other cheap vegetables.
quence of the humane exertions of ladies ment of his fellow creatures, and, like
Visiting this prison.

• For supper, one pint of hot groel or him, fell a victim to his exertions:At Kilmainham, not one of the pri

porridge ; also every day one-half pound soners who were the subjects of the com

Assiduously engaged in visiting one of of bread, made of such 'meal as the committee's labours, have been re-committed the prisons in St. Petersburg, Mr. Ven- mittee may direct, for every male prisonto it since their discharge; though in ning contracted a fever, which terminated er under the age of eighteen years, and every other class of prisoners, where their his existence on the 10th January last. one pound for every other prisoner. But sime is devoted to idleness and guilt, fre

• Soon after the formation of the Socie- the boys under eighteen years inay have quent and melancholy instances have oc- ty, Mr. Venning joined the committee, the full allowance of bread, if the chapcurred of their returú into confinement, and very essentially contributed, by his lains and governor shall certify that their under fresh and aggravated charges.'

exertions, to the success of their labours. conduct has been meritorious during the There is another object in which this of the metropolis, and ever earnest in his He was indefatigable in visiting the gaols week preceding.

The expense of food alone per week, society in Eugland has laboured with endeavours to restore the criminal, but es- is stated in evidence before the Lords'

equal zeal, if not with equal success— pecially the youthful offender, to the Committee on Gaols, to be 4s. Iud. each the reformation of juvenile offenders. paths of religion and virtue. During his male prisoner, and 6fd. less for the se From the investigations of the com- Jate residence in Russia, a period of near- males. The expense of food at Devizes mittee, they have ascertained, with ly four years, his time has been unceas. House of Correction, is 25. 3d. to 25. 6d. some degree of certainty, that there are, ingly devoted to the amelioration of the per week; that at Preston, (both prisons upwards of eight thousand boys in the the Emperor Alexander a memorial, for- ending 2 May last, to be as. 1d. ere the

He presented to being in full work,) is stated, for the year metropolis, who subsist in a material cibly pointing out the great national ad- cost of the Millbank dietary were redegree by depredations on the public. vantages that result from the improve- duced is. viz. to 3s. 9d. per head, for A great proportion of these boys are ment of prison discipline, and the wis- five hundred and fifty prisoners, more passing constantly through the prisons, dom and practicability of rendering punish- than 1400l. per annum might be saved. thus ripening into the most atrocious ment the instrument of reformation. The It is much to be desired, for the credit offenders; and on their release they are justice of these views was acknowledged, of the Penitentiary system, that this insti. industriously engaged in spreading the and, to carry them into effect, an associa- tution should be regulated with as strict a knowledge and practice of crime.

tion was formed at St. Petersburg, under regard to economy as is consistent with Some of these have not distress to plead has been productive of extensive good, the imperial sanction. This association the objects of the establishment.'

From the account of a visit to the on their behalf, and have friends earn- by introducing improvements in the con- prisons in France, made in December, estly desirous to assist them ; the great-struction of places of confinement, and 1820, we make one extract, from which est portion, rer, are nursed in de regulatio calculated to preserve the it would appear, that juvenile deline pravity and tutored in crime. At an health, and promote the moral and reli

quency is by no means uncommon in early age they are turned into the gious interests of the criminal... It is France; but we shudder at the idea of streets, and dare not return to their needless to add, that in these philanhomes without a certain sum, the fruits throphic labours Mr. Venning eminently consigning a child of seven years old of mendicity or theft. The commit

shared; and long, very long, will the to any prison, and that too fer a period of

wretched and the guilty contined in the a dozen years. Our extract relates to tee, in visiting the several prisons of prisons of the Russian empire, have rea- the prisons in the department of the the metropolis, found many cases of son to revere his name and bless his me-Upper Rhine :boys who were quite friendless, and mory.'

Colmar Prison. This is a wretched who, on their discharge from confine

The Appendix to the Report con- place, constructed out of an ancient conment, literally knew not where to lay tains numerous extracts from the cor

vent. It contained seventy-seven prisontheir heads. In order to assist such, a respondence of the comiittee, which ers, seven of whom were galléréens. The temporary refuge has been instituted, give an interesting account of the prin prisou was calculated to hold one hunwhich has had the good effect of re- cipal gaols in the united kingdom. In dred and fifty, but five bundred hare oc: claiming and providing for many most of thuse where labour is intro- no employment and no instruction. The youthful victims of crime. The com- duced, the prisoners are not only re- men prisoners, except the galléréens, mittee attribute much of juvenile de formed, but the expenses of the were all together. Two boys, one about linquency to the number of fairs in the establishments are essentially relieved. ten years old, who had stolen a child's neighbourhood of the metropolis, and at the general Penitentiary, at Mil- chair, appeared to be hardened thieves. recommend their abolition by the le- bank, the earnings of the prisoners are The galléréens were locked up when they gislature.

upwards of 40001. annually, and the were not walking in the court, which they The example that has been

are allowed for four hours a-day. The so expenses of the establishment 25,000). gloriously set in this country for the The dietary of this establishment is as prison was well ventilated. No clothing

women also had this permission. The improvement of prison discipline, has follows:

is allowed. The sick are sent to a neighbeen followed in many foreign countries, For breakfast, one pint of hot gruel bouring hospital. An addition is now particularly France, Russia, and Swe- or porridge.

making to the buildings of this prison.

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Ensisheim Maison Centrale de Delen- er of an ancient convent, a man was found pamphlets of the proceedings of our comtion. This is a depôt for prisoners con- who had been taken up on suspicion, and mittee, you will find that works of love victed and sentenced to more than a bad been confined forty-eight days. The and mercy always did, and do still, conyear's confinement, and many are sen- window was unglazed, but not large stitute a distinct characteristic of this natenced for life. This depot is for eight enough to admit light. The room was tion. departments, Haut Rhin, Bas Rhin, Mozel- very cold. The straw on which the pri- • As these pamphlets are in the Russian . le, Meurthe, Vosges, Haut Soane, Doubs, soner lay was almost black with use, and language, the following extract from one and Jura. There are now in it six hun his clothes bad not been changed since of then, perhaps, may not be uninterestdred and fifty prisoners, but it is capable his confinement. He was, he said, co-ing: of containing a larger number. It is di- vered with vermin. These are, it is to * " Makarius, who, in former times, vided into classes for men and women, be hoped, singular cases, yet it is the ge- was metropolitan of all Russia, at the correctional and criminal; there are also neral treatment of untried prisoners in this marriage of the Czar Ivan Vassilovitch courts for the sick; making in all six country.'

with the Czarina Anastatia, in his speech courts. The young have also a sort of sepa- The prisons in Italy are generally to him, said, arnong other things, ' act toration, but it is little more than nominal. ill constructed and badly regulated'; wards the needy with inercy; protect the There was one boy who had been sen

but this country cau boast of a female widows, the orphans, and the injured ; tenced for stealing seven and-a-half years of age, and who is to remain till linguished country woman, seeks the toff was also well known by his works of who, following the example of our dis- and visit those who are confined in pri.

son. In those times, Boyarin Sheremiehe is twenty years old. The boys have some instruction given them. The num. wretched out.' After describing the

mercy. He gave away his fortune. When ber of women was about two hundred and state of the prison at Turin, where, asked by the emperor, where have you seventy. The prisoners were all at work out of twenty-four women, eight were spent your property?" he answered, I picking cotton, by which they get from sick, we are told, that,

spent it with the poor of this world. The five to six francs per week ; of this, one- Although these poor women were in Czar Mechila Federovitch regularly fursixth goes to the entrepreneur, one-sixth so wretched a state, their situation was nished all the needy exiles to Siberia with to the governor, one-third to the prison better in other respects, for they were all money from his own private funds, to assist ers weekly, and one-third on his dis- decently clothed, and employed in dif- them on their long journey. The Czar charge. The entrepreneur is a sort of ferent works. I afterwards learned that Alexey Mechalovitch (father of Peter the merchant, who supplies all, and pays for they were indebted for this to the kind- Great) visited the prisons once every year the work at a rate fixed, every quarter, by ness and generosity of a lady, equally in plain attire, pardoned trivial offenders, the society of arts and manufactures at distinguished by her rank and piety, who and sent all the prisoners bread from his Mulhausen. . The prisoners have two had been excited to this work by the ac- own table. His two wives followed the hours per day allowed for exercise and counts she had heard of Newgate, and example of the philanthropic emperor. meals; the rest of the day they are obliged who, not finding other help, herself did The first, Czarina Maria Ilenechna, apto work. Their allowance of food is the whole work of a committee, relieving propriated great sums to the liberation of s{lbs of bread, wheat, and { barley, their necessities, giving them work, read prisoners; and Czarina Natalia Kirilovna each day; besides potatoes or peas, and ing to them and instructing them in their satisfied all the wants of the prisons and rice, with meat, the first Sunday in the duties, and preventing, in some measure, the hospitals by her presents, risited them month. This house was built for a Mai- the evil which must have resulted both in during the night, and with her own hands son de Mendicité ; it is not calculated this world and another, from their con- distributed clothes to the indigent.” for a prison, as it admits of no inspection. finement in this miserable place.

* And it is added, and I believe with Instruction is very incomplete, and there

Prison at Villa Franca.

justice too, that in general with difficulty seemed a considerable want of discipline.' This prison is for the reception of the will the man be found in this empire who

In the Report on the State of Prin Galley-slaves, as they are called. It is would not by some means, however insons in Switzerland, we find that the situated near the port, where a considera considerable, testify his commiseration untried prisoners are by far the inost ble number of the slaves are conducted for the unfortunate in prison. hardly dealt with :to work, during the day. Others, con

I have again the painful task of anvicted of lesser offences, are allowed to nouncing to you that the Ladies' Com. · Not only are they in general very walk out, chained two together, accompa

mittee have sustained a very severe loss in long in being brought to trial, but their nied by a guard. These wear the prison the decease of their president, her Excelplaces of confinement are most cruel. dress, upon which the word “Galéréen” is lency Mrs. Kazadavleff

. I shall not soon One or two cases will serve to illustrate marked on their back. Parties of them forget her kindness to the prisoners, or this. A man was found shut up in a tower situated in the middle of a river. He of Nice, offering for sale various useful me; were almost daily to be seen in the streets the friendship with which she honoured

One of the last instances of her was its only human inhabitant. His gaol- articles and trivkets of their own manufac- | kindness which I witnessed was towards a er came three times a-day in a boat to

ture in prison; they appeared to behave poor female prisoner, a native of Little examine his chain and bring him food, with great submission; and, as long Russia, who, after having received part of and his judges from time to time, as they as they conduct themselves quietly, her punishment, was to be exiled to Sibeproceeded in his examination. He was they are not interfered with by their ria for life, but she was too weak to go chained to his bed, from which he could guard, who closely follows them, and far; the guard had not conducted her not move far, and had no chair or table, stops with them, whenever they like to out of the city, before she fell down in few old books

. He could indeed see the mitted for life, were not suffered to par- the prison, where we found her in a most nor fire, instruction, or comfort, but after their goods. Others, who are com- the street through extreme weakness, and sky, but that only. He had been in this take of this indulgence.' situation for twelve months, and even then it was not determined whether he was guil. death we have already noticed,) giving Mrs. Kazadavleff, who made herself ac

In a letter from Mr. Venning, (whose immediately attracted the attention of

miserable condition: her deplorable state ty or not. In the same tower was a room about sixteen feet square, without light an account of the prisons of Russia, quainted with all her wants, and instantly altogether, or air, except what passed we have the following interesting de supplied some of them: but her kindness through a narrow funnel. In this place tails :

did not stop here: she succeeded in her they told me that a man had been on one • In consulting the annals of Russia, application that she might not be sent off occasion confined eleven months. In ano- which you will perceive has been done till she was perfectly recovered. A comther prison, a large apartment in the tow- | by the interesting details contained in the I fortable bed was provided for her in the

you allow

ard. He says,

hospital of the town prison, to which she from the most imminent danger, and ceeded by one monthly. Six parts are was removed, and where, by attention brought back again to St. Petersburg. now due, but three only have appearand care, her life was for some time pro- Alter this, notwithstanding the shock longed; and, although she did not reco- which his health had received, he creased ed; a fourth is, however, promised for ver, she had the consolation of knowing not, during the autumn, to look out for a the first of next month. Whether this that she bad in her last illness a true, å fit opportunity to depart, but adverse delay is of a temporary or a permanent disinterestid and sympathizing friend, in winds obliged him to remain here. nature, we know vot, but however in. this lady. Her Excellency Mrs. Tolstoy, Thus, the Almighty disposer of events jurious we think the want of punctodaughter of Field Marshal Koutusoff, has ordained that he should lay down the ality may be to a periodical (and we been appointed president of the Ladies' frail tabernacle of his body here, in order think it highly so), yet even this is Committee. A temporary building has to be clothed with an "eternal one not much better than that the work should been granted to the Ladies' Committee, I made with hands;" that he should here suffer by haste; and it is, perhaps, dyje female prisoners, almost adjoining the mence another in our Father's kingdom to the editor and publisher of the

• Lives of Eminent Scotsmen,' to attown prison. The plans are nearly ready. which is on high. Separate dorinitories are to be made for • Out of love and sincere esteem for tribute the delay to their ansiety to do debtors as well as for criminals. There the memory of our deceased colleague, I the work ample justice. are some doubts entertained how the have a proposal to make, to which you The second and third parts, now besleeping cells are to be sufficiently heated will doubtless all accede, that by warın air, and I will thank you to

me to communicate the decease of Mr. / fore us, contain twenty-iwo memoirs, give me inforination on this subject, as Venning to his Imperial Majesty, and to including the lives of James the Fifth the plans now drawing, are principally ask the gracious permission of his majesty and Sixth, Henry the Minstrel, Sir under iny direction.'

to erect on the spot, where the mortal re- David Lindsay, the Earl of Stirling, The Prince Galitzin, in his address "mains of this friend of mankind rest, a Alexander Barclay, Dr. Armstrong, at the Annual Meeting of the General humble, yet becoming monument, in tes. Thomson, Macpherson, &c. The life Committee of the St. Petersburg Pri- and labours of the deceased; and of the arts, James the Fifth, is well written;

timony of the meek Christian qualities of one of the most amiable of the Stuson Society, in January, 1820, pays an elegant tribute to the memory of Mr.

esteem of the members of the St. Peters- and justice is done to the menory Venuing, whom he calls a second How- prisons, for his memory, towards the esta" of this • King of the Poor,' in the fol.

blishment of which society he was the lowing estimate of his character :Since the year 1817, Mr. Veoning most active instrument. Not splendour, • The mere narrative of such a life as had resided in Russia, and though little, nor vain show, nor empty eulogy, ought James's, makes any summary of his chaor rather altogether unknown ai first, it to constitute the symbols and ornaments racter unnecessary: there are no inconmay be said that he himself then per- of this monument, but a simplicity which gruities to reconcile, no great faults to be forined the work of a whole society. shall speak to the heart, and excite to pi. put in proper balance; it is throughout With the highest permission granted to ous reflection. While Russia has to shew vigorous, splendid, and consistent. It him, he examined the state of the prisons, near one frontier the ashes of his country- still remains, however, to fill up the houses of correction, and poor houses in inan, who marked the first traces of ame sketch, which a feeble hand has attempted St. Petersburg, Iwer, and Moscow. Many lioration in the condition of prisoners, and to present, of the leading erents of his reforms and improvements were made of the sick and the suffering, let her also history, with some traits, which, though according to his suggestions, and a parti- show another monument of a second How not less interesting, rest, as it were, in cular attention was thereby excited to-ard."

shadow. It has been seen how inflexible wards this department.

To the friends of humanity, the James was in the adıninistration of justice, •His indefatigable exertions to promote Third Report of the Society for the but it has yet to be told, that he was the the prisons here, were at last crowned with must be highly gratifying, as it not care to make known to the people what the success. On the 19th of July,

In 1540, 1819, his Imperial Majesty was pleased to only shews that a great deal of good the whole Acts of Parliament of his reign give bis sanction to such a society; and has been done, but points out an am

to be printed in the vulgar tongue; a the act declaring its formation testifies, ple field for future exertions.

measure quite as hostile to the arbitrary that Mr. Venning was the first person who

claims of the feudal barons, as the more suggested the idea among us, of such a LIVES OF EMINENT SCOTSMEN. recent translation of the Scriptures into beneficent institution. His joy and de

Parts ll. and III.

the same tongue was to the exclusive preLighting this event, so much desired for When we noticed the first part of this tensious of the Romish clergy. It cannot binh con bicemed to make a deep

impres elegant little work, we spoke very de. be said that Sames gave encouragemene kind of sacred bond seemed to unite him cisively as to what we deemed its meto Russia. Last year, he was a co-operits-the originality of the memoirs, Although not possessed of any of that re

which essentially prepared the way for it. rator in the establishment of a Prison the elegance with which many of them ligious fervour which began to distinguish Committee at Cronstadt, and though his were written, and the spirit of impar- the age in which he lived, and apparently active love for suffering humanity excited tiality and free inquiry which distin- little sensible of the importance of relihim subsequently to resolve on visiting guished the whole these, it will be gious liberty to the spread of knowledge, England and other places, where he ex. allowed, are strong recommendations James was ardently desirous for the in pected to exert himself in a new sphere of to any

work, purticularly to a biogra- formation of his subjects in all other reword to return to Russia. "At last, the phical one; but strong as they are, the spects. Of the elegant and useful arts,

and of all brarches of what was called took his departure for Denmak, with a

two subsequent parts do not render it view to form a Prison Society there; but ; necessary that we should qualify them. and active promoter,

profane learning, he was a liberal patron

*** fle furnished it is well known, that by the ship being. One thing we certainly must regret, the countrie," says Pitscottie, a writer not Wrecked in a storin, his voyage was pre- the want of regularity in the publica- the most charitable to his memory," with vented, and it was only by a special act of tion. The first part, we believe, ap- all kyndes of craftismen, sik as French: a gracious Providence that he was saved peared on the first of May, to be sue men, Spainyardis, and Dutchmen, quhilk


ever was the finest of thair professioun guishing qualities of Thomson's mind soldiery have no superiors; but in that trat culd be had ; quhilk brought the and heart are best discovered from his cool intrepidity which can make and suscountrie to great policie.”. Lindsay, Bu- works; that those who inferred from tain a charge, they have never been able chanan, Bellenden, Maitland, Montgo- bis poems that he was a great lover, a

to compete with the soldiers of many

other countries—the Scots, the Musco. ferior fame, were among the men of leto great swimmer, and rigoronsly absti- vites, the Swedes, and even the Hollandters who contributed to shed a lustre on

nent,' might, from the same source, Colonel Oswald saw, when too late his reign, and who, in an age when there have proved that he was an early to repair a bad impression, that he had was no reading public, could live on the riser, since he reprobated the bed of mistaken the national character; he was patronage of the court alone. Bellenden sloth most eloquently. The last ine- !liged to throw away his pikes, because he employed to translate, into the Scot- moir in the second part is that of Joho his men absolutely refused to be trained tish tongue, the History of Scotland, by Oswald, who, under the name of Sils to the use of them. Hector Boëthius, an author to whom Dr. vester Otway, contributed several poe.

• When the war in La Vandée broke Johnson has done the justice of saying, tical effusions to the London newspa. I those selected to proceed against the re,

out, Colonel Oswald's corps was one of that he “may be justly reverenced as one

Oswald had of the revivers of elegant learning;" and, pers in 1788 or 1789.

bels, a distinction which it go doubt owed subsequently, he gave the same author a

been an officer in the army, and is bet to having a foreign commander, who commission to execute a translation of ter known as a politician than a poet. might be supposed to bave fewer scruples Livy, the first of Roman historians *. In At the commencement of the French than a native in acting against natives. In a poetical prologue which Bellenden has revolution, he warınly espoused its the first encounter, however, which they prefixed to the latter version, he pays a principles, and went to Paris, where he had with the Vendeans, Oswald's men are just tribute of praise to James for his en. couragement of our native literature, and Jacobin Club: became a very active member of the generally understood to bave taken ad

vantage of the confusion of the fight to rid farther speaks of him, as being himself

themselves of this advantage; they are

. The influence which Mr. Oswald had said to have not only dispatched the fadistinguished for his literary productions.'

acquired in the Jacobin Club, gave himn a ther, but his two sons, youths of a most If the editor of this work did not, in corresponding influence with the govern interesting character, and another Eng. alınost every line of his work, prove ment of the day, over which that club, as

lish gentleman, whoin Oswald had sethat he was a true Scot, we should every body knows, exercised for some

lected as worthy to share bis fortunes. It have suspected him to be of the sister time a most pernicious control. The first is, at all events, certain that the four Eng. kingdom, on account of a bull, which of Anglo-Jacobins was not to be requited lishmen fell in the fight; and whether in occurs in a note to this memoir. He by any inferior appointment; they at

consequence of their own forward bravery once nominated him to the command of a tells us that James kept his court at regiment of infantry. The corps is said, rades, will probably ever remain a mys

or of the treachery of their French combis castle of Cauthally, since called however, not to have been of the best de. Cowdaily, a name given to it in conse- scription, being composed of the refuse of


i Mr. Oswald was about the common quence of the last lord having, every Paris and the departments.

stature, but of a very commanding apday at his table, a bullock dressed en- • Mr. Oswald had, previously to this pearance. I have heard that, when in tire.

appointment, been joined by his two sons; Paris, he affected the Roman costuine ; It is generally known that Alexan- but true to the principle of equality wore his collar open, and his bair à la der Barclay', the translator of the Ship which he professed, he only made them brutus. of Fools,' has been claimed by both drummers in the regimeut of which he To the memoir of James the Sixth, England and Scotland; the question was colonel,

the author takes a full and compre

"The bad character of the men whom appears to be set at rest by the editor Colonel Oswald commanded, obliged him hensive view of the life, conduct, and of this work, who-adduces pretty deci- to have recourse to a system of severity policy of that weak but tyrannical mosive evidence that he was a Scotsman.

in disciplining them, which, while it made narch. The events of his reign are In the life of Thomson, which is one them good soldiers, there is every reason

too well known to admit much in the of the neatest in these volumes, the to believe made him in every one a per- way of novelty, but some of the most editor corrects an error into which mand he committed a sort of national verity. The writer, after noticing the

sonal enemy. In the outset of his com- prominent are reprehended with just seJohnson has fallen in his . Lives of the blunder, which added nothing to his po persecuting spirit of this king, in sende Poets,' when he states that Thomson's pularity. Knowing what feats his own

first want was a pair of shoes,' and countrymen had performed at the point ing men to the stake for what he that, for the support of all his necessi- of the bayonet; convinced from experi

deemed heresy, justly observes, thatties, his whole fund was his “ Winter." ence and observation that there was in a • The history of James's life in England It appears, from a letter written by charge of cold steel something more ap- was stained by but too many similar acts Thomson at the time, and which the palling than in a hundred volleys of mus- of arbitrary cruelty. The whole of his editor has discovered and printed, that ketry-- he conceived the notion that a re- internal government consisted, indeed, of

giment trained to depend entirely on the little else than acts of aggression on the Thomson, though not rich, was unem-charge would be one of powerful effi- rights and liberties of his people, free barrassed, and far from wanting a pair ciency, and certain to acquire great dis- quently aggravated by peculiar features of of shoes. The literary part of this let tinction. He proposed, therefore, to lay wantonness and rigour. The murder of ter (which is addressed to Dr. Cran- aside the musket in his regiment, and to Sir Walter Raleighi, the glory of his age stoun) establishes a fact of some inter- substitute a pike of superior construction. and nation, to please the court of Spain; est to the curious in poetical history, The directory approved his suggestion, the pardon of his Majesty's favourite, the the source from which he derived the and the experiment was made. The men, Duke of Somerset, and his lady, for poiidea of his admirable poem of Win- however, could not be persuaded to view soning Sir Thomas Overbury, after having

the innovation in the same light as their invoked, on his knees, the vengeance of ter. The editor ridicules the idea of English colonel. They were Frenchmen, heaven on himself and his posterity, if he Murdoch and others, that the distin- and decided upon it with French feeling did not yield them up to justice; the im

Only five books of this translation were For light warfare-the brisk fire-quick prisonment of the Earl of Northumber. .' conpleted, and they still remain in MS.' retreat-and as quick return the French land for fourteen years, in addition to an

exaction of thirty thousand pounds, on a about to be overwhelmed by a coalition There are several memoirs in this mere suspicion, unsupported by the least of enemies; and to save both, sent over part on which we would dwell, but our proof, of his being privy to the gunpow-1-an aid of one regiment of foot! He limits preclude it. In the life of der-plot; the committal to the Tower of saw the Palatinate lost through his pusil. Macpherson, the author expresses himseveral members of the House of Com- lanimity, and then weakly imagined that self decidedly that he was all but the mons, and the banishment of others for he could reason princes, flushed with vic, presuming to assert that the people of tory, out of their

conquest. He allowed sole author of the poems which he England possessed any right which did his unfortunate daughter, her husband, ascribed to Ossian.' It is one of the not now entirely from the grace and fa and her children, to drag out a long ex fe ores of this work to rescue froin vour of their sovereigns: such were a few ile in a foreign land, without affording oblivion the pames of several men of of those acts which gave a character of them any of those helps which duty and genius who had been born to blushoppression and profligacy to the domestic humanity required at his hands. He suf- unseen.' Among those must be ranko administration of James, seldom before ex. fered the British flag, which had never be led the unfortunate Charles Salmon, a ceeded in the history of England. fore known dishonour, to be grossly in• Nor did James confine himself to con- sulted, and our merchant-ships to be pil. J 'He was zealous in the cause of the

journeyman printer of Edinburgh. duct, the evil of which might perish with laged by the Dutch; contenting himself him. In the sufficiency of his self.con- with sending a remonstrance, which the Pretender, and was the author of some ceit, he must needs become a legislator, Dutch, viewing it as it deserved, passed jacobite songs, and An Elegy written and confer on England a law, which was over unheeded. Nay, as if there had in the Abbey Church, Edinburgh.' to do the work of ignorance and inhuma. been no fitter way for an independent Salmon was a dissipated young man:nity long after he should be no more. It prince to resent injuries, than to heap fais painful to be obliged to speak thus se

' At the suggestion of some of the more vours on his enemies ; notwithstanding all verely of a prince of our native line; but, the Dutch had done, he consented to de- prudent of his gay companions, Salmon can less be said of that law which first liver up to them the cautionary towns tion of his poetical effusions, under the

issued proposals for publishing a collecmade witchcraft a crime in England, and which they had deposited in the hands of modest title of " Poems by a Printer." has been the cause of consigning hundreds Queen Elizabeth, on their paying five Fram the misfortunes which afterwards and thousands to an ignominious death, millions less than the sum for which they befel hiin, this collection never saw the for an impossible offence? James had stood pledged; and thus relieved thein before leaving Scotland, written and pub- besides from that state of dependence on light; but there is reason to believe that lished a “ Treatise on Dæmonologie,” in Britain, which had been hitherto regarded of poeins to have formed a very respectwhich he had endeavoured, with great as the right arm of our continental poli-able volume. Several of them had ap. show of learning, to " resolve the doubt- cy. The massacre at Amboyna was now abounding of those detestable slaves of doubt, whether it was possible to rouse a established by Mr. Jackson, on a similar. ing hearts of many;" as to the fearful all that was wanted to place beyond peared in Ruddiman's Magazine and the devil, witches or enchanters, and spark of the man or sovereign in him. established, to his own satisfaction, that He submitted to this unexampled injury; The friend to whom the writer of this

plan, and may, perhaps, still be traced. " witches ought to be put to death accord- even without requiring satisfaction, and memoir is indebted for such information ing to the law of God, the civil and im- contented himself with whiningly telling as it contains of Salmon, remembers to perial law, and the municipal law of all the Dutch ambassador, " that he had have heard him recite two imitations, or christian nations." He now resolved to never heard nor read a more cruel; rather parodies, of the Deserted Village let his English subjects have the benefit of pious act than that of Amboyna. But,” ani Splendid Shilling, as parts of his in. this sensible discovery; and found the continued he, “ I do forgive them, and tended publication. The subject of the Parliament foolish enough to concur with I hope God will; but my son's son* shall former was "Auld Reikie," and of the him in passing that law, on which so many revenge this blood, and punish this hor- latter, “ The Threadbare Coat.” There capital convictions have taken place for rid massacre." witchcraft, and which remained, for up- • Need we be surprised that such a addressed to the friends with whom he as

were also a variety of occasional pieces, wards of a century, a disgrace to the sta. course of conduct should have made sociated, including some names which tute-book, and to the national character. James an object of ridicule among foreign would have vouched for the regard in

• A tyrant at home, James was a truck: nations, and of contempt with his own? which, though poor and humble, Charlie ler abroad; and though England enjoyed all over the continent, caricatures of him Salmon was held by individuals of the an unwonted length of peace during his were to be seen, exhibiting him in the reign, it was a blessing gained by a sacri- most ludicrous situations. In one place,

first respectability. fice of character and advantages, for which he was represented with a scabbard with

• Whatever prospects of poetical renown it ill compensated. He had scarcely out a sword; in another, with a sword Salmon may have formed, one night of seized the sceptre, when he gave peace to stuck so fast in the scabbard, that nobody fatal dissipation came and destroyed them Spain without being asked for it; and could draw it; and in a third, carrying a all

. In a fit of intoxication, he fell into thus lost, as Cornwallis, the ambassador cradle after his poor daughter, the Elec- the company of a recruiting serjeant, and whom he sent to Madrid, says in a letter tress Palatine, who, with dishevelled hair the same friend who had last seen him to Cecil,“ such an opportunity ofwinning and tattered garments, was trudging along with a white cockadle in a paper, cap, honour and wealth, as England never with a child on her back. The French working a press to the song of “ The before possessed. He afterwards allowed had their epigram, too, on the occasion, Crown is Charlie's right, is it no? is it the Spaniards, whom he had thus foolishly the point of which is, with some loss of nor” saw him next morning enlisted unfavoured, to ill-treat, defraud, and even elegance, preserved in the following old der the black cockade, or, as Salmon was massacre* British subjects with impunity. version:

wont with other jacobites to call it, the He beheld his son-in-law, the Elector Pa-While Elizabeth was England's king,

curse of God. Poor Salmon! When Jatine, and in him the protestant cause, That dreadful name through Spain did ring ;

asked by one of his friends how he could * Sir Walter Raleigh speaks of it as a How alter'd is the case-ad sa' me!

have been so misled, he answered, with a

smile at his own simplicity, "I listed for known fact, that “the Spaniards murthered These jugling days of gude Queen Jamie.'

a lieutenant." twenty-six Englishmen, tying them back to * James proved a false prophet. It was back, and then cutting their throats, when left to Cromwell to obtain satisfaction for this, led was the Seaforth Highlanders, and

The regiment in which he had enlistthey had truded with them a whole month, and as well as other wrongs, which Britain had encame to them on the land without so much as dured during the reigns of his legitimate pre- without waiting to excite what he dreaded one sword.") decessors.

more ihan the bitterest reproach, the


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