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as her merits deserved. The play was Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, From this sketch it will be seen that George Barnwell, in which she sup- struck with remorse for the crime of mur- the piece abounds with striking situaported the character of the infamous der, of which he had been guilty, deter- tions, and with incidents of a powerMillwood with great talent. Le petit

inines to retire altogether from society, fully interesting nature. Mr. H. JohnSouper, a melange which Miss Ma- to endeavour to atone for his misdeeds: ston, who made his first appearance at cauley has given with great success in and he suddenly leaves his court, and this theatre in the character of the Reother parts of the metropolis followed ; takes up his abode in a lonely cottage on cluse, portrayed the conflicting pasand seemed to afford much gratifica- the summit of a portion of the Alps, sions which agitate the soul of Charles tion to the Surrey visitors.

called the Desert Mountain. Here he the Bold with great feeling, and Miss ADELPHI THEATRE.— A new piece, assumes the garb and habits of a recluse, S. Booth made a powerful impression from the pen of Mr. Moncrieff, was

but occasionally visits the poor inhabi- on the sympathies of the audience in produced at this house, on Monday tants of the valley, alleviating their dis- her delineation of the feelings and emo. night

, on a scale of magnificence which tresses and dispensing good to all; always, tions of the amiable and interesting, is seldom witnessed in a minor theatre and seldoin exchanging a word with them? but ill-fated Eloise. Mr. Power was It is entitled Tom and Jerry, and is in this valley is situate the Priory of Un- excellent in the Baron, particularly in founded ou Pierce Egan's Life in Londerlach, the seat of D'Hertsall, with whoin the last scene. don, a work in high favour with the is residing his niece, Eloise, the orphan The scenery deserves much praise, fancy.' The object of this piece is to child of St. Maur, who had been mur particularly the Summit of the Desert represent, faithfully, the varied scenes dered by the Solitary: The fame of the Mountain by moonlight, and a Mounwhich the metropolis presents; and Solitary has reached the priory, and his tainous Pass, with a distant View of this is done in twenty excellent scenes,

many acts of benevolence have already the Devil's Bridge. exhibiting life in all its varieties, and the fair Eloise; and he, baving had op

excited a strong interest in the mind of shewing the very age and boly of the portunities of seeing her in her walks, 'is

Literature and Science. time, its forın and pressure. The story inspired with the strongest passion, but, is that of a young country gentleman, conscious that his crimes preclude the Professor Lee is preparing, in PerSquire Hawthorn, coming to London possibility of a union, he resolves to sian and English, the whole controverto see · Life,' where his friends, Corio-watch over and protect her with the soli. sy of Mr. Martyn with the learned in thian Tom and Bob Logic, take hiin to citude of a guardian angel. At this time, Persia, as a man

anual for missionaries, every place at which life' is to be seen, the Count de Palzo, an ambitious intri

whereby they may establish the truth froin "Almack's down to the Noah's guiging libertine, sees Eloise, becomes of the Scriptures against MahommeArk in the Holy Land. The last permission of the baron to rest a day or

danism. scene presented a group of beggars, as two at the priory, he employs bis confi.

Mr. I. G. Walker is engraving a well dressed for the purpose of excit-dant, Michelli, and others of his vassals, Print, the Portrait of Dame Brettell, ing pity and operating on the feelings to carry her off. The plan, however, is late of Twickenham, who lived to the of the humane, as the Mendicity So- thwarteil by the Solitary, who rescues | age of 103 years, 10 months, and 24 ciety itself could collect : even the her from the ruftians, and drives Michelli days, enjoying her faculties to the last. costume and the names of some of the from hin all the villainous secrets of his Soot in the Preservation of Animal

Singular Proof of the Efficacy of most notorious of the London mendi- master, with which he acquaints Eloise. Malter. - A short time since, on the cants were preserved in this fac simile De Palzo then asks Eloise in marriage, of a Beggar's Opera in St. Giles's. but she rejects him, and in an interview removal of a board in the interior of a The scenery was excellent, and the in the gardens of the priory, she discloses chimney in a gentleman's drawing. performers exerted themselves with her knowledge of his secrets, at which room in York, a pigeon was found much spirit, particularly Wrench, he becomes furious, and is about to stab that had been inissing nearly five Burroughs, and Wilkinson, the heroes her, when she is again preserved by the months. Its body had become quite of the piece; and Mrs. Baker and Mrs. intervention of the Solitary, who declares hard, and the feathers so firmly atWaylett, and Mrs. Hammersley,

the his passion to Eloise, and obtains an as: tached to it, that, with the addition of heroines, assumed a variety of charac- the dreadful obstacles which his crimes a pair of glass eyes, it would bave ters which they enacted very appro- present, rush upon his mind, and, after equalled almost any preservation in the priately. Mr. Callaghan sustained, a powerful struggle, he resolves to leave finest collection of the feathered tribe.! we believe, nine different characters, her for ever, now that he has secured her Galvanic Phenomena.The body of which, though extremely varied, he from danger; and he accordingly returns George Thom, who was executed at portrayed very happily. The house was to the mountain. De Palzo, meanwhile, Aberdeen, last week, having, ugreeacrowded to excess before the rising of attacks and fires the priory, and Pflert- bly to his sentence, been given for disa the eurtain, and the piece is likely to tain, where the Solitary ventures to soli

section to Drs. Skene and Ewing, was prove a great favourite.

cit her in marriage ; D'Hertsall demands as subjected to a series of galvanic'expeOLYMPIC THEATRE.-A new melo- a preliminary, that the Solitary should dis riments, of which, with their results, draina of extravagant but powerful in-close his naine and quality; the latter raises we subjoin the following brief acterest, was produced at this theatre on bis vizor, and the Baron with horror disco. count: Monday night: it is called Le Soli- vers in the suitor of his piece, the se- The body was brought into the dissecttaire, or the Recluse of the Alps, ducer of his own child

and the murderer ing-rouin, about an hour after suspension, and is adapted from a French piece of his brother. The Duke solicits for- and still retained nearly its natural heat

. now performing at Paris with great cates the heaviest curses upon his head. sciatic nerve were immediately laid bure,

giveness, but in vain: the Baron impre- The upper part of the spinal cord and the success; it is indebted for its English The discovery is too much for the tender- and a galvanic arc was then established, dress to Mr. Planché. The following hearted Eloise; a death-chill comes over by applying the positive wire to the spine, 16 en outline of the story;

her, and she dies in the arms of the Duke. ' and the negative to the Sciatic nerve

when a general convulsive starting of the at the moment when the besiegers were At a sale of farming stock in Gloubody was produced. Another communi ready to fire a canuon, and had applied cestershire, the auctioneer gave the cation was then made between the spine the match, a ball fired from the garri-following poetical and extempore decontractions took place in the arm and son entered the mouth of the campon, scription of a beautiful cow:fore-arın. When the circle was formed and, without doing any mischief, was Long in her sides,-- bright in ber eyes,

Short in ber legs,-thin in her thighs, with the spine and radial nerve, both at re-discharged from the cannon which

Big in her rib,wide in her pins, the elbow and wrist successively, power- it had entered !

Full in her bosom,-siall in ber shins ; ful contractions of the muscles of the In the 7th year of the reign of Wil

Long in her face,-fine in her tail, whole arm and hand were produced. liam the Third, there was a tax of 301. And never deficient in filling the pail. The hand was closed with such violence, { upon the birth of a duke, and two ai to resist the exertions of one of the as- shillings upon that of a common persistants to keep it open. When a con- son; for the burial of a duke 501.

Advertisement. nexion was established between the ra.

Just ready for delivery, the following popular dial nerve and the supra and infra orbital common person four shillings. nerves, strong contractions of the muscles

and highly approved French Modesty. It is related by

NEW MUSIC FOR THE PIANOof the brow, face, and mouth were pro- a Latin historian, (says the editor of a

FORTE. duced, so as to affect the under jaw, and Paris paper) that in every one of the to distort the countenance in a very sin- great exploits which added to the lustre Return from School;' intended as a present for

1. «The HAPPY MORN, or the young Ladies' gular manner. The eye-lids were strongly of the Roman arms, a Gaul has always the Christmas Holidays.-25.; or 15 Copies for contracted; and when the wire was ap- been present, In spite of the partizans 20s. plied directly to the ball of the eye, the who would degrade this race, it is evi

Both the words and the melody of this iris contracted and dilated very sensibly: dent that we have not degenerated.-admired Song are sweet, naturad, and appro tween the par vagum and diaphragm, and we can with pride affirm, that French- the interesting event it commemorates, is well then between that muscle and the great men have been found in all places adapted for Juvenile Performers from its simsympathetic, little obvious effect was pro- where dangers were to be encountered, plicity, and cannot fail of proving a source of duced. After applying galvanism chirect- or glory gained. It is to French refu- amusement to the domestic circle during the ly to the nerves above-mentioned, the gees that the inhabitants of New Or- festive season, while it will be long remem-. skin of the face was moistened with water, leans attribute the honour of the vic

bered by the learner.

2. liood OLD Tixes;' as sung by Mr. and, upon running the wire over different parts of it, similar effects were produced tory which they gained over the Eny- Wilkinson, 1s. 6d.

3. • No TIME IS LIKE THE PRESENT, as in the muscles of the face, as by direct

lish. They were Frenchmen who ascommunication made with the nerves. sisted in gaining the battle that insured sung by Miss Stevenson. Is. 6d.

4. The MINSTREL ;' a favourite Rondo, The tongue also moved in all directions, the independence of Chili.—There was

for the Piano-Forte or Harp, by M. Holst, by touching the surface with the galvanic also a Frenchman in that glorious and -25.6d, wire, The whole experiments were per- sacred battalion which was extermin- Printed and sold by W. PINNOCK, 267, St. when the heat of the body was considera. them purchase their shameful victory ranted, for sale, bire, or exchauge. forined in about an hour and a quarter, ated by the Turks, after it had made Clement's Church-yard, London.

„N. B. Superior Toned Piano-Fortes, parbly diminished. A powerful galvanic at so dear a rate. His name was Bor apparatus (consisting of about 300 pair of plates) was used; but, from not being in dier, and he died on the field of battle,

TO READERS & CORRESPONDENTS. sulated, a considerable qnantity of the after performing prodigies of valour.

6 MODERN Periodicals, or the Vision of galvanism escaped, so that every metallic At that time fortune was not favoura

Peter Pendegras,! The Lily and the Rose,' substance about the table was highly ble to the ranks which contained a charged. child of France. . But men, who so of

Colin and Alice,' and 'Stanzas by Eliza,' in
ten conquer, are worthy of dying at Parish Feasting' shall be inserted in the
The Bee.
Thermopylæ."

course of a fortnight; our official 'dnties, as Floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia limant, Carolina Criminal Code.- At a seg. churchwarden, will then have expired, and we Omnio nos itidem depascimur aurea dicta.'

sions in Charlston, J. Hutton, for kill- shall be as much in love with economy as any LUCRETIUS.

of our neighbours. ing a Negro, 'was fined 501. and G.

The 'Sonnet on Life,' Search after HappiSpecimen of the pun annoying :- Burrows and R. Welsh, for Negro ness, the_favours of Mr. Hatt, J. w. b, Oxberry, in Life in London, gets a stealing, were sentenced to be hanged! G. A. N, Thomas (we wish it had been Joha) box-o'-the-ear, upon which he ex- Anecdate. In the hard frost in the Clare, and Mac, shall be inserted as early as claims Now am I a pickled donkey; year 1740, the Company of Vinters we can make room for them.,

S. T.'s Dove must not fiud a resting place I am ass-salted,'

bought a large ox in Smithfield, to be in our ark. One of his Majesty's frigates, I for- rousterl on the ice, on the river Thames. The author of the "Fragmenta Dramatica,' get her name, being at anchor on a Mr. Hodgeson, a butcher in Saint will find a letter at our office. Winter's night'in

a tremendous gale of James's Market, claimed the privilege write any thing rather than birth-day odes; we wind, the ground broke and she began of knocking down the beast, as a right have already a stock by us for every day in the to drive. The lieutenant of the watch inherent in his family, his father having year, and sonnets to fair ladies of all ages, ran down to the captain, awoke him knocked down the ox roasted on the from the girl of fifteen to the widow of fifty from his sleep, and told him the an- river in the great frost 1684, and as he

Erratum: p. 737, c. 2, I. 22 from bottom, for chor had come home; Well,' cried himself did that roasted in 1715, near

near'st' read 'wear'st.' the captain, rabbing his eyes, I think Hungerford Stairs. The beast was

London :- Published by J. Limbird, 353, strand, our anchor is perfectly right, for who fixed to a stake in the open market, tw doors East of Ereter Change; where adverte

for the the devil would stay out in such a and Mr. Hodgeson was dressed in a Editor' (post paid) are to be addressed. night as this.'-Sam Spritsail. rich laced cambrick apron, a silver by Souter, 23 St. Paul's Church Pard; Simpkin

Thesaurus relates, in his history, steel, and a hat and leather, to perform Mall, Graped Liverpool, and by all Bookerstene that at the siege of Groningen, in 1594, his office!

Neusdenders.- , well Court, Carey Street.

our next.

Suld allo

And Weekly Review; Forming an Analysis and General Repository of Literature, Philosophy, Science, Arts,

History, the Drama, Morals, Manners, and Amusements.

This Paper is published early every Saturday Morning; and is forwarded Weekly, or iu Monthly or Quarterly Parts, throughout the British Dominions.

No. 134.

LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 8, 1821. Price 6d.

Review of New Books.

vine revelation,': He thinks that the volume, by means of two strings, which

Hebrew, the Samuritani, the Syriac, also pass through the two wooden boards Illustrations of Biblical Literature ;

and the Greek alphabets, have had but that serve for binding: In the finer bindexhibiting the History and Fate of the oldest, its ancient characters being cut smooth and gilded, and the title is one author, and that the Samaritan is ing of these kinds of books, the boards

are lacquered, the edges of the leaves the Sacred Writings, from the ear- those originally in use aniong, the He- written on the upper board; the two liest Period the present Century; brews. In this character he supposes cords are, by a knot or jewel, secured at including Biographical Notices of the Decalogue to have been inscribed a little distance from the boards, so as to Translators and other Eminent Bi

on the tables of stone, and that it was prevent the book from falling to pieces, blical Sekolars. By the Rev. James continued in use among the Jews un- but sufficiently distant to admit of the upTownley, Author of Biblical Anec- til the time of Ezra, when the Chal per leaves being turned back, while the dotes. . 3 vols. 8vo. pp. 1606. Lon- dee or present Hebrew characters was

İower ones are read. The more elegant don, 1821.

books are in general wrapped up in silk adopted. After noticiug the engrav-cloth, and bound round by a garter, in NUMEROUS as the bibliographical and historical works are, in which the dif- ling of the Decalogue ou stone, by the which the Burmas have the art to weave ferent versions of the Scriptures, their record since adopted; -as the celebrat

order of Moses, and similar species of the title of the book." ; multiplied editions, and general histo-ed laws of the Twelve Tables among script now lies before ine. The charac

'A beautifully written "Indian manu. y have been expressly considered or the Romans, the engraviny of laws on ters are minute and neatly executed. They incidentally noticed, yet we do not re-tables of brass, by the Greeks, &c. have been written or engraved so as to encollectany that embraces so extensive, Mr. Townley thus traces the progress ter into the substance of the leaf. The or we mighit' add, so'ab!e a view of the

of writing :subject as the work now before us. vestigator of biblical "autiquities, and leaves of the palm tree, and afterwards to each other from end to end of the leaf.

- According to Pliny, one of the most seven distinct portions of leaf, each porThough Mr. Townley is a clever in- ancient methods of writing was upon the tion being 101 inches in length and 1 displays a research, deep, patient, and upon the inner bark of trees. This mode acute, yet bis work is not merely a dry of writing is still common in the east. In Two holes are made in cach leaf about

six inches asunder: A string passed collection of facts, fit only for the stu- Tanjore and other parts of India, the Paldious, but it possesses a general inter- myra-leaf is used, on which they engrave whole; but the leaves being written on

through the holes at each end, secures the est, likely to rivet the attention of the with an iron style or pen; and so expert both sides, must be untied before they desultory reader. Mr. Towoley, who was already fa- do not look much at their ollas, or leaves, of the palm-leaf, and sometimes of a kind ently what is spoken deliberately. They can be read.

• The Ceylonese sometimes inake use vourably known to the public by his while writing, the fibre of the leaf serving of paper, made of bark, but most gene• Biblical Anecdotes,' has, in the pre- to guide the pen. The aptitude of the rally employ the leaf of the Talipot-tree. sent work, given a connected view of Christian Hindoos to copy the sermons the history of biblical translations, and they hear, is particularly noticed by the From these leaves, which are of immense of the state of sacred. literature from Rev. Dr. C. Buchanan, in his Christian size, they cut out slips, from a foot to a

foot and a half long, and about a couple the earliest date to the commencement of

Researches, p. 66. where he observes, the present century, with sach occasion that " whilst the Rev. Dr. John delivered of inches broad. These slips are smoothed,

and all excrescences paired off with a ar! sketches of the manners and supersti- inany personis had their ollas in their knife, and are then, without any other tions of the earlier ages, as serve to hands, writing the scrmon in Tamul short- preparation, ready to be used. A fine illustrate the advantages derivable froin hand.", Dr. Francis Buchanan, in a va pointed steel pencil, like a bodkin, and a more general dissemination of the Juable essays on the religion and litera- set in a wooden or ivory handle, is, emSacred Writings.

ture of the Burmas," informs us, that " in ployed to write or rather to engrave their In the first part of the work, which their more elegant books, the Burmas letters on these talipot slips, which are contains the history of biblical litera- write on sheets of ivory, or on very fine very thick and tough; and in order to ture from the giving of the law to the white palmyrä leaves. The ivory is stained render the writing distinct and

permanent, ture from the giving of the law to the black, and the margins are ornamented they rub them over with

oil mixed with

pulverized charcoal. They afterwards dite and interesting account of the enamelled or gilded. On the palmyra string several slips together, by a piece of origin of writing, and the materials used leaves the characters are in general of twine passed through them, and attach at various periods and in different black enamel, and the ends of the leaves them to a board in the same way as we countries for that purpose.

Mr. and margins are painted with flowers in file newspapers. In those letters or disTownley does not think letters of various bright colours. In their more patches which were sent by the King of merely human invention, but that common books, the Burimás, with an iron Candy to the Dutch government, the writMoses was instructed in the know- style, engrave their writing on palmyra ing was inclosed in leaves of beaten gold, ledge of alphabetical characters by di- leaf serves to connect the whole into a leares. A hole through both ends of each in the shape of a cocoa-tree leaf. This

was rolled up in a cover richly orna.

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mented, and almost hid in a profusion of also said to have been inscribed on a letters, almanacks, &c. were engraven pearls and other precious stones. The leaden table, carefully preserved in the upon wood; and because Beech was most whole was inclosed in a box of silver or Temple of the Muses, which, when shewn plentiful in Denmark, (though Fir and ivory, which was sealed with the king's to Pausanias, was almost entirely cor

Oak be so in Norway and Sweden) and great seal. Diodorus Siculus affirms, that the Per- the public docuinents were written in vices, from the word bog, which, in their

roded through age. According to 'Pliny, most commonly employed in these sersians of old wrote all their records on leaden volumes after the

use of the pu- language, is the name of that sort of wood; skins ;, and Herodotus, who flourished gillares, or wooden tablets, had been laid they and all other northern nations have more than five hundred and fifty years aside. Thin plates of lead, reduced to a the name of book. The poorer sort used before the Christian era, informs us, that very great degree of tenuity by the mal- bark, and the horns of rein-deer and elks sheep skins and goat skins were made use let, were occasionally used, particularly were often finely polished, and shaped Yeates even thinks it exceedingly proba. Poliorceticus tells us, that they were their old calendars are likewise upon ble, that the very autograph of the Law beaten with a hainmer until they were bones of beasts and fishes; but the inscrip, written by the hand of Moses, was upon rendered very thin and pliable; that they tions on tapestry, bells, parchment, and prepared skins. In Exodus xxvi. 14. we read that rams' skins, dyed red, made soles of the shoes; that even the messen

were sometimes sewed up between the paper, are of later use." part of the covering for the tabernacle; ger who carried them was ignorant of the

A singular custom still prevails at and it is a singular circunstance, that in circumstance; and that while he slept, The court-leet holden annually for that

Pamber, near Basingstoke, in Hampshire. the year 1806, Dr. Claudius Buchanan the correspondent to whom they were obtained from one of the synagogues of addressed unsewed the shoes, read the manor, is opened sub dio, in a small the black Jews, in the interior of Malay- letters, replaced others, and thus carried piece of ground called Lady-Mead, ala, in India, a very ancient manuscript on a secret intercourse without suspicion, which belongs to the tithingman for the roll, containing the inajor part of the He- • It was also an ancient practice to write year. Thence an adjournment is made brew Scriptures, written upon goats' skin, upon thin smooth planks, or tables of to a neighbouring public-house. The mostly dyed red; and the Cabul Jews, wood. Pliny says that table books of proceedings of the court are recorded on who travel annually into the interior of wood were in use before the time of Ho a piece of wood, called a tally, about China, remarked that, in some syna-/mer. The Chinese, before the invention three feet long, and an inch and-a-half gogues, the Law is still found written on of paper, engraved with an iron tool upon square, furnished every year by the steraroll.of leather,not on vellum, but on a soft thin boards, or upon bamboo; and in the ard. One of tliese singular records, was fexible leather made of goats' skins, and Sloanian Library at Oxford, are six spelaw-suit at Winchester. The mode of

some time ago produced in evidence in a of the Pentateuch in rolls, which are all at ing, on boards about two feet in length keeping accounts by callies for cleft present known in England, exclusive of and six inches in depth. those in the possession of the Jews, five • The original manner of writing among cut on one piece conformably to the are are upon skins or leather, and the the ancient Britons was by cutting the let other, one part being kept by the crediother upon vellum. One of these is in ters with a knife upon sticks, which were tor, the other by the debtor, is still prac. the Collegiate Library at Manchester, most commonly squared, and sometimes tised in many parts of England, in par:iand has never been collated. It is written formed into three sides; consequently, a

cular cases. A tally continues to be upon basil, or brown African skins, and single stick contained either four or three given by the Exchequer, to those who measures in length one hundred and six lines. (See Ezek. xxxvii, 16.) Several pay inoney there upon loans; bence the feet, and is about twenty inches in breadth sticks, with writing upon them, were put origin of the teller, or tally-writer of the

The letters are black and well preserved, together, forming a kind of frame, which Exchequer; and also of the phraseo and the whole text is without points, ac. was called Peithyen, or Elucidator, and tally, to fit, to suit, or answer exactly. cents, or marginal additions. was so constructed that each stick might

The Scythians also conveyed The skins of fishes were also sometimes be turned for the facility of reading, the ideas by, marking of cutting certain fiemployed for writing upon; and Zonoras end of each running out alternately on gures and a variety of lines upon splinters relates, that the Iliad and Odyssey, of both sides of the frame. A continuation or billets of wood; and amongst the LaHomer were written upon the intestines of this mode of writing may be found in cedemonians, the scytale laconica was a of a serpent, in characters of gold, form the Runic, or Log Almanacks of the Nor- little round staff, which they made use of ing a roll one hundred feet in length. thern States of Europe, in which the en

to write their

secret letters. In the Apoconsumed in the dreadful fire which hap- been continued to the present time. A hundred and four books being made of This singular work is said to have been graving on square pieces of wood has crypha, (2 Esdras, xiv. 24. 37. 44.) we pened at Constantinople in the filth cen- late writer informs us, the Boors of Esel, box-wood, and written upon in the open tury, and destroyed nearly the whole an island of the Baltic Sea, at the entrance city, together with the library, containing of the Gulph of Livonia, continue the

field by certain swift writers. AulusGellius, twenty thousand volumes.

practice of inaking these rude calendars (lib. ii. ch. 12,) says, that the ancient From Job xix. 24, it appears to have for themselves; and that they are in use

laws of Solon, preserved at Athens, were been usual in his day, to write or engrave likewise in the isles of Ruhn and Mohn. cut in tablets of wood, and denominated upon plates of lead, which might easily Two curious specimens of the Runic Al- axones. . These were quadrangular, and be done with a pen or graver or style of manacks are in the Collegiate Library at

so contrived as to turn on axes, and to iron, or other hard metal. Montfaucon Manchester.

present their contents on all sides to the assures us, that in 1699, he bought, at . Bishop Nicholson, in his English His eyes of the passengers. The laws on Rome, a book entirely of lead, about torical Library, remarks, "The Danes those wooden tables, as well as those on four inches long by three inches wide. (as all other ancient people of the world) stone, were inscribed after the manner Not only the two pieces which formed the registered their more considerable trans- called

boustrophedon; that is, the first line, cover, but also all the leaves, in number actions upon rocks, or on parts of them beginning from right to left or from left șix, the stick inserted into the rings which hewn into various shapes and figures. On to right, and the second in an opposite diheld the leaves together, the hinges, and these they engraved such inscriptions as

rection, as ploughmen trace their furthe nails, were all of lead, without excep- were proper for their heathen allars, tri- rows.? tion. It contained Egyptian Gnostic humphal arches, sepulchral monuments,

A similar mode of writing was in gures and unintelligible writing.

and genealogical histories of their ances- use among the ancient Irish, by whom The Works and Days of Hesiod are ltors. Their writings of less concern, as lit was called Cionn fa cite,

It was

disused by the Greeks about four hun. there is an article of disbursement, for a writing upon ; and books written on it ex. dred and fifty-seven years before the tablet covered with green wax, to be isted in the third century. The bark of Christian era, but the Irish retained it kept in the chapel for noting down with a oak was also used for the same purpose. to a much later period. Mr. Town- style, the respective courses of duty al. Hence the Latins called a book liber, ley is of opinion, that several of the pro-chair. Shakespeare alludes to this mode and the Greeks used the word Pa0605

ternately assigned to the officers of the which signifies the inner bark of a tree; phets wrote upon tablets of wood :'In the year 485, during the reign of

of writing, in his “ Timon of Athens :" (Phlojos), which also means bark. the Emperor Zeno, the remains of St.

My free drift

• The use of bark for this purpose still Barnabas are said to have been found

Halts not particularly, but moves itself prevails in some parts of Asia ; thus the near Salamis, with a copy of the Gospel

In a wide sea of wax."

sacred books of the Burmans are some i of St. Matthew, in Hebrew, laid upon his

Even so late as A. D. 1718, several of times composed of thin stripes of bamboo, breast, written with his own hand, upon the collegiate bodies in France, especially delicately plaited, and varnished over in leaves of thyme wood, a kind of wood the chapter of the Cathedral of Rouen, such a manner as to form a smooth and particularly 'odoriferous and valuable. retained these tablets, for the purpose of hard surface upon a leaf of any dimen(Suid. Lex. v. uno. ) Tablets of this marking the successive rotation of the mi- sions: this surface is afterwards gilt, and kind were generally covered with wax, nisters of the choir.

the sacred letters are traced upon it in sometimes also with chalk or plaster;

* Tables, or table-books, were soine

black and shining japan; the margin is il

luminated by wreaths and figures of gold and written upon with styles or bodkins. times made of slate, in the form of a In epistolary correspondence, they were small portable book, with leaves and

on a red, green, or black ground. The

Battas also, one of the nations who inhatied together with thread, and the seal clasps. Such a one is engraved in Ges. poll upon the knot. These tablets, when ner's treatise De Rerum l'ossilium Figu- bit the island of Sumatra, form their collected and fastened together, com- ris, &c. Tigur, 1565, 12mo. and copied books of the inner bark of a certain tree; posed a book called codex or cauder, i. e. by Douce, in his Illustrations of Shake one of which, in the Batta character, is in

the Sloanian Library, (No. 4726,) written a trunk, from its resemblance to the trunk speare, vol. ii. p. 227. The learned auof a tree, sawed into planks; but when thor thus describes it :-“ Pugillaris é la- in perpendicular columns, on a long piece they consisted of only two leaves, they minis saxi nigri fissilis, cum stylo ex

of bark, folded up so as to represent a were termed libri diptychi. eodem. A table-book made of thin plates

book.
• Waxen tablets continued to be occa-
of black stone, with a style of the same

« Of the several kinds of PAPER, used at

different periods, and manufactured from sionally used till a very late period. Du material.”. Cange cites the following lines from a

• By a law among the Romans, the various materials, the Egyptian is unFrench Metrical Romance, written about edits of the senate were directed to be questionably the most ancient. The exA. D. 1376

written on tablets of ivory, thence deno- act date of its discovery is unknown; and “ Les uns se prennent à ecrire,

minated libri elephanti. And Pliny, (lib. even the place where it was first made is Des greffes en tables de cire;

viii. ch. iii.) says, that from want of the matter of dispute. According to Isidore, Les autres suivent la coustume

teeth of the elephant, which are alone of it was first made at Memphis; and, acDe former lettres à la plume.

ivory, they had lately begun to saw the cording to others, in Seide, or Upper Some with the antiquated style, bones of that animal.

Egypt. It was manufactured from the On waxen tablets promptly write;

• Dr. Shaw, (Travels

, p. 194,) inforins inner films of the papyrus or biblos, a sort Others, with finer pen, the wbile uis, that in Barbary, the children who are

of flag or bulrush, growing in the marshes Form letters lovelier to the sight." ,

sent to school write on a smooth thin of Egypt. The outer skin being taken • There are many ample and authentic / which may be wiped off or renewed åt skins, one within another. These, when :

board, slightly daubed over with whiting, off, there are next several films or inner records of the royal household of France, pleasure, and thus learn to read, to write, separated from the stalk, were laid on a of the 13th and 14th centuries, still pre- and get their lessons by heart, all at the table, and moistened with the glutinous served, written on waren tablets. In the religious, houses in France, they were led by the great men of Egypt

, in keep wards pressed together, and dried in the same time. The Copts, who are employ waters of the Nile. They were after

sun and for registering the capitular acts of of pasteboard for that purpose, from ing their accounts, &c. make use of a sort From this papyrus it is, that wliat

we now make use of to write upon hath' the monasteries. Specimens of wooden which the writing is occasionally wiped also the name of papyr, or paper, though ed in the fourteenth century, were for similar mode of writing are frequent in papyrus. Bruce, the well-known Abysa merly preserved in several of the monastic libraries. Some of these contained 23., Nehemiah, 'xiii. 14. et al. In 'In: large and very perfect manuscript on pa

Scripture : see particularly Numbers, v.

sinian traveller, had in his possession a the household expenses of the sovereigns, dia, it has been the practice from time pyrus, which had been dug up at Thebes, &c. and consisted of as many as twenty immemorial, to teach children to read by and which he believed to be the only perparchment bands glued to the backs of writing in sand; and from thence are de- fect one known. “The boards,” or co

vers for binding the leaves, “are,” says : the leaves. One remaining in the Aband Lancasterian systems of instruction, he, “ of papyrus root, covered first with bey of St. Germaine Des-prez, at Paris, I practised by the Rev. Dr. Bell and Mr. the coarse pieces of the paper; and their recorded the expenses of Philip le Bel, Lancaster.

with leather, in the same manner as it during a journey that he made in the year 1307, on a visit to Pope Clement V;

When the ancient Egyptians de would be done now. It is a book one a single leaf of this table-book is exhibit signed their writings to last, they used would call a'sınall folio, rather than by

name. The letters are strong, ed in the Nouveau Traité de Diploma- linen rags; several specimens of which

deep, black, and apparently written with tique, tom. i. p. 468. Amongst the monks are preserved in the British Museum, a reed, as is practised by the Egyptians of St. Victor of Paris, where the rule of and other depositories of antiquities :- and Abyssinians still. It is written on silence was rigorously observed, certain The bark of trees is another material both sides. I gave Dr. Woide leave to signs were enjoined, to prevent the ne. which has been employed in every age translate it, at Lord North's request; it is cessity of speaking ; Du Cange, (v. Sig- and quarter of the globe; and was called a Gnostic book, full of their dreams." na,) notices many of them, and among Xylochartion by the Greeks. Before the The form of the book, in Mr. Bruce's posothers, those by which they asked for the use of the papyrus became general, the session, appears to be different from that style and tablet. In an accompt-roll of bark of the philyra, a species of the lin- in general vise among the ancient EgyptiWinchester College, for the year 1395, I den tree, was frequently inade use of for ans, for Pliny (Lib. xiii, che si af

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