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cularly many oriental schohre in other countries, may nevef have an opportunity of solving their doubts and gratifying their curiosity, by a perusal of the JRgyptiaca.

Few of those who have paid any attention to Oriental Literature are unacquainted with the opinion of the celebrated Michaelis on this subject, as delivered in his translation and notes on Abulfeda's description of Egypt. Abulfeda, as well as Abdollatiph, and indeed every other Arabic nuthor who has described the pillar, constantly calls it iSj\y*.\\ &y*s. Amud

jissaw.iry. These words Michaelis supposed to signify, the fillar of Severus; and on the authority of this passage of Abulfeda, thus translated, he ventured to establish a new hypothesis respecting die origin of the pillar, and contended that it must have been erected by the Senate of Alexandria in honour pf the Emperor Severus. Dr. W. however, in the work to which we have referred, has satisfactorily proved that the translation of Michaelis is incorrect; by shewing that the Arabi; article ^\, consistently with the plain rules and uniform usage of that language, can never be prefixed to a proper name; and that the Roman name Severus is never expressed, in Arabic by the word is,\y» either by Abulfeda, or by any ether Arabic writer. On the contrary, this word is constantly written by Abulfeda, by Eutychius, and by Abulpharajus, either ^Jiyj^, Sewdros, or LW,jy« Saiueros, or (j«,L*» Sawaros, or yvjljjyu Saiueriamis; the final ^ or /, being constantly employed in expressing those Roman names which terminate in us.

From p. 116, to p. 13S. Abdolhtiph is occupied in describing the ruins of Memphis, the antient capital of Egypt; and in reflections naturally arising from the objects there presented to his consideration. The name by which he distinguishes Memphis is that of X*J«xi£M yaj> antient Mesr; and his description fixes beyond dispute the situation of this city, the very ruins of which (such is the instability of all human; grandeur,) have long since disappeared. We shall quote Dr. White's note on this passage, because it contains an additional proof that the situation of Memphis is improperly fixed by the authors of the antient universal history, and that it is rightly placed by D'Anville, Bishop Pocockc, and Major Rennell. The proof to which we allude is deduced from Macrizi, an jnedited Arabic writer of great authority on the subject of Egypt. The whole note runs thus:

* De situ Memphis antique disceptatio vexatissima diu cxtrcuit eruditos; at que adhuc inurlas tenet. Sjjjam nan lit mearum virium, rei, tide*

varian' lib-is senlentiis, ei vcterum moiiumcntorwn obscuriiateperplex* omnem dvbit/itloncm eximere, et singula hujusce argument! ad liquidum ptrdi.-f.ere, satis scio : putaverim temen verba Abd'Alatiphi rcete pcrpensa, nennihil moments habitura ad rem corstituendam. "Estque Libs hec {inquit) in Ul-GinJi paulo supra Eostatitm." Imprimis notandum est Al-Gizam r.on oppidi ted tractus vrl rrgionis, esse romen; quo urtiro in sensv <: Ncrtro uturpatvrf turn oppidtim Hind recentiorem origiitcm b>buerit. "Paulo supra Foslatam"; iXibil certiu: quam vert is litis dart sittim Fostatd juperiorem, id est, Meridici ptopiorem. Porta locum lundaU'uumum ex Macrisio tempcrare mill- lion possum quin addveam, prttscrtim cum is scriptor ddigentislisntu eerie el truditiisimus perpaucorvm manibas tractatus, in Blbliotbccarum tenebris ftrtne dclitcscat.

klXilSb Slzj^jli 8<X£ V V-rJ=l^XyO, <_**.« xLjA^O J-^=>i A*J<X« £y* &*-• J^ J&\ *sL>»^ ^C 3-!-*^' 1>.J* IS*

LjjJaJl <>jo ya*o \jhj~> &J** **j«x< SJ <fj yA* io[ !-«»>

• De Urbe Mempln', et Rcgibtis ejus. Sita fuit hxc Urhs in parte Nfli occidental]', duodecim millibus pasnium ab urbe Fostat Mesr (hodie, Old Cairo). Prima fuit qiue in terra JEg) pti incolebatur post l>jlu»inm, sedesque imperii evasit post civitatem Amsns, de qua supra dictum est. Macrisii Hist. /Egypli, Codex Bodl. Marsh. 149. p. 154.*

The mention of antient Mesr, or Memphis, in its state of ruin and desertion, naturally leads Abdollatiph into reflections on its former grandeur, when it was the habitation of the Pharaohs, and the metropolis of the empire; and hence he is led to trace concisely, but clearly, tne principal revolutions of Egypr. Among these, he records particularly the conquest snd desolation of that country, by Na'ucliodonosor, far the space of forty -years; and thus most unexpectedly do we find in a Mohammedan author, who certainly li id no superstitiousreverencefor thejewish or Christian prophecies, and indeed probably no knowledge whatever of their contents, a new and unequivocal testimony to the exact accomplishment of the prediction of Ezekicl, chap. xxix. ver. y, 10, 11, 12. 10. "And the land if Egypt shall be desolate and iur.stet and they shall hnoiv that lam the Lord; because he hath said, the rivtr is mine, and I biwe made it. Bthold, t hi re/ore, I am against thee, and again it thy rivers, and 1 -will make the Laid of Egypt utterly ivasle and desolate, from the tower of Syene, iven unto the border of jEthiopui. No foot of man shall pass through it, nor foot of beast shall pass through it, neither shall it be inhabited F p R TT ■ykaks. And I nvill make the land of Egypt desolate in the midst tj' the countries that are desolate, and her cities, among the cities


that are laid waste, shall be desolate FORTY YPARS, 8cc. BeholA I mil/ give tie land cf Ezypt unto Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and he shall take her multitude, and take hey spoil, and take her prey; and it shall be the wages of his army." We cannot but lament that this observation, and others of a similar nature, which in times like the present more especially appear to us so important, should have entirely escaped the attention of the editor: for surely he who once so happily illustrated the excellence and truth of Christianity, by 'contrasting it with the imposture of Mohammed, might have wielded with peculiar propriety and force those weapons, which even a Mohammedan historian not (infrequently supplies for the defence of our most holy faith.

In page 134, this Arabian author quotes a long and curious passage from the work of Aristotle on the Parts of Animals; and Dr. White, in his Note, has very judiciously remarked an extraordinary coincidence between two great writers of distant ages and nations: the same passage of the Greek Philosopher having been quote;! with nearly the same view, and for a similar purpose, by Stillitigfleet, in his Origines~Sacr*t vol. ii. p. 270. (Oxford edition.)

Abdollatiph (p. 158.) mentions Busir, or Abousir, or Abouzire, (for they are only different modes of spelling the same word,) i:i a passage which Dr. W. has thus translated. 'Invenimus autem juxta Busiram Pyramides multas, quorum unam dirutam, maxima tamen parte integram, cum metisuravisstmus a bast, observavimns rion minorem earn fuisse, 'quatn sint Pyramides dux Al Gizn.' Now the manner in which the author speaks of Busir in this passage, and in pages 89 and 156, convinces us that Pococke's version in p. 80, is incorrect, and thai juxta Busiram should be substituted for in Busira. Moreover, as Abdollatiph, in page 156, clearly sutes Busir to be in the neighbourhood of the Catacombs, agreeably to the express testimony of two modern travellers, Paul Lucas and Hasselquist; and as in this passage he adds also another determinate and distinct mark of locality, namely its proximity to the great ruined Southern Pyramid; (which is unquestionably the same that is marked Q^in Plate xvm. of Bp. Pococke's Travels;) we have satisfactory grounds for correcting the site of Busir, as laid down in the Maps of D'Anville and Rennell: who, misled probably by a passage in Pliny, have placed Busir several miles too far to the northward, nearer to the Pyramids of Giza than to those of Saccara. As it is highly important to rectify the errors of writers of such eminence, we are somewhat surprised that these circumstances are not pointed out by the editor in bis notes.


In the first chapter of his second book, the author (as we have before stated) treats of the Rise of the Nile, the causes of its increase, ami the laws by which it appears to be regulated. The momentous importance of this subject to the welfare of Egypt clearly appears from the second and third chapters; in which Abdollatiph details with great minuteness the melancholy history of a famine, occasioned by a failure in the usual increase of the Nile, which occurred during his own resideuce in Egypt. The same cause, indeed, in this extraordinary country, has in every age produced similar effects; and the narrative of Abdollatiph cannot fail to recall the attention of the serious reader to that farvine recorded in the Book cf Genesis, which, under the direction of Divine Providence, prepared the way for such stupendous events, by inducing the Patriarch Jacob and his sons to take up their residence in Egypt. When we recollect that the produce of the land is here always proportioned to the overflowing of the Nile, we cannot but remark with what matchless simplicity, and at the same time with what strict propriety and truth, the scene of Pharaoh's dream is laid by the river, while both the fat and lean kine are emphatically represented as coming up out of it, and fteding o.n its banks.—And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, in my dream, beheld I stood upon the brink of the river* And behold, there came up cut of the river seven kine, fat-fleshed, and well-favoured, and they fed in a meadow. And behold, seven other kine came up after them, poor, and very ill-favoured, and lean fleshed, such ,is I never saw in all the land of Egypt f-r badness. And the lean and the ill-favoured tine did eat up the first seven fat kine. And when they had eaten them up, it coil Id not be known that they had eaten tht-tn; but they were still ill favoured as at the beginning. So I awoke. And I saw in my dream, and behold, seven ears came up in one stalk, full and good. And behold seven ears •withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them. And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears.And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, the dream of Pharaoh is one \ God hath shelved Pharaoh what he is about to do. The seven good kine are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years: the dream is one. And the seven thin and ill-favoured line, that came up afttr them, are seven years; and the seven empty ears, blasted with the east wind, shall be seven years of famine.

The famine, and the pestilence which ensued, of which Ab-* dollatiph has so forcibly described the direful effects, were accompanied with peculiar horrors; and history, whether sacred or profane, no where exhibits to our view a more dreadful picture of calamities and crimes. The narrative of the present author bears every internal mark and character of truth; and the judicious critic will not hesitate a moment in admitting ks authenticity, though the facts which it records were before altogether unknown to the European world. Fortunately, we have it in our power to adduce one testimony in support of the narrative of Abdollatiph, which, as it is neither cited nor mentioned in the notes, has evidently eluded the inquiries of the learned and laborious editor. This testimony is that of Elmacin, in his Universal History; a part only of which was published by Erpenius, under the title of Historic Snracenica. The following passage, of which we subjoin an English translation, we have had an opportunity of copying from a MS. of that part of the work of Elmacin which still remains unpublished:

jjjl^a ^j/JiwJ^ »<XA Jj

Xj^ax* 3u»#cL V^)' J-^=> f^**^ Qi)

CL,yU! i^UJi ut**" o* V0^1

juAl 1>Xi=!j f*AX>' L>oxj ^aoxj

(J^>!^*JIJ -L«J1 " f£* //jw^ jwr (597) there tvas a great dearth over the land of Egypt, so that a measure of wheat called an Irdab was sold for five Egyptian Dinars. And this distress continued nearly three years ; and men were so destitute of sustenance, that they were compelled to eat each other, and even their own children, and to feed on animals that perished. Great multitudes therefore of people, with their children and servants, emigrated to Syria, and the coasts of the sea."

As specimens of the narrative of Abdollatiph, we shall here select two or three passages, of which we shall venture to give an •English translation; adhering to the spirit rather than the letter of the original. The limits of our Review do not permit us to make larger extracts, but we earnestly recommend to our readers a perusal of the whole story, horrible as it is; and we recommend it not merely with the view of gratifying a laudable curiosity, but because it has a most powerful tendency to humble our pride, by demonstrating our constant dependence on the bounty of Providence; by teaching us that even the gifts of Nature, as they are called, are not more permanent than those of Fortune; and by reminding us that what has happened to others may possibly happen to ourselves.

Page 212. 'When first the poor began to feed upon human flesh, stories of this kind went abroad, and formed the universal subject of discourse; while every one ekpressed the utmost horror and aversion at the crime, and astonishment at its novelty. These sensations were afterward worn out by the force of example, and the calls of hunger; the practice became familiar; and human flesh was sought

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