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this we refer those who entertain doubts respecting the person to whom should be adjudged the honour of having first discovered America.
The preface of the translator contains both information and entertainment: fout it likewise displays some partialities. He reprehends, with justice, however, the uniqualifical abuse bestowed on his author by M. de Pauw. He has accompanied PigaFETTA's account of the voyage with useful notes, and also with two charts of modern construction : the one a general chart, comprehending the whole space traversed by the first circumnavigators; the other, a chart of the Magellanic struit.
Art. VI. Observations et Expériences, &c. ; i.e. Observations and
Experiments on Inoculation for the Cow-pox. By John De Carro, M. D. 8vo. Pp. 216. Vienna. 1801. This tract is written concisely, methodically, and in a plain
unaffected style ; and we think that it will not a little contribute to establish the credit of the vaccine inoculation throughout the Continent. The author divides his subject into 16 chapters, wbich follow in a natural progressive order, and mutually reflect light both on what precedes and what follows.
Chap. . consists of general remarks on the denominations which have been given to that cow-malady which is the subject of the work.' In England, where it was first discovered, it has been commonly called the Cow.pox, or Variola vaccinæ ; while the French and Italians have adopted a similar term, Petite verole des vaches, and variole vaccine : but some men of eminence in the medical science deem this an incongruous appellation ; since the cow-pex (or cow.pock, as Dr. Pearson calls it,) is of a different species from the variola. They would therefore have it denominated simply vaccina, the vaccine : in which Dr. De CARRO coincides.
In Chap. II. we have a History of the Discovery of the Vaccina: but, as most of our readers are well acquainted with this discovery, we pass over this part, only remarking that the author has given a faithful and concise abridgment from the Doctors Jenner and Pearson.
Chap. III. Of the Origin of the Vaccina. This, in theory, is now become a question which only time and a long serics of observations can ultimately resolve. Dr. Jenner and his disciples maintain that the vaccing has not its origin in the cow, but in the malady of horses called the grease, in French javart, and in German mauke. Dr. Jenner's argument was, that the malady never appears among the cows unless the milkers have been accustomed to dress horses which had the grease : but 13
some occurrences have since happened, and some experiments have been made, which render this hypothesis doubtful; and 'we suspect that it will finally he found erroneous. Meanwhile, observations should be made in all nations, particularly where there is no communication between horses and cows; and where the latter are never milked by those who have the care of the former.
Chap. IV. Description of the Vaccina. This account is de. duced from the Doctor's own observations, and coincides exactly with that which has been given by our Vaccinists. A neatly engraven plate accompanies this description ; by which any person may readily distinguish the genuine vaccina from the spurious, as well as from every species of variola.
In Chap. y. the Doctor agitates the questions: Whether it be possible to have the genuine vaccine twice? And whether it can take place after the common small-pox? With respect to the first of these queries, Dr. Jenner has clearly given his opinion that the same person may have more than once a local and general vaccine. The farmers consulted by Dr. Pearson varied in their accounts. Some wrote to him that they had known examples of a repetition of the cow-pox in the same person : while others affirmed it to be impossible: but all concurred in saying that the cow herself never bad it a second time. This question, then, seems yet undecided.-The other question is of more importance : for, if, as Dr. Jenner asserts, a person may have the vaccine after having had the small-pox, the application of the principle in medical practice, to which that gentleman alludes, might not be impossible : but, from all the accounts that have yet been given, and from all the observations that have been made, it does not evidently appear that any person, who really had taken the small-pox, as certainly received the vaccine malady afterward. On the whole, the present author concludes, with Dr. Pearson, that a person cannot twice have the vaccine, nor the vaccine after the small-pox.
Chap. VI. Is the vaccine contagious without inoculation ?-Nothing appears more certain to Dr. De CARRO, than the negative of this proposition.
Chap. VII. Is it difficult to propagate the Vaccine out of Eng. land ? The solution of this question depends on that of another : namely; Is it necessary that the vaccine matter be immediately taken from the cow ? Now, it is indubitable that this is not ne. cessary; and therefore the propagation of the vaccina may gradually be extended to the whole globe, and indeed has al.' ready made a most surprising progress. It is sufficient, then, to ascertain the primary matter taken from the cow, which loses none of its properties in the vaccinated; as has been
are so vague and uncertain, that little dependence is to be placed on them.
Chap. xv. contains various useful observations on the prace tice of Vaccine Inoculation ; which we would recommend to the serious attention of young practitioners.
The last Chapter gives a list of vaccine inoculations performed by the Doctor himself; which amount to 200, in the course of less than 7 months. Since that time, the number inoculated by him has been so prodigious' that he discontinued his register.—The Doctor concludes this chapter with some pathetic advice to physicians, parents, and pastors, to use their utmost endeavours in propagating the doctrine of Vaccine Inoculation. It is indeed of the greatest importance to make its nature and effects known throughout the world; and he must be void of all humanity, who refuses to lend his aid to the encouragement and propagation of a practice, which bids fair to extirpate one of the most dreadful among the discases that afflict mankind. We admire the conduct of the good Pastor of Brunn, who, in a letter to Dr. DE CARRO, says, " I am determined to have no more small-pox in my parish."
ART. VI. Traite de l'Inoculation Vaccine, &c.'; 1.6. A Treatise on
Vaccine Inoculation ; with the Result and Observations on this
MEYER, Court-Surgeon. With Plates. Leipzig 1801..
published in the Hanoverian Magazine, Nos. xv. and xvi., 1800: but the greatest part, we are told by the authors, is entirely new, and in their opinion of the highest importance. In the preface, these gentleman cite the authority of Mr. Fosbrooke, whom they call a physician *, and who is said to have operated in Jan, 1800, that, of a thousand subjects inoculated for the vaccine disease, not one cure occurred which was at. tended with eruptions. This, the authors allege, is strong in favor of the idea that the vaccine matter is different in London from that which is in the country, in opposition to the opinion of Dr. Pearson; who maintains, they say, that
* If Mr. Fosbrooke, who is a clergyman, and not a physician, could furnish 1ooo instances of inoculation with vaccine-matter in Jas. 1800, he must have been a more active and courageous practitioner than any of the faculty at that time : for, except Dr. Jenner's ori. ginal (we think 7 or 8) cases, published in 1798, we heard of no more till 1799, and those chiefly in or near London.
no such difference exists: At Vienna, Dr. de Carro, (see the preceding article,) in 100 inoculated persons, observed no eruptions; nor did they occur among 150 more inoculated at Paris : while at Hanover, of 10 inoculated, 8 or y had subsequent eruptions, which sometimes suppurated. These suppurating pustules are said to be liable to be confounded with the smallpox, but are in fact very different. The rule given for the disa tinction is, that, if the vaccine eruption of the part inoculated be attended with a peripleric inflammation, and the eruptions on the body occur some time afterward, or be of an equivocal appearance, such eruptions on the body in general proceed undoubtedly from the vaccine disease : but, if this surrounding inflammation do not take place, and eruptions like the small pox occur, such cases must be considered as small-pox, from the rariulous infection being in the constitution previously to inoculation.
A physician at Hanover inoculated two children with the purulent matter of the eruption, subsequently to the inoculation of the cow.pock; and the genuine vaccine disease was excited, but attended with similar suppurative eruptions.
A woman near Ratzebourg, 30 years ago, had the cow. pock in her hands, which was caught in milking, and the scars remained. She had been subsequently exposed to the small-pox in nursing her own six cuildren in this disease, but did not take it.
The veterinary professor Havemann inoculated a cow in December 1800, which then gave little milk. On the oth day, 3 vesicles appeared on the inoculated part, but the matter of them produced no effect on the human subject; hence it must be inferred that the animal had not the real vaccine pock.
The above seem to be the most important observations in the preface. We next come to the body of the work. The authors began the inoculation in Hanover, in 1799, with dried matter from England, which egtirely failed; and no reliance could be placed on the matter collected from the cows in Hola land and Germany: but, since the beginning of the year 1800, the authors say that they have inoculated 500 persons, with the most complere success, by means of efficacious matter sent at that time by Drs. Jenner and Pearson. In the first instances, a difference was supposed to exist between the matter furnished by these two practicioners. That of Dr. Jenner pro. duced a much more considerable local effect in the part in. Gculated, than the matter sent by Dr. Pearson : but the lattet produced a slight eruption of pimples. On communicating the account of these different effects to Dr. Pearson, and imputing them to the difference between the London and Glocestershire App. Rev. VOL: XXXVII. li
matter, he answered that he believed that these different ef. fects would be found to be accidental, and that, on farther trial, the matter from the two sources would appear to be precisely the same, . In all cases in which the real and complete vaccine inoculation occurred, the subjects were rendered invulnerable to the variolous poison. In one case, the subject could not have the
vaccine disease excited by repeated inoculation : but the same • subject was also found to be unsusceptible of the small-pox.
The present authors are of opinion, that the Itch may be one • of the diseases of the skin which may render a person incapable of receiving the vaccine disease.
We learn that numbers were induced to undergo the vaccine inoculation during malignant epidemic small-pox: although they do not appear to have been confident that it was a preservative against this latter disease ; yet they believed it to be at least innocent.--.The partisans of the cow-pock inoculation gradually increased, from the trials already made shewing how incapable persons were of taking the small-pox subsequently, when it broke our in the families in which children lived who had gone through the vaccine disease.
On the subject of the collision or complication of the smallpox and the cow-pox, we are told that this happened when the variolous poison was already in the constitution at the time of vaccine inoculation. In three children inoculated for the vaccine disease, the small-pox appeared a few days afterward, and went on as usual, with the inoculated parts manifesting variolous instead of vaccine vesicles.
Dr. B. and M. S. rather humorously notice the opinions, that the vaccine pock only prevents the small-pox for a limited time: but they differ as to the term of the incapability. Some say that it lasts two years ; others five; and others again more hardily affirm that it continues for ten years. From the slightness of the vaccine disease, the objection to it on the score of the unsusceptibility not being permanent seems to have some foundation : but we must on this point rest assured, from fact of persons having gone through the cow-pock 30 or 40 years past, and not being at this time susceptible of the smallpox, that the security is permanent. The epidemic small-pox in Hanover, August 1800, we are told, carried off one child out of five who had that disease, and induced the inhabitants to inoculate for the vaccine.
The authors next depict the progress of the agency of the infectious matter, from the day of the inoculation through the stages of pimple, vesicle, and desiccation, with surrounding inflammation of the skin, up to the 14th day. They also enter