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author from Mentz prevented him from making more numerous and more satisfactory experiments.

On the Passage of Mercury over the Sun, observed on the 18th Floréal, 7th Year. By M. DELAMBRE.— A long paper, full of difficult computations, which are interesting only to astrono

mers. R.W.

Medical and CHEMICAL PAPERS.
Inquiries concerning the Laws of Affinity. By M. BERTHOLLET.
I -We have here a learned and valuable memoir, which is after-
,' ward augmented by two supplementary papers: bụt it would be

useless to attempt an abridgement of it which would be adapi-
ed to the limits of our work; because such an abstract could
not satisfy our chemical readers, while others would naturally
complain of its dryness and prolixity.

Chemical Reflections on the Use of the Oxides of Iron in dying Cotton. By M. CHAPTAL.- This active chemist here observes, first, that the affinity of cotton for oxide of iron is so great, that it immediately separates the particles of the latter which may be suspended in any solution ; and that the solution becomes gradually transparent, in proportion as the cotton assumes the yellow colour of the oxide. This colour, however, although at first agreeable, is rendered coarse and ochraceous by exposure to the air, from the progressive oxidation of the metal. As the colour arising from oxide of iron is very fixed, and is not liable to alteration from air, water, alkaline lixivia, or soap, it has always been much esteemed by Dyers. These artists in ge. neral make a mystery of the acid which they use as the menstruum : but the acetous, sulphuric, nitric, or muriatic acids may be employed for this purpose ; although the acetous and piher vegetable acids are in some measure preferable, because they do not injure the texture of the stuff, which frequently happens when the mineral acids are used.

The oxidation of iron appears to be equal in the various acid menstrua, since all of them produce the same shade of colour on the stuff which is dyed: if, therefore, the properties of the ferruginous salts be fully understood, so that certain inconve. niencies may be prevented, any qf the acid solutions can be employed in the process of dying. · After these preliminary remarks, M. CHAPTAL describes several modes of communicating buff, violet, and some other colours, to cotton, which appear to be very useful : but, for the particulars, we must necessarily refer to the original paper,

On refining Lead on a large scale. By M. DUHAMEL.. The author first remarks that the metallurgical process, (by

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which silver is separated from lead,) called refining, or cup. pellation, is well known. This operation is performed in a bason, or other vessel, made of burnt bones, or the ashes of vegetables which have been previously deprived of saline matter by washing. The great quantity of wood ashes, required for the construction of these vessels or cuppels, and the difficulty of procuring wood ashes, induced M. DUHAMEL to endeavour to find some more simple and less expensive means of forming these basons; and he shews that sand may be employed for this purpose in the large way, provided that the lead, instead of being so much vitrified as to be imbibed by the cuppel, be simply converted into litharge, which is to be progressively removed by bellows and other means, until the silver remains nearly in a state of purity. M. DUHAMEL is convinced that this mode of proceeding may be adopted with very great ada vantage.

Essay on the Analysis and Recomposition of the two fixed Alkalis, and of some of the Earths which are reputed to be simple or primitive. By M.M. GUYTON and DESORMES.- The contents of this paper appear to have been so satisfactorily refuted by M. Darracq, in a Memoir published in the Annales de Chimic *, (Tome 40, p. 171), that we deem it unnecessary to trouble our readers with the particulars of it.

Second Memoir on the Use of Mercurials in the Small-Pox. By M. DESESSARTZ. - In the former paper on this subject, (see M. R. vol. xxxv. N. S. p. 531.) the author concluded that mercury, given in the small-pox before the attack, and in the course of the disease, when complicated either with the lues venerea or with herpetic eruptions, not only was not hurtful, but mitigated the usual severity of the small-pox. In the present memoir, he attempts to confirm his former conclusions by additional cases of small-pox supervening on the lues venerea and herpetic eruptions, under the influence of mercury. In one of these cases, the mother and the infant at the breast were in a state of mercurial salivation when the small-pox supervened in the infant, who had this disease in a regular and mild manner, — The writer quotes the observations of Malouin, Poissonier, Rosenstein, Lowe, Roussel, Van Woenzel, Gouillart, Grassius, Boerahave, &c. to evince the power of mercury in mitigating the small-pox : but the preventive powers of this drug cannot be proved by evidence.

Third Memoir on the Utility of Mercurial Preparations in the Treatment of the Small-Pox. By the Same.-M. DESESSARTZ * See a subsequent Article in this Appendix, p. 524-5.

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here continues his account of cases, in order to shew the utility of mercurial preparations in the small-pox; and he explains his method of employing mercury as a preparation for inoculating, or for mitigating the natural small-pox.

His mercurial preparation consists of calomel, with double its weight of jalap, iris root, and sugar, triturated together. It is administered so as to purge daily, both before the invasion of the small-pox, and on its attack, to the time of complete suppuration,

The well-informed English Physician will perceive nothing new in the above memoirs ; and he will demur to the opinion that the treatment recommended operated by any specific action of mercury: deeming it more reasonable to impute the good effects produced, to the removal of irritating matter from the stomach and bowels by purging.

Memoir on the Changes which take place in the Organs of Circulation in the Fætus, when it has begun to breathe. By M. SABATIER.-Instead of adopting the general idea that the blood passes from the right auricle to the left, and from the left to the right, this author thinks that all the blood of the vena cava inferior passes into the left auricle, and the blood of the vena cava superior into the right auricle; whence it would follow that, in the foetus, all the blood returns nearly as in the adult before it commences its course, and traverses the aorta. To explain why, after birth, the blood ceases to pass through the foramen ovale, from the right to the left side; and why the canalis arteriosus, and the umbilical arteries, are closed ; is the object attempted in the present memoir, by an observation which has escaped anatomists, viz. the structure of the aorta as it goes off from the left ventricle: but for this anatomical explanation, we must refer to the paper itself.

Inquiries concerning the Cause of Umbilical Rupture at the Time of Birth. By Pierre Lassus.- A hernia at the umbilicus, formed at birth, is a rare occurrence ; and it is seldom curable, unless it be slight, and has been formed a short time before birth. If the tumor be small, and still covered with peritoneum, and with the aponeurosis which forms the linea alba, it is possible to make a radical cure, and no strangulation is to be apprehended : but it will often gradually reduce itself. The hernia is sometimes formed in the first month of pregnancy ; and the great size of the liver is supposed to be the chief cause of this affection.

NATURAL HISTORY.
On a new Methodical Table of the Classes of Birds. By M,
LACÉPÈDE.-This well-known and ingenious naturalist, hav-

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ing for a course of years been employed in examining and comparing together the vast collection of birds in the National Museum of Natural History, was convinced of the necessity of a new classification of these animals, by which they might be arranged with more precision and simplicity. He commences with noticing the form of their feet and claws, observing that it is the organization of these parts which determines their habitudes. The construction of their feet (says he) directs them to seek their place of refuge on the tops of wrees, in low bushes, on the dry ground, in dirty marshes, on overflowed banks, or on lakes and seas: we also farther perceive that the manner of attack and defence, and the nature of the aliment, preferred by birds, have a relation to the form and characters of their feet. The beak, or bill, is the next object of attention : then the form of the head; and the varieties in the tinges of the plumage are directed to be arranged in the order of the prismatic colours.--By M. LACÉFÈDE's new method, the two thousand five hundred and thirty-six kinds of birds, already known to naturalists, are distributed into two classes (sous-classes), four divisions, nine subdivisions, forty . orders, and one hundred and thirty genera. A table, drawn up according to this new mode of classification, is given at the end of the memoir, and its merit will be obvious to natu. ralists.

Pursuing the ideas suggested in this paper, M. LACÉPÈDE submits to the Institute, in a subsequent lecture, a memoir, containing

A new methodical Table of Animals which suckle their Young (des animaux à mamelles). According to this table, the four hundred and twenty mammifères already known are distributed into three divisions, ten subdivisions, twenty-two orders, and eighty-four genera. This method of arrangement is also minutely illustrated by an annexed table ; the first grand division of which includes the mammifères without membraneous wings or fins, or quadrupedes properlys so called; these are subdivided, ist, into quadrumanes, or animals having the four feet in the form of hands; 2d, into pedimanes, the hind feet in the form of hands; 3dly, into plantigrades, the sole of the foot divided in such a manner as to support the animal when he walks ; .. 4thly, digitigrades, fingers without hoofs; 5thly, pachydermes, the fingers inclosed in a very thick skin, or more than two hoofs; 6thly, bisulques, ok ruminans, or hoof divided in two; 7thly, solipedes, or animals with only one or an undivided hoof. The second grand division is of mammifères with membranous wings; the cheiroptéres, or the fore-feet furnished with mem· branes in the form of wings. The third, of empétrés, or ani.

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mals with the hind feet in the form of fins; and of the cétacées, or animals with no hind feet.

Our readers will judge, from this abstract, of the system on which this arrangement is conducted.

We have now gone through the volume appropriated to the Mathematical and Physical Sciences; and in our next Appendix we hope to furnish our readers with an account of the other two volumes of this series.

Jee puves 89,519,510

570 ART. XV. Annales de Chimie ; i.e. Chemical Annals. Nos. 118

-123. 8vo. Paris. 1802. Imported by De Boffe, London. N ew Experiments on the Spontaneous Motions of different Sub.

V stances, when approached by or in contact with each other. By M. B. PREVOST, &c. &c.—This paper is intended as a reply to that which was published on the same subject in the 37th volume of these Annals by Dr. Carradori. In the first series of these experiments, M. PREVOST relates the effects observed when æther or camphor were placed on water or quicksilver; and, in a second series, he shews that similar effects may in some cases be produced without the assistance of odorous, oily, or volatile substances.- From the whole of the experiments, he concludes :

1. That the spontaneous motions of certain bodies are produced by an invisible fluid.

2. That the more odorous bodies pussess this property to the greatest degree, and therefore that it is not confined (as Dr. Carradori asserts) to oily or resinous substances.

3dly, That all liquids have the property of repelling one another, when placed under certain circumstances.

Observations on the Substitution of peeled or pearl Barley for Rice. By M. PARMENTIER.–The author strongly recommends the use of peeled barley in all public establishments, as well as in private houses, on the score both of oeconomy and salubrity.

Observations on the Affinity which the Earths exert on each other. By M. DARRACQ:—This chemist, having repeated, with great care, the experiments made on the earths by M. Guyton, considers himself authorized to conclude that the greater part of the phænomena, observed by that gentleman, were occasioned by impurities contained in the substances which he employed in his experiments.

Remarks on the Observations made by M. Paisse, and published in No. 117 of the Chemical Annals, on Barytes and Strontites;

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