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.Honi soit que mal y pense;" surmounted by a crown. The imprint -New-York : Printed by John Zenger, in Stone-Street, near Fort George; Where Advertisements are taken in at a moderate rate.”
John Zenger published this paper until about 1752, when it was discontinued, but in 1766, the title was revived by John Holt.*
The Gazette which attained the greatest notoriety during the Revolutionary War was published by James Rivington, New-York, and was at first entitled Rivington's New-York Gazetteer; or, The Connecticut, New-Jersey, Hudson's
River, and Quebec Weekly Advertiser. This Gazette commenced its career April 22, 1773, on a large medium sheet folio. It was printed, weekly, on Thursday; and when it had been established one year, this imprint followed the title, “ Printed at his EvER OPEN and uninfluenced press, fronting Hanover-Square.” A large cut of a ship under sail was at first introduced into the title, under which were the words “New York Packet.” This cut soon gave place to one of a smaller size. In November, 1774, the ship was removed, and the king's arms took the place of it. In August, 1775, the words “ Ever open and uninfluenced” were omitted in the imprint.
The Gazetteer was patronized in all the principal towns by the advocates of the British adıninistration who approved the measures adopted toward the colonies ; and it undoubtedly had some support from “his Majesty's government." The paper obtained an extensive circulation, but eventually paid very litile respect to “ the majesiy of the people ; and, in consequence, the paper and its publisher soon became obnoxious to the whigs.
Rivington continued the Gazetteer until November 27, 1775, on which day a number of armed men from Connecticut entered the city, on horseback, and beset his habitation, broke into his printing house, destroyed his press, threw his types into heaps and carried away a large quantity of them, which they melted and formed into bullets. A stop was thus put to the Gazetteer.
Soon after this event, Rivington went to England, where he supplied himself with a new printing apparatus, and was appointed king's printer for Newyork. After the British gained possession of the city, he returned; and, on October 4, 1777, re-commenced the publication of his Gazette under the original title, but in two weeks, he exchanged that title, for the following, “Rivington's New-York Loyal Gazette," and on the 13th of December following, he called his paper “The Royal Gazette.” Imprint—“Published liy James Rivington, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty." The Royal Gazette was numbered as a continuation of the Gazetteer, and Loyal Gazette, and was published on Wednesdays and Saturdays; printed on a sheet of royal size, with the royal arms in the title.
First Newspaper in Rhode Island.- Although the press had been established many years in Connecticut before it was introduced into Rhode Island, yet a newspaper was published twenty years earlier in Rhode Island, than in Connecticut. This paper was entitled “ The Rhode Island Gazette," and was first published Sept. 27th, 1732. The day of publication was Wednesday; the imprint, “ Newport, Rhode Island: Printed and sold by James Franklin, at his PrintingHouse, under the Town-School-House, where Advertisements, and
* In The New-York Journal, of February 25, 1751, is the following advertisement.
“My country subscribers are earnestly desired to pay their arrearages for this Journal, which if they don't speedily, I shall leave off sending, and seek my money another way. Some of these kind customers are in arrears upwards of seven years ! Now as I have served them so long, I think it is time, ay, and high time too, that they give me my outset ; for they may verily believe that my every-day cloathes are al
N. B. Gentlemen, If you have not ready money with you, still think of the Printer, and when you have read this advertisement and considered it, you cannot but say, Come Daine, (especially you inquisitive wedded men, let the Batchelors take it to themselves) let us send the poor Printer a few Gammons or some Meal, some Butter, Cheese, Poultry, &c. In the mean time I am yours, &c.
most worn out.
Letters to the Author are taken in." This paper continued but seven months. “ The Newport Mercury” was first published about Septem ber, 1758, and gained a permanent establishment. It was printed by James Franklin, afterwards by Mrs. Franklin and Samuel Hall. In 1768, Hall resigned the Mercury to Solomon Southwick. During the Revolutionary War, while the British troops possessed Newport, Southwick set up a press in Attleborough, Massachusetts, and published the Mercury at that place. He returned to Newport on its evacuation by the enemy, and during the revolutionary contest conducted the Mercury with ability and patriotic zeal. “The Providence Gazette, and Country Journal" was first published Oct. 20th, 1762, by William Goddard. In 1769, William and Sarah Goddard resigned their right in the Gazette to John Carter. This was the only paper in Providence previous to the Revolution.
First Printing in Connecticut.—The first printing press in Connecticut, was set up by Thomas Short, at New London, in 1709. recommended by Bartholomew Green, who at that time printed at Boston, and from whom he probably learned the art of printing. In 1710, lie printed “The Saybrook Platform of Church Discipline," which is said to be the first book printed in the colony. After the Platform, he printed a number of Sermons and sundry pamphlets on religious subjects, and was employed by the Governor and Company to do the work for the colony. He died at New London, three or four years after his settlement there. The next printer was Timothy Green, grandson of Samuel Green, senior, of Cambridge. Having received an invitation from the Council and Assembly of Connecticut, he removed from Boston to New London, in 1714, and was appointed printer to the Governor and Company, on a salary of fifty pounds per
It was stipulated that for this sum he should print the election sermons, proclamations, and the laws which should be enacted by the Assembly. Besides the work of the Government, Green printed a number of pamphlets on religious subjects, particularly ser
It has been said of him, that whenever he heard a sermon which he highly approved, he would solicit a copy of the author, and print it for his own sales. This honest zeal, however, often prored injurious to his estate. Large quantities of these sermons lay on hand as dead stock; and after his decease, they were put into baskets, appraised by the bushel, and sold under the value of common waste paper.
The first newspaper in Connecticut was “The Connecticut Gazette," which made its first appearance January 1st, 1755. It was printed at New Haven, by James Parker and Company. John Holt was the editor and junior partner of the firm, till he removed to New York in 1760. Thomas Green was then employed by the company to conduct the Gazette. By the establishment of post riders at this period, to the seat of war at the northward, and to several parts of the colony, this paper, at this time, had a considerable circulation. It was continued by Parker & Co. till 1764, when it was suspended for a short time, but was afterwards revived by Benjamin Mecom a
nephew of Dr. Franklin. It was discontinued in 1767, and in October of the same year, “ The Connecticut Journal and New Haven Post Boy" was first published, by Thomas and Samuel Green.
The New London Summary, the second paper in Connecticut, was first published by the second Timothy Green, Aug. 8th, 1758, and was continued till 1763, when it was succeeded by the “ New London Gazette,” which in Dec. 1773, was entitled “ The Connecticut Gazette." “ The Connecticut Courant," the third paper in Connecticut, was first published in Hartford, December, 1764, by Thomas Green. The paper was published next by Ebenezer Watson, then by Watson & Goodwin, and in 1779, by Hudson & Goodwin. This was one of the most respectable papers in the State, and is still continued. “ The Norwich Packet,” the first paper in that place, was commenced in Oct. 1773,“ Printed by Alexander Robertson, James Robertson, and John Trumbull.” The Packet was continued by this company until June, 1776, when Trumbull became the sole publisher, and conLinued it with various alterations till his death in 1802.
First Newspapers in New Hampshire.--A press having been established in Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, by Daniel Fowle, from Boston, he, in Aug. 1756, began to publish “ The New Hampshire Gazette,” the first paper in the province. The following is the imprint. “ Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, Printed by Daniel Fowle, where this paper may be had at one Dollar per annum : or Equivalent in Bills of Credit, computing a Dollar this year at Four Pounds Old Tenor.”—The second newspaper was “ The Portsmouth Mercury and Weekly Advertiser," and was tirst published Jan. 21st, 1765. Imprint,
Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, Printed by Thomas Furber, at the New Printing Office, near the Parade, where this paper may be had for one Dollar, or Six Pounds, 0. T. per year ; one half to be paid at Entrance." The third newspaper which appeared in New Hampshire, was issued in Exeter, in 1775, published by Robert Fowle ; it was continued irregularly under various titles.
First Printing in New Jersey.—The first newspaper in this colony, was “ The New Jersey Gazette,” first published, Dec. 3d, 1777, at Burlington. It was printed weekly, on Wednesday, with a good long primer type, and on a sheet of crown paper, folio. Imprint—Burlington : Printed by Isaac Collins. All Persons may be supplied with this Gazette for Twenty Six Shillings per Annum. Advertisements of a moderate Length are inserted for Seven Shillings and Six Pence the first Week, and Two Shillings and Sixpence for every continuance; and long Ones in Proportion.” This paper was neatly printed, and well conducted. Its publisher, although of the society of friends, was a firm supporter of the rights of his country; and he carefully avoided publishing any thing which tended to injure the religious, civil, or political interests of his fellow citizens. It was discontinued in 1786.
After the American stamp act was passed by the British parliament, and near the time it was to be put in operation, a political paper was privately printed at Burlington, which attracted much notice. It was entitled "The Constitutional Gazette, containing Matters interesting to Liberty—but no wise repugnant to Loyalty.” Imprint—"Printed by An
drew Marvel, at the Sign of the Bribe refused, on Constitution-Hill, North America." In the centre of the title was a device of a snake, cut into parts, to represent the colonies. Motto—“ Join or Die.” After the title, followed an address to the public from the fictitious printer and publisher, Andrew Marvel. This paper was without date, but was printed in September, 1765. It contained several well written and spirited essays against the obnoxious stamp act, which were so highly colored, that the editors of newspapers in Newyork, even Holt, declined to publish them.
A large edition was printed, secretly forwarded to Newyork, and there sold by hawkers selected for the purpose. It had a rapid sale, and was, I believe, reprinted there, and at Boston. It excited some commotion in Newyork, and was taken notice of by government. A council was called, and holden at the fort in that city, but as no discovery was made of the author or printer, nothing was done. One of the council demanded of a hawker named Samuel Sweeney, “ where that incendiary paper was printed?” Sweeney, as he had been instructed, answered, “ At Peter Hassenclever's iron-works, please your honor.” Peter Hassenclever was a wealthy German, well known as the owner of extensive iron-works in Newjersey. Afterward, other publications of a like kind frequently appeared with an imprint.—" Printed at Peter Hassenclever's iron-works.” Only one number of the Constitutional Gazette was published ; a continuance of it was never intended. It was printed by William Goddard, at Parker's printing honse at BurlingtonGoddard having previously obtained Parker's permission occasionally to use his press.
The above map of the country in the vicinity of Boston, is a close copy of part of a map of New England, published in the New Memorial in 1667, and it is believed to have been the first map ever engraved in this country
COINAGE, BILLS OF CREDIT, &c.
['The following, relative to the first coinage in this country, and the emission of bills of credit in New England, is extracted principally from Gov. Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts.]
About 1650, “ the trade of the
province increasing, especially 1652
with the West Indies where the XII
bucaneers or pirates at this time were numerous, and part of the wealth which they took from the
Spaniards as well as what was produced by the trade being brought to New England in bullion, it was thought necessary for preventing fraud in money to erect a mint for coining shillings, six-pences and three-pences, with no other impression at first than N E on the one side and XII. VI. or III, on the other, but in October 1651, the court ordered that all pieces of money should have a double ring with this inscription, MASSACHUSETTS, and a tree in the centre on one side, and NEW ENGLAND and the year of our Lord one the other side.
The first money being struck in 1652 the same date was continued upon all that was struck for 30 years after, and although there are a great variety of dies, it cannot now be determined in what years the pieces were coined. No other colony ever presumed to coin any metal into money. It must be considered that at this time there was no King in Israel. No notice was taken of it by the parliament nor by Cromwell, and having been thus indulged, there was a tacit allowance of it afterwards even by King Charles the 2d. for more than 20 years, and although it was made one of the charges against the colony when the charter was called in question, yet no great stress was laid upon it. It appeared to have been so beneficial, that during Sir Edmund Andross's administration endeavors were used to obtain leave for continuing it, and the objections against it seem not to have proceeded from its being an encroachment upon the prerogative, for the motion was referred to the master of the mint and the report against it was upon meer prudential considerations. It is certain that great
care was taken to preserve the purity of the coin. I don't find, not· withstanding, that it obtained a currency any where, otherwise than as
bullion, except in the New England colonies. A very large sum was coined. The mint master John Hull raised a large fortune from it. He was to coin the money, of the just allay of the then new sterling English money, and for all charges which should attend melting, refining and coining he was to be allowed to take fifteen pence out of every twenty shillings. The court were afterwards sensible that this was too advantageous a contract, and Mr. Hull was offered a sum of money by the court to release them from it but he refused to do it. He left a large personal estate and one of the best real estates in the country. Samuel Sewall who married his only daughter, received