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fulfil the public contracts which Congress had together with the conclufive reasons which iny undoubtedly a right to make for the purpose of duced me, at an early period, to recommend the carrying on the war, with the same good faith as adoption of this mealure in the moft earnest and we suppole vurselves bound to perform our pri- serious manuer. As the proceedings of Congress vate engagements. In the mean time let an at- the army, and myself, are open to all, and cons tention to the chearful performance of their pro- tain, in my opinion, fufficient information to per business, as individuals, and as members of remove the prejudice and errors which may have fociety, be carneftly inculcated on the citizens of been entertained by any, I think it unneceilary America: then will they strengthen the hands of to say any thing more, than just to obterve, that government, and be happy under it's protection, the resolutions of Congress, now alluded to, arg Every one will reap the fruit of his labours; as undoubtedly and abiolutely binding upon the every one will enjoy his own acquisitions, with United States, as the most folema acts of con out molestation, and without danger.
federation or legislation. In this state of absolute freedom and perfect As to the idea which, I am informed, has in security, who will grudge to yield a very little of some instances prevailed, that the halfhis property to support the common interest of commutation are to be regarded merely in the society, and ensure the protection of government? odious light of a pension, it ought to be exploded Who does not remember the frequent declara- for ever. That provision should be viewed, as i tion., at the commencement of the war, that really was, a reatonable compensati in offered by we should be complearly satisfied, if at the ex- Congress, at a time when they had nothing elie to pence of one half, we could defer.d the remainder give, to officers of the army, for services them of our poífeffions? Where is the man to be found, to be performed; it was the only means to prewho wishes to remain indebted, for the defence of vent a total dereliation of the service: it was a his own person and property, to the exertions, the part of their hire; I may be allowed to say, it bravery, and the blood of others, without making was the price of their blood, and of your inde, one generous effort to repay the debt of honour pendency. It is, therefore, more than a common and of gratitude: In what part of the Continent debt; it is a debt of honour: it can never be con thall we find any man, or body of men, who fidered as a penfion or gratuity, nor cancellco would not blush to stand up, and propose mea. until it is fairly discharged, sures purposely calculated to rob the soldier of With regard to the distinction between officers his ftipend, and the public creditor of his due? and toldiers, it is sufficient that the uniform exa And were it poffible that such a flagrant instance perience of every nation of the world, combined of injustice could ever happen, would it not excite with our own, proves the utility and propriety of the general indignation, and tend to bring down,
the discrimination. Rewards, in proportion to the upon the authors of such measures, the aggra- aids the public draws from them, are unquestions vated vengeance of Heaven? If, after all, a fpiritably due to all it's servants. In forne lines, the of disunion, or a temper of obstinacy and per- soldiers have perhaps generally had as .ample yerfeness, should manifest itse:f in any of the compensation for their services, by the large States; if such an ungracious disposition should bounties which have been paid them, as their ofattempt to frustrate all the happy effects that ficers will receive in the proposed commutation; might be expected to flow from the union; if there in others, if, besides the donation of land, the thould be a refusal to comply with requifitions payment of arrearages of clothing and wages, (ią for funds to discharge the annual interest of the which articles all the component parts of the ar: public debts, and if that refusal should revive all my must be put upon the same footing) we take those jealousies, and produce all those evils, which into the estimate the bounties many of the fola are now happ:ly removed; Congress, who have diers have received, and the gratuity of one year's in all their transactions thewn a great degree of full pay, which is promised to all, posibly their magnanimity and justice, will stand justified in situation (every circumstance being duly condthe fight of God and man; and that State alone, dered) will not be deemed less eligible than that which puts itself in opposition to the aggregate of the officers. Should a farther reward, how. wisdom of the Continent, and follows such mis- ever, be judged equitable, I will venture to affert, taken and pernicious councils, will be responsible no man will enjoy greater satisfaction than myfor all the consequences.
self, an exemption from taxes for a limited time, For my own part, conscious of having acted, (which has been petitioned for in some instances) while a servant of the public, in the manner i or any other adequate immunity or compensation conceived best suited to promote the real interests granted to the brave defenders of their country's of my country; having, in consequence of my cause: but neither the adoption or rejection of fixed belief, in some measure, pledged myself to this proposition will, in any manner effect, much the army, that their country would finally do less militate against, the act of Congress, by which them compleat and ample justice, and not wish- they have offered five years full pay, in lieu of ing to conceal any instance of my official conduct the half-pay for life, which had been before profrom the eyes of the world, I have thought pro
mised to the officers of the army. per to transmit to your excellency the inclosed Before I conclude the subject of public justice, collection of papers, relative to the half-pay and I cannot omit to mention the obligations this commutation granted by Congress, to the officers country is under to that meritorious class of veteof the army: from these communications, my rans, the non-commiffioned officers and privates, decided sentiment will be clearly comprehended, who bave been discharged for inability, in con
sequence of the resolution of Congress, of the than a deficiency of means in the particular 23d of April 1782, on an annual pension for life; States: that the inefficacy of measures, arising their peculiar sufferings, their fingular merits, and from the want of an adequate authority in the claims to that provision, need only to be known, supreme power, from a partial compliance with to interest the feelings of humanity in their be- the requisitions of Congress in fome of the States, half: nothing but a punctual payment of their and from a failure of punctuality in others, while annual allowance can rescue them from the most they tended to damp the zeal of those who were complicated misery; and nothing could be a more more willing to exert themselves, served also to melancholy and distrefsing light, than to behold accumulate the expences of the war, and to fruf. those who have shed their blood, or lost their trate the best-concerted plans; and that the dislimbs, in the service of their country, without a couragement occafioned by the complicated dif. shelter, without a friend, and without the means ficulties and embarrassmenis, in which our afof obtaining any of the comforts or necesiaries of tairs were by this means involved, would have long life, compelled to beg ther daily bread from ago produced the dissolution of any army, leis door to door. Suffer me to recommend those of patient, Jess virtuous, and less perlevering, than this description, belonging to your State, to the that which I have had the honour to command. warmest patronage of your excellency and your But while I mention those things which are noto. legislature.
rious facts, as the defects of our fæderal conlli. It is necessary to say but a few words on the tution, particularly in the prosecution of a war, third topic which was proposed, and which re- I beg it may be understood, that as I have ever gards particularly the defence of the Republic. taken a pleasure in gratefully acknowledging As there can be little doubt but Congress will the assistance and support I have derived from recommend a proper peace-establishment, for the every class of citizens; so thall I always be happy United States, in which a due attention will be to do justice to the unparalleled exertions of the paid to the importance of placing the militia of individual States, on many interesting occasions. the union upon a regular and respectable footing; I have thus freely disclosed what I wilhed to if this should be the care, I should beg leave to urge make known before I surrendered up my public the great advantage of it in the strongest terms. trust to those who committed it to me: the task
The militia of this country must be considered is now accomplished. I now bid adieu to your as the palladium of our security, and the first excellency, as the chief magistrate of your eftectual resort in case of hoftility: it is effential, State; at the same time I bid a last farewel to therefore, that the same fyftem should pervade the cares of office, and all the employments of the whole; that the formation and discipline of public life. the militia of the Coniinent should be ablolutely It remains, then, to be my final and only reuniform; and that the same species of arms, quest, your excellency will communicate these accoutrements, and military apparatus, shou:d sentiments to your legislature, at their next be introduced in every part of the United States. ing; and that they may be considered as the legacy No one, who has not learned it from experience, of one who has ardently wilhed, on all occations, can conceive the difficulty, experce, aud contu- to be useful to his country; and who, even in fion, which result from a contrary system, or the the share of retirement, will not fail to implore vague arrangements which have hitherto pre- the divine benediction upon it. vailed.
I now make it my earneit prayer, that God If, in treating of political points, a greater la- would have you, and the State over which you titude than usual has been taken in the course of preside, in his holy protection; that he would this address, the importance of the critis, and the incline the hearts of the citizens to cultivate a magnitude of the objects in discussion, must be spirit of subordination and obedience to Governmy apology: it is, however, neither my wish nor
ment; to entertain a brotherly affection and love expectation, that the preceding observations thould for one another, for their fellow-citizens of the claim any regard, except so far as they shall United States at large, and particularly for their appear to be dictated by a good intention; con- brethren who have ferved in the field; and finally, Sonant to the immutable rules of jusrice, calcu. that he would most graciously be pleased to dislated to produce a liberal system of policy, and pose us all to do justice, to love mercy, and to founded on whatever experience may have been demean ourselves with that charity, humility, acquired by a long and close attention to public and pacific temper of mind, which were the chabusiness. Here I might speak with more conti- racteristics of the Divine Author of our blessed dence, from my actual observations; and, if it religion! without an humble imitation of whose would not twell this letter, already too prolix, example, in these things, we can never hope to beyond the bounds I had prescribed myself, I be a happy nation. could demonstrate to every mind open to convic- I have the honour to be, with must esteem and tion, that in less time, and with much less ex- respect, Sir, your Excellency's most obedient, pence than has been incurred, the war might and most humble servant, have been brought to the same happy conclusion,
G. WASHINGTON. # the resources of the Continent could have been
His Excellency William Greene, Esq. properly called forth; that the diftreffes and dif
Governor of tbe State of Rbode ijland. appointments which have very oftan occurred, have, in too many instances, resulted more from Tcledo, July 15. Don Thomas Sanz de Vea want of energy in the Continental government, lasco, who had been appointed by the king's coun
cil to superintend the attempts made for the de- different provinces: the Captain Pacha only waits struction of the locusts, the incredible number of for orders to fail to the Black Sea. which had laid waste the best part of the country Naples, July 23. The king has permitted within this province, has sent his report to court, the inhabitants of Castle Monardo, which place which has been Gince printed. By this it appears was entirely destroyed by the earthquake on the that 97,743 fanegues of those voracious insects 28th of March, to build a new town in a fertile had been collected in and about fixty-one villages; healthy vale near the sea, and they are to call it by causing several acres of stubbles to be burnt, Philadelphia. it is computed, from the eggs or spawn they con- Hanover, Aug. 8. His Royal Highness Prince tained, that 1,656,465 fanegues have also been William Henry, third son of the king of Eng. destroyed, and, as it were, crushed in the bud. This land, arrived here from London on Sunday latt, useful operation has cost government 830,379 The Prince Bishop of Osnaburgh, having gone reals of Vellon; a trifling expence, however, when to meet him, on entering the city their royal compared to the inestimable advantage the in- highnesses were faluted by three discharges of habitants of this province are likely to derive the artillery, and at night there was a grand gala from it.
at court. We are assured, that after the installaConftantinople, July 19. For some days past tion of the prince-bishop, Prince William Henry there seems to have been more than usual alacrity will set out for Vienna, and from thence to in every warlike preparation; upwards of twenty the camp of Minkendorf, where he will conforeign officers have arrived here within these few tinue fome time. days, and the Grand Seignior has given them Paris, Aug.22. Though it is not yet known genteel appointments in his service. The fect for certain how many persons have perished by is fitting out with the utmost expedition; and, in the earthquake and inundation, which covered Tort, every thing seems now to wear the ap- the Illand of Formosa, and part of the sea-coasts pearance of an approaching war, particularly of China, the last advices from those parts say, fince the Porte has been made acquainted with that several millions of inhabitants fell victims what has passed in the Crimea, on which subject to that dreadful calamity; which, from the popuextraordinary and very long conferences have lousness of those countries, seems not improbeen held, and secret orders have been sent to the bable.
their respective ladings without unpacking, openSATURDAY, AUGUST 2.
ing, and airing, and without performing any Aranjuez, June 14.
quarantine; provided the proper officer, on mus. N the 11th instant died here the infant Don tering the crew, ihall find them all in health;
Prince of Asturias, in the fourth year of his age. any contagious distemper during the voyage;
Mittau, June 25. Yesterday her Serene High- that the ship hath not had communication with ness the Dutchess of Courland was safely deliver- any ship or veffèl from any infected place; and ed of a princess.
that there are no enumerated goods on board, [This Gazette also contains two proclama- other than the bags or sacks in which the said tions; one for dissolving the parliament of Ireland; corn is contained, or mats made use of solely for the other for holding a new one on the 6th of the purpose of dunnage.] September next.]
TUESDAY, AUGUST 12.
This Gazette does not contain any intelligence. This Gazette does not contain any intelligence.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 16. SATURDAY, AUGUST 9. This Gazette does not contain any intelligence. Windfor Caftle, August 7. This morning, at a quarter before one o'clock, the Queen was happi- TUESDAY, AUGUST 19. ly delivered of a princess.
St James's, August 19. On Sunday last one This great event was made known by the of the king's messengers arrived here with the rafiring of the Park and Tower guns.
tification of the provisional articles, figned the Her Majesty is, God be praised, as well as 30th of November last, which was exchanged can be expected; and the young princess is in on the 13th inftant at Paris between his Maa perfect health.
jesty's plenipotentiary and the plenipotentiaries [This Gazette also contains his Majesty's order of the United States of America. in council, that the quarantine at present subfift- Oftend, August 13. The Baton which his Im. ing upon all thips and vessels coming from Dant- perial Majesty has ordered to be constructed at zick, or any other port or place in Royal and this port being compleated, this day was appointed Ducal Prulia or Pomerania, lo far as respects for it's being opened for the reception of ships. fhips laden with corn or grain, be taken off; The ceremony was performed in presence of their and that all ships and vessels already arrived, or Royal Highnesses the Governors General, ac. that may hereafter arrive from those places, la- companied by Count Belgiulo, and several other den with corn-or grain, be permitted to discharge perfons of distinction. VOL. III.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 23.
blind as they were ignorant, had submitted to Conftantinople, July 22. The plague rages here that usurper; the rest, thinking themselves too with violence, and the mortality is considerable, weak to resilt, would infallibly have yielded to the intection having spread in every quarter of his yoke; and thus we should have lost the fruits the town, and the adjacent villages. Pera and
of our victories, and the principal recompence for Galata, the residence of the Franks, have fuffered the sacrifices which we willingly made at the last gready; and in the new barracks for the gun. peace, if we had not instantly taken under our ners, at Topana, from twenty to thirty are buried immediate protection such of the well-disposed daily. The raw misty weather, which promotes Tartars, who prizing the blessings of their new the contagion, has continued these four weeks political existence, lamented th being forced paft without interruption; a very unusual cir
to submit to the usurper who had expelled their cumstance in this climate, and at this season. Let. lawful Khan. By thus effectually protecting ters from Smyrna of the 17th instant mention, them, we furnished them with the power and the that the plague has also broken out in that city. means of chusing a new Khan, in the room of
Sahib-Gheray, and of establishing an adminiTUESDAY, AUGUST 26. This Gazette does not contain any intelligence. to attain this end, that our military forces were
Itration analagous to this fate of affairs. It was SATURDAY, AUGUST 30. put in motion; that a considerable body of our Petersburgb, Aug. 1. The following is a troops were ordered, notwithstanding the severity translation of the manifefto published by order of of the season, to enter the Crimea, where they the Empress, upon the occasion of her troops en- were subfifted at our expence, and obliged to tering the peninsula of the Crimea, the Cuban, exert the power of our arms for the fupport of and the Iland of Taman; which countries are the good cause, in order to recal such of the thereby declared to be annexed to her Imperial Tartars as were estranged from it by their revolt. Majesty's dominions.
The public is not ignorant that a rupture beWe Catharine the Second, by the Grace of tween Rusia and the Ottoman Porte had very
God, Empress and Sole Monarch of all near ensued upon this occafion; but thanks to the Russias, &c. &c. &c.
the Divine affiitance, we disposed matters in such Our last war against the Ottoman Empire a manner, that the Ottoman Porte again achaving been attended with the most signal fuc. knowledged the independence of the Tartars, cesses, we had certainly acquired a right of re- and the validity of the election of Schaghin uniting to the territories of our empire the Cric Gheray, their lawful sovereign. Notwithstanding mea, of which we were in poffeffion: We, how- all the inconveniences above-mentioned, as long ever,
hesitated not to. sacrifice that, with many as we were sustained and animated by the hope other conquests, to our ardent defire of re-esta- of re-establishing the repose necessary to the adblishing the public tranquillity, and of confirm- vantage and preservation of good neighbourhood ing the good understanding and friendship be- with the Ottoman Empire, we regarded the tween our empire and the Ottoman Porte. "This Crimea, according to the tenor and letter of the motive induced us to stipulate for the freedom and treaties, as a free and independent country, conindependence of the Tartars, whom we had re- fining ourself solely to appealing the troubles duced by our arms; hoping to remove for ever, which prevailed amongst them: from our love of by this means, every cause of diffenfion, and peace, we found in this conduct a sufficient reeven a coolness between Ruffia and the Otto
compence for the great expences incurred by it; man Porte, exposed too often to these inconve- but we were soon undeceived in this respect, by niences by the form of government which then the fresh revolt occafioned in the Crimea lait. fubfifted among the Tartars.
year, the encouragement of which always flowed Great as were our facrifices and our efforts for from the same fource. We have been obliged, realizing those hopes, they were foon, to our in consequence, to have recourse again to congreat regret, considerably diminifhed. The rest. fiderable armaments, and to cause troops to enjeffness natural to the Tartars, fomented by in. ter the Crimea and the Cuban, whose presence is finuations, the source of which is not unknown become indispensable for maintaining tranquillity to us, caused them easily to fall into the snare and good order in the adjacent countries. The laid by foreign hands, which had fowed amongst fad experience of every day demonstrates more them the seeds of disturbance and confusion, to clearly, that if the sovereignty of the Ottoman such a degree as to induce them to labour for Porte in the Crimea was a perpetual source of the weakening, and even the total ruin of an discord between our two empires, the indepenedifice which our beneficent cares had erected for dence of the Tartars exposes us to fubjects of the happiness of that nation, by procuring them contention no less numerous and important, since liberty and independence, under the authority the long fervitude to which that people have been of a chief elected by themselves. Hardly was accustomed, has rendered the greater part of their Khan established, according to this new the individuals incapable of valuing the advanform of government, before he saw himself de tages of the new fiquation procured for them bý prived of all authority, and even obliged to de- that independence of which yve fought to give fert his country to give place to an ufurper, them the enjoyment; and which, laying us une who would again subject the Tartars to the yoke der the neceßlicy of being always armed, occaof dominion, from which our beneficence had bons not only great experxes, but allo exposes released them. The greater part of them, as out troops to inevitable and continual fatigues.
The The efforts they made to extinguish the flame to our empire the peninsula of Crimea, the Mand of difcord, in succouring the well-intentioned of of Taman, and all the Cuban, as a jult inthat nation, exposed them to the violences of demnification for the loftes fustained, and the the feditious and ill-intentioned, whom we were expences we have been obliged to incur in mainwilling to leave unpunished, in order to avoid taining the peace and welfare of these territories. even the shadow of an act of sovereignty, fo long In declaring to the inhabitants of thole counas we could cherish the least hope of at length tries, by the prefent manifesto, that such is our restoring good order, and preventing by this Imperial pleature, we promise them, for us and means the effential interests of our empire from our succeilors in the imperial throne of Ruflia, being injured.
that they shall be treated upon an equality with But, to our great regret, all these measures, our ancient subjects; and that, in taking them di&tated solely by our love of humanity, tended under our high protection, we will defend against only to bring upon us losses and damages, which all people their perfons, their estates, their tem. we have the more sensibly at heart, as they af. ples, and the religion they profess; that they fected our subjects. The loss in men is not to Tall enjoy the most abfoluce liberty of conscience; be appreciated; we will not attempt to estimate without the leaft restriction in the public exercise it; that in money, according to the moft mode- of their worship and their ceremonies; and that rate calculations, amounts to upwards of twelve not only the nation in general, but also each inmillions of roubles. To these particulars is to dividual in particular, fhalt participate in all the be added another of the utmost importance, both advantages enjoyed by our ancient subjects. But in it's object and with regard to it's consequences: we also expect, from the gratitude of our new We have just been informed that the Porte has subjects, that, touched with these favours, they begun to lay claim to the exercise of sovereignty will be sensible of the value of this fortunate reo in the Tartar dominions, by sending one of volution, which removes them from a convulled their officers, at the head of a detachment of State of disturbances and diffentions, to one of entroops, to the INand of Taman, ,who has even tire security and perfect tranquillity under the proceeded to cause the officer to be publicly protection of the laws: and that, striving to imi. beheaded who was sent to him by the Khan tate the submission, zeal, and fidelity, of those Schaghin Gheray, with a commission only to who have long had the happiness of living under enquire of him what were the motives for his our government, they will render themselves arrival in that illand; and what evidently proves worthy of our Imperial favour, beneficence, and the nature of the million of this commandant protection. Given at our Imperial residence of of the troops is, that he made no difficulty in St. Petersburgh, the 8th of April, in the years declaring openly to the inhabitants of Taman, of Grace 1783, and in the 21st year of our reign. that he looked upon them as subjects of the (Signed with her Imperial Majesty's own hand). Porte. This decisive, though unexpected step,
CATHARINE. L.S. convincing us of the inutility of the facrifices we
Copenhagen, Aug. 16. Various accounts have had made upon the last peace, annuls in confe- been received here of an island having lately quence the engagements we had contracted, arisen in the sea, in the neighbourhood of Ice with the sole intention of firmly establishing the land. Although the fact itself is authentic, yet freedom and independence of the Tartars, and the time of the first appearance of this island, fufficiently authorizes us to enter again into the it's dimenfrons and fituation, are not well ascer. enjoyment of those rights which we had law. tained. The information brought by the last fully acquired by conqueft; the more fo, as it ship from thence is, that it was still increasing, is the only means remaining for us to secure and that great quantities of fire ifsued from two hereafter a solid and permanent peace between of it's eminences. the two empires Animated, therefore, with a Vienna, Aug. 16. His Imperial Majesty went sincere defire of confirming and maintaining the to the country palace of Laxembourg last night; laft peace
concluded with the Porte, by prevent- and the first grand maneuvre of the troops, ening the continual difputes which the affairs of camped at Mickendorff, was performed this the Crimea produced, our duty to ourfelf, and morning in his Majesty's presence. the preservation of the security of our empire, Berlin, Aug. 19. His Pruffian Majesty set equally demand our taking the firm refolution our for Silefia on the 15th instant, having been to put an end, once for all, to the troubles in preceded by the prince-royal, who left Potsdam 'the Crimea; and for this purpose we te-unite on the 14th.
ver, of the Commons, was called to prove that he VAME on in the Court of King's Bench, had bought the print, said to be a copy, at the
Guildhall, before Lord Mansfield, a cause top of Mr. Sayer; and Mr. Sherwin, (brother to wherein John Keyfe Sherwin,engraver, was plaine the plaintiff) Mefirs. Cook, Smith, and Woollet, siff; and Robert Sayer, printseller, defendanc. depuled, that, to the best of their judgment, the
In fupport of the action, it was proved that the smaller print was a copy of the larger. plaintiff had made a drawing of Mrs. Siddons, Alderman Boydel was also called; who said, he fitoin which a print was engraved.. Dastor Bean could not tell whether it was or was not a copy,