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THE

OR,

UNIVERSAL MISCELL ANY.

AUGUST 1783.

Enriched with the following truly elegant ENGRAVINGS: 1. A fine Head of the Empress of Russia, from a Painting in the Possession of

his Excellency the Russian Ambassador.--2. A most delightful View of the West Front of BLENHEIM, the Seat of his Grace the Duke of MARLBOROUGH,

CONTENT S.

Page

87

138

a

Page Modern Biography,

Elegy on the Death of Mr. Robert Levet. Empress of Ruffia

By Dr. Johnson

136 Miscellany:

Verses addretled to Mr. Wright of DerPhilosophical Survey of the Works of

by. By Mifs Şeward

137 Nature and Art. Number VIII. . 98 A Charm for Ennui. A Matrimonial Philosophical Transactions.

Ballad. By William Hayley, Esq. ibid. Experiments on the Power of Animals

Sonnet to Dr. Beattie to produce Cold, when placed in Prologue to the Young Quaker ibid. certain Circumstances. By Adair

Epilogue

ibid. Crawford, M D. Communicated

Prologue to the Birth Day

139 by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P.R.S. 101 Prologue to the Receipt Tax

ibid. Copy of a Letter from the Right Honour. Prologue to the Lawyer

ibid. able Lord George Gordon, to Elias

Epilogue

140 Lindo, Esq. and the Portuguese; and

A National Cafe. Addrefled to Bri. Nathan Salomon, Esq. and the Ger

tannia's Phyficians

ibid. man Jews

105 Shakespeare and Voltaire. By Mr. HolMoral Trifles.

croft

ibid. I. A Sentimental Sketch

107
Epigram. By the same

ibid. II. A Reverie

109

Public Amusements. A Satire and Panegyric on Small Beer IIO Haymarket. Memoirs of a Cornilh Curate, concluded ibid. The Birth Day; or, Prince of Arragon 141 Ode to Fame. By Mrs. Brooke 115

The Receipt Tax

14% The Touchstone. Number I. ibid. The Lawyer

ibid. Review and Guardian of Literature.

Seeing is Believing

143 Lord Sheffield's Observations on the

Miss Bannister

ibid. Commerce of the American States

Gretna Green

ibid Sir William Jones's Moallakat 126 State of the Drama

144 Mrs. Macaulay Graham's Treatise on

Vauxhall

145 the Immutability of Moral Truth 127 | Parliamentary History, Dr. Lettlom's Account of the late Dr.

House of Lords

ibid. John Fothergill

129
House of Commons

147 The Reverend Mr. Crabbe's Village.

Political Retrospect

151 A Poem 132 Foreign Intelligence

15% Poetry.

Gazette

IS7 Ad Sereniffimum Georgium Walliæ Monthly Chronicle

159 Principem, Annum Ætatis fuæ 21,

Births

162 Die Duodecimo Mensis Augusti, A.D.

Marriages

ibid. 1783, perficientem 135 Deaths

ibid. Translation. By the Author ibid. Civil Promotions

163 Sylvana, a Pastoral. By Master George

Military Promotions

ibid. Lewis Lenox 136 Ecclefiaftical Preferments

164 On Miss Lenox. By the same ibid. Bankrupts

ibid.

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LONDON: Printed for HARRISON and Co. No. 18, Paternoster.Row; by whom Letters to

the EDITORS are received,

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HE firji Article in the Contents of the present Number will be a fuffi.

cient Answer to P. P. I.'s polite Enquiry. We are greatly obliged to Stella, for transmitting us Mrs. Brooke's beautiful Ode to Fame; as well as to Amicus for Dr. Dunkin's excellent Poem on Small Beer; both inserted in the present Number.

We shall with Pleafure receive the proffered Correspondence of O. S.

T'he Lines on the Prince of Wales's Birth-day, by S. S. are well meant, but they are too incorrect for Publication.

The Ode from Dublin, on the fame Subject, has considerable Merit; but it falls so infinitely short of the Cambrian Bard's elegant Composition inserted in the present Number, that Hibernia would appear to great disadvantage.

The Verses addressed to Mr. Perfect would be considered as a perfect Puff.

Clockwork's good-humoured Letter came to Hand; and he may rest affured that we feelingly participate in every Pang he has suffered; the Repetition of which we hope and believe he will never again experience.

The Epithalamium to Mr. S. and Miss E. F. is very sensible, as every Thing must be from the Pen of the truly ingenious Author; but it's interest is confined to the Circle of Friends for whose Amusement it was evidently composed. The Bagatelles by another Hand, inclosed in the fame Packet, are all of them on Subjects either too old or too trifling.

The Review transmitted us by Candor, is sensible, and most probably juft; but the work to which it relates is unknown in London, and is at any rate of too confined a Nature to merit the Attention of our Readers.

The Cantata from the Haymarket is evidently a juvenile Performance; but the Design is certainly new, and there are some Flashes of Genius discernible in the Composition, though it is upon the whole much too imperfect for our Miscellany.

The Commisioner, a Poem, will be inserted in our next.

The Articles communicated by G. H-r, chiefy Epitaphs, are much too trilling

Sir John Barleycorn's Address to the poor Poet, and the Sketch which accompanied it, are not without some Degree of Humour, but it is of too vulgar a Species. We shall have no Objection to hear from this Gentleman when his Genius is sublimed into more polished Regions.

The Efay on Happiness has no Novelty to recommend it, but the Composition has considerable Merit,

The Evils of which L. P. Q. complains, will probably be handled in the new Paper of the Touchstone.

The Epigram by W, is wholly destitute of Wit, even were the Subject of sufficient Importance to entitle it to our Notice.

The Elegy to neglected Genius came too late for the present Number.si

THE

BRITISH MAGAZINE AND REVIEW;

OR,

UNIVERSAL MISCELLANY.

AUGUST 1783.

MODERN BIOGRAPHY.

CATHARINE II.
EMPRESS OF RUSSIA.

reigner; he openly avowed his con

tempt of their religion, their manners, T "HIS great princess, who is the and their laws; and was on the point

daughter of the late Christian of commencing a war with Denmark, Auguftus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, for the recovery of his Holstein dowas born the ad of May 1729; mar- minions; he had personally ill-treated ried to Peter III. grandson of the ce- and injured the Empress, and his imlebrated Peter I. usually distinguished prudence and folly had long alienated by the appellation of Peter the Great, every heart: the Emprels, though the ift of September 1745;

and
pro-

likewise a German, had in the mean claimed fole Empress of all the Ruf. time studied the language of the fias, on the deposition of her husband, Rullians, asliduously conformed to July 9, 1762. Her maiden name was their customs, and expressed on all ocSophia Augusta; but, on her marriage casions the utmost zeal for the Greek with the late Emperor, she assumed church. This being premised, the that of Catharine Alexiewna. grand event we are about to mention

It will be expected that we should will seem less extraordinary than it give some account of the surprizing might otherwise appear. revolution which placed the Empreis

The revolution was for some time on the throne of this mighty, empire, in agitation, and persons of every though the transactions are perhaps rank embarked in the design. To too recent to be dispassionately in- provide against the consequences of a vestigated by those who have had the discovery, each of these persons had best opportunities of being able to an able spy always near them, that if discuss them with historical fidelity: one should be seized, the others might little more, we apprehend, can on this have timely notice. The wisdom of occafion be looked for from us, than this precaution was justified by the a display of such reasons as were pub- event: M. Paffick, lieutenant in the licly given by the court of Rullia on Preobazensky Guards, through the

: the occasion, the authenticity of which imprudence of one of his men, was we by no means feelourselves disposed taken into custody on the 8th of July to question.

1762.” The spy acquitted himself of It is said that this unhappy prince his duty, and the conspirators faw brought with him to St. Petersburgh they had not a moment to lose. The all the illiberal prejudices of a fo. Princess Datschkow, at whose house

M 2

the

the principals usually met, fent a poft- form the Emperor of what was pafling chaise to Petershoff for the Empress, in the city. As soon as he received this who arrived at Petersburgh in dif- intelligence, he embarked in one of guise, escorted by Prince Orloff, ma- the imperial yachts for Oranienbaum, jor of the guards, about seven in the which is fituated on the shore of the morning.

Gulph of Finland, hoping to reach Papers were instantly posted up at the fortress of Cronftadt, which is the corners of streets, and in all pub- nearly opposite, and where he would lic parts of the city, importing that have been out of danger. This place, religion was despised, the Clergy however, the Empress had taken care were disgraced, the true Russians op.' to secure; and, when the yacht appressed, ftrangers exalted, and the proached, he was desired to keep off, frength of the nation wafted in the. and the gans were pointed to fink quarrels of other countries; for all him. He had several ladies in the which evils there was but one reme, vessel; and their terrors increafing dy. While the people were busy his own, he returned to Oranienreading these papers, the guards pro- baum, without attempting to land. claimed the Emprefs, and immedi. It was afterwards reported that thefe ately the streets echoed with the ac- guns were not loaded. clamations of Long live Catharine The Empress, in the mean time, the Second !

continued advancing; and when the She was then proclaimed fole was at a little distance from Peterf. reigning Emprefs, and Sovereign of hoff, sent the Emperor word that all the empire of Russia; and the several resistance would be vain, and that he officers, ecclefiaftical, civil, and mi. would do well to submit if he wished litary, took the oaths of fidelity to to prevent worse consequences. The her Imperial Majesty, and to her son, old Felt Marechal Count Munich, the Great Duke Paul, her lawful heir, who had been newly recalled from his

The authority of the new sovereign long exile in Siberia, was with him being established in the capital, and at this critical emergency, and gave more troops assembled, every passage him the only advice which could leading to the Emperor's residence poffibly have saved him; he implored was carefully guarded; the Prince of him to go boldly and meet the Em. Holstein, the fenator Woronzoff and press, charging the guards, on their his daughter, Adjutant Gudowitz, allegiance, to obey him as their foSecretary Wolkow, with other known vereign, and offered to lose his own favourites, were fecured; and, about life in his defence. Peter, however, fixat night, the Empress, dressed in the had not fufficient magnanimity and ancient uniform of the guards*, setout greatnefs of mind to embrace this for Petershoff, at the head of 15,000 conduct: but, consulting only hit men, to seize the person of her hus- fears, he threw himself on the grounds band. As he had arrived at the palace burst into all the impotence of tears, about noon, with an intention to dine and conditioned barely for his life, and there, he was surprized at not finding paternal dominions of Holftein. He the Empress; and, being informed was accordingly conducted to the pas that she had fet out for Petersburgh, lace of Petershoff, were he figned he dispatched several expreffes, one his resignation of the throne. Several after another, (who ware all stopped covered waggons were in the mean and detained) to know the reason of while provided, which took different her absence. At length, however, roads, that it might not be known fome grenadiers, disguised as pea- where the depofed prince was con. fants, found means to escape and infined; and this mighty revolution, * In the palace of Peterhoff

, there is a painting of the Empress, as fhe appeared on this occa: calon, booted, and fitting aftride a white horse, with an oals bough in her hat, the insignia of her adhérents.

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AUTOCRA

which transferred the greatest empire fight, he still kept up fome appearon earth, was effeated in a few hours, ance of decency; but, in his heart, almost without confufion.

he considered the affeciion the shewThe following Manifetto was pub- ed him, as a relation only, as an inlished at Petersburgh on the occasion. fupportable yoke. Nor could he fo

well conceal his sentiments, as not CATHARINE, BY THE GRACE OF

even then to fhew, in the eyes of GOD, EMPRESS AND TRIX OF ALL THE RUSSIAS, &c.

our faithful subjects, the most pre

sumptuous ingratitude; which mani. &c.

fefted itself Tometimes by personal • Our acceflion to the Imperial contempt of the Empress, and some. throne of all, the Rulias, is a proof times by an avowed hatred of the nathat God himself directs those hearts tion. At last, preserving no bounds, which act sincerely, and with good he rather chose to give a loose to his intentions,

passions, than to condact himself like “We never had any design or desire the heir of a mighty empire. In a to attain the Imperial power in the word, not the smallest remains of any manner in which the impenetrable sense of honour were to be found in views of the Almighty have placed him. What were the effects? He was us on the throne of Russia. Our dear no sooner afsured that his aunt and country, immediately upon the death benefactress drew near her end, than of our beloved aunt Elizabeth Pe- he resolved in his heart to dishonour trowna, of glorious memory, all true her memory. His ingratitude reachpatriots (now our faithful subjects) ed so far, that he surveyed with an lamenting the loss of fo tender a eye of scorn her body exposed in the mother of her country, placed their coffin; and, when the necessary rites only consolation in obeying her ne, obliged him to approach the corpse, phew, whom the had named her suc. his looks were those of joy, and he cesfor, that they might shew thereby even shewed his ingratitude by words, a part of their gratitude to their de. Nor would her obsequies have been ceased sovereign; and, though they at all worthy so great and magnani. foon perceived the weakness of his mous a sovereign, if our tender re. genius was too narrow to rule so vaft spect, cemented by the ties of blood, an empire, they hoped he would be and the extreme affcction which the fenfible of his own insufficiency, and had borne us, had not made us think in the mean while they besought our it our indispenfible duty to take care assistance in the government.

that they were properly regarded. * But when absolute power falls to • He imagined, that he owed his the share of a monarch who has not absolute power not to the Supreme virtue and humanity enough to con. Being, but to chance alone; and that fine it within juft bounds, it becomes he held it not for the good of his a fruitful source of the most fatal subjects, but for his own pleasure. evils; this. our country foon expe- Joining, therefore, licentiousness to rienced, and with terror beheld her- power, he made all the alterations in self fubjected to a prince who, be the state which the weakness of his ing enslaved to the most dangerous genius suggested, for the oppression paffions, thought only of gratifying of the people. Having effaced from them, without any concern for the his heart all traces of the orthodox welfare of the empire,

Greek religion, (though he had been • During the time when he was sufficiently instructed in it's princia Great Duke, and heir of the Ruffian ples) he first endeavoured to destroy throne, he frequently caused the bit. the true religion so long established tereft chagrin to his auguft aunt and in Russia, forsaking the house of God, sovereign, as all our court knows; and the public devotions; insomuch setrained, however, by fear, in her that several of his subjects, (moved

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