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by their conscience) seeing his con- began another, contrary to the in-
tempt for the rights of the church, terests of Ruffia; and took an unac-
and the raillery he poured upon them, countable averfion to the Guards,
scandalized by such a conduct, ven- who had faithfully served his prede-
tured respectfully to remonstrate to cessors, making unjust innovations,
him on this behaviour, and with dif- to the discouragement of these valiant
ficulty escaped such resentment as soldiers.
might be expected from a capricious He entirely changed the face of the
prince whose power was uncontroul- army; and it seemed as if, by divid-
ed by human faws.

ing it into so many parts, and giving "He had even a design to destroy the to the troops so many different unichurches, and actually had ordered forms, he was willing to make them fome to be pulled down; he forbade doubt that they all belonged to the the having chapels in the houses of fame matter. In such circumftances, God. Thus did he endeavour to op- it was difficult for us not to be anxipress the faithful, and to quench the ous for the dangers which threatened fear of God, which Scripture affures our country, and uneasy under the us is the beginning of wisdom. perfecution which we and our fon

• From this want of zeal for God, fuffered, being almost excluded from and this scorn of his law, proceeded the Imperial family; fo that all who a contempt of natural and civil laws; had any affection for us, or rather for, having an only son, whom God courage to make it known, endanhas given us, the Great Duke Paul gered their lives, or at least their Petrowitz, he would not, when he fortunes, by fhewing us that respect afcended the throne, declare him his which was our due as Emprefs. At successor; his caprice having views length his efforts to destroy us broke which tended to our destruction, and out in public; and then, blaming us that of our fon; and being desirous for those murmurs of which his own either entirely to subvert the order conduct was the cause, his design to of fuccession established by his aunt, take away our life was no longer or to deliver the country into foreign concealed; of which being warned bands, in opposition to that maxim by some faithful subjects, who were of natural right, according to which no resolved to save their country or to person can transfer to another a right die for it, we, strengthened by our which he has' not received himself. trust in God, exposed ourselves with Although, to our grief, we perceived that courage which our country had his intention, we could not believe reason to expect, in return for it's he would carry his perfecution of affection for us. Armed, therefore, ourself and our fon to so great a with the Divine protection, we no length. But all persons of integrity fooner had given our consent to thofe perceived that his defigns to destroy deputed from the nation to us, than as and our fon already thewed them all orders of state were eager to give felves by vifible effects; and, feeing us proofs of their fidelity. our forbearance, they warned us fe... Scarce' had we departed from cretly' that oar life was in danger, to Petersburgh, when he sent us two letexcite us to take up the weight of ters, one immediately following the government. During all this time, other the first, by our Vice-Chanhe ceafed not to exafperatè men's cellor, Prince Galitzin; the other, minds, by overthrowing all that the by General Ismaeloff. In these let greateft of princes, our ancestor Peter ters he declared his willingness to the Great, of immortal memory, had resign the crown, and desired we eftablished. He despised the laws would let him depart for Holstein and tribunals of the empire; dif- with Elizabeth Woronzoff and Gufipated the revenue by useless and dowitz. "These letters, filled with hurtful expences;-after a bloody wars adulation, were fent us fome hours


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after he had given orders to kill us, in force, and that all the parts of as was reported by those whom he government may be provided with had commissioned to execute this de- regulations for maintaining good orsign. He had it still, however, in his der at all times; and we affure our power, to resist us, by arming the subjects of our imperial favour. Holstein troops: he could even have

• CATHARINE.'. obliged us to grant him conditions prejudicial to our country, as he had After this appeared the following in his power several persons of dif- declaration; on which, as well as the tinction, of both sexes, to save whom preceding Manifesto, our readers must we should have inclined to rifque the judge for themselves. return of some of the past evils, by an accommodation.

« CATHARINE IT. &c. &c. • All the persons of distinction “The seventh day after our acceflion about us therefore besought us to

to the throne, we received an account, propose, that if his intention was that the late Emperor Peter III, was such as he professed, he should sign a seized with a violent hæmorrhoidal formal voluntary renunciation of the cholic, to which he was sometimes empire. We sent him this proposal subject. That we might not be by General Ismaeloff; and, in confe- wanting in that christian duty which quence, he signed and sent us the obliges us to preserve our neighbour's following

life, we immediately ordered every

thing necessary to be provided him, “ DURING the short time of my to prevent the dangerous consequenabsolute reign, I have found that .ces of this accident, and restore his my powers were insufficient to sup- health by medicine; but, to our great port so great a weight, or to govern affliction, we received advice yestersuch an empire in any manner what- day, that by the Almighty's permissoever. Perceiving, therefore, a fion he was departed this life. We :commotion which would have been have therefore ordered his body to be followed by the total ruin of the em- carried to the monastery of Newfski pire, and my eternal infamy, on ma- for interment: and we exhort all ture reflection, I declare, without our faithful subjects, to forget all. constraint, in the moft folemn man- paft grievances, and render the last ner, to Russia and the world, that I honours to his body, praying to God renounce for ever the government of for the repose of his soul; looking, the empire;, not desiring to reign in the mean time, on this unforeseen therein as sovereign, or in any other event, as the particular effect of the manner whatever, or hoping to re- Divine Providence,whose decrees pregain it by any kind of assistance. In pare for us, for our throne, and coun. confirmation whereof, I take a fo- try, things known only to his holy lemn oath before God and all the will.' world, having written and signed this renunciation with my own hand.

The deceased sovereign was ex"Peter.' posed for some days, dressed in the

Holstein uniform, with boots and Thus, by the favour of God, we fpurs, at the Newfski monastery, a have ascended the throne without few miles from Petersburgh, to con effufion of blood. We assure our vince the people that he had not fufsubjects we will beseech the Almighty, fered any violence. day and night, so bless our fceptre And here let us draw the veil over for the support of the orthodox reli- a transaction, which may appear dif

gions and we promise to make such ferently to different people, and of difpofitions in the empire, -that the which we have before acknowledged government of the fate may remain ourselves insufficient judges. The Ini za si diszi fik 10.6.



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maxims of state-policy, and thoseof manity which is natural to us, was the private life, are in many cases widely unhappy situation of that prince, who different: in the former, that may be was dethroned by the Divine Provieven commendable, which nothing dence, and had been unfortunate ever can in the latter excuse.

since his birth, and we formed the If we consider the vast magnitude resolution of alleviating his misforof the Rullian empire; the diversity tones as far as was possible. Weim. of nations, laws, cuftoms, and reli. mediately made a visit to him, in or. gions, of which it is composed; with der to judge of his understanding and the peculiar circumitances which feat- talents; and, in consequence thereof, ed the present Empress on the throne; to procure him an agreeable and quiet we shall be astonished to find that fituation, suitable to his character and her reign has, on the whole, been so the education he had received. But tranquil and undifturbed.

how great was our surprize! when, The first appearance of interrup

befides a defect in his utterance that tion was the affair of Prince Ivan, was uneasy to himself, and rendered who had in his infancy been deposed his discourse almost unintelligible to by the Empress Eiizabeth. This un- others, we observed in him a total happy man had from that period been privation of sense and reason. Those kept in the stricteft confinement; and, who accompanied us during this inindeed, few people knew or believed terview, saw how much our heart that he was yet alive.

suffered at the view of an object fo The following Manifesto, publish- proper to excite compassion; they ed by the court of Ruflia, on this oc. were also convinced that the only cafion, will sufficiently explain the measure we could take to succour the whole businefs.

unfortunate prince, was to leave him

where we found him, and to procure MANIFESTO.

him all the comforts and conveniences THE SECOND, BY of which his situation would admit. THE GRACE OF GOD, EMPRESS We accordingly gave our orders for AND SOVËREIGN

this purpose, though the fate he was RUSSI AS; &c. &c. TO ALL WHOM

in prevented his perceiving the marks THESE PRESENTS

of our humanity, or being sensible of CERN.

our attention and care; for he knew WHEN, by the Divine will, and nobody, could not distinguish bein compliance with the ardent and tween good and evil, nor did he know

unanimous desires ofour faithful sub- the use that might be made of read. jects, we ascended the throne of Ruf- ing, to pass the time with less wearifia, we were not ignorant that Ivan, ness and disguft: on the contrary, he fon of Anthony, Prince of Brunswick sought after pleasure in objects that Wolfenbuttle and the Princess Anne discovered, with sufficient evidence, of Mecklenburg, was still alive. This the disorder of his imagination. prince, as is well known, was imme. To prevent, therefore, ill-intendiately after his birth unlawfully de- tioned persons from giving him any clared heir to the Imperial crown of trouble, or from making use of his Ruflia; but, by the decrees of Provi. name or orders to difturb the public dence, he was soon after irrevocably tranquillity, we gave him a guard, excluded from that high dignity, and and placed about his perfon two of. the fceptre placed in the hands of ficers of the garrison, in whose fidethe lawful heiress, Elizabeth, daugh. lity and integrity we could confide. ter of Peter the Great, our beloved Thefe officers were Captain Wlafseif aunt of glorious memory. After we and Lieutenant Tschekin; who, by had ascended the throne, and offered their long military services, which had up to Heaven our juft thanksgivingś, considerably impaired their health, the first object that employed our deserved a suitable recompence, and thoughts, in consequence of the hu. a Itation in which they might pass









quietly the rest of their days: they Prince Ivan. But he was so warm were accordingly charged with the ly received by those soldiers 'under care of the prince, and were strictly the command of the two officers menenjoined to let none approach him. tioned above, that he was obliged to Yet all these precautions were not retire. By a particular direction of sufficient to prevent an abandoned that Providence that watches over the profligate from committing at Schluf- life of man, there was that night a felburg, with unparalleled wicked- thick mift, which, together with the ness, and at the risque of his own life, inward form and situation of the foran outrage, the enormity of which in- tress, had this happy effect, that not fpires horror. A second lieutenant of one individuai was either killed or the regiment of Smolensko, a native of wounded. The bad success of this the Ukraine, named Basil Mirowitz, first attempt could not engage this grandson of the first rebel that fol- enemy of the public peace to defift lowed Mazeppa, and a man in whom from his rebellious purpose. Driven the perjury of his ancestors seems to on by rage and despair, he ordered have been infused with their blood; a piece of cannon to be brought from this profligate, having paffed his days one of the bastions, which order in debauchery and diffipation, and was immediately executed. Captain being thus deprived of all honourable Wlaffeiff, and his lieutenant, Tichemeans of advancing his fortune; hav- kin, seeing that it was impossible to ing also loft fight of what he owed to refist such a superior force, and conthe law of God and of the oath of fidering the unhappy confequences allegiance he had taken to us, and that must ensue from the deliverance knowing Prince Ivan only by name, of a person that was committed to without any knowledge either of his their care, and the effusion of inno. bodily or mental qualities, took it cent blood that must follow from the into his head to make use of this tumults it was adapted to excite, took, prince to advance his fortune at all after deliberating together, the only events, without being restrained by step that they thought proper to maina consideration of the bloody scene tain the public tranquillity, which that such an attempt was adapted to was to cut short the days of the unoccasion. In order to execute this fortunate prince.

fortunate prince. Considering also, detestable, dangerous, and desperate that if they set at liberty a prisoner, project, he desired, during our ab- whom this desperate party endeasence in Livonia, to be upon guard, voured to force with such violence out of his turn, in the fortress of out of their hands, they ran the risque Schluffelburg, where the guard is of being punished according to the relieved every eight days; and, on rigour of the laws, they aslaffinated the 15th of last month, about two the prince, without being restrained o'clock in the morning, he, all of a by the apprehension of being put to fudden, called up the main guard, death by a villain reduced to despair.

formed it into a line, and ordered The monster (Mirowitz) seeing the 'the soldiers to load with ball. Be. dead body of the prince, was fo conrenikoff, governor of the fortress, hav- 'founded and struck at a fight he fo ing heard a 'noise, came out of his little expected, that he acknowledge apartment, and asked Mirowitz the 'ed that very inftant his temerity and reason of this disturbance ; but re- his guilt, and discovered his repen. ceived no other anfwer from this re- tance to the troop, which about an bel than a blow on the head with the hour before he had feduced from their butt-end of his mukket. Mirowitz duty, and rendered the accomplices having wounded and arrested the go- of his crime. vernor, led on his troop with fury, Then it was, that the two officers, and attacked with fire-arms the who had nipt this rebellion in the handful of foldiers that guarded bud, joined with the governor of the Vol. III:




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fortress in fecuring the person of this This conduet


such offence to rebel, and in bringing back the fol- the Grand Seignior, that he immediers to their duty. They also fent diately imprisoned Obreskoff, the Rur to our privy-counsellor Panin, under fian minister, in the Seven Towers, whose orders they acted, a relation of declared war against the Emprefs, this event; which, though unhappy, and marched a numerous army to the has nevertheless, under the protection confines of Poland and Russia. of Heaven, been the occasion of pre

It would lead us into too wide a venting ítill greater calamities. This field, were we to pursue the history of. fenator dispatched immediately Lieu- the war between these powerful emtenant-Colonel Cafèhkin, with suf- pires; and we must therefore content ficient instructions to maintain the ourselves with observing, that the public tranquillity, to prevent dif- Ruslians were in general suceessful; order on the spot, where the af- that several attempts were at length fassination was committed; and sent made to negociate a peace between us, at the same time, a courier with these mighty powers; and that hostia circumstantial account of the whole lities were repeatedly suspended and affair. In consequence of this, we renewed, till at length a treaty was ordered Lieutenant-General Wey- concluded, on the 21st of July 1774, marn,

of the division of St. Peters- highly honourable and advantageous burgh, to take the neceflary informa

to the Empress, who obtained the litions upon the spot; this he has done, berty of an uninterrupted navigation and has fent us, accordingly, the in- on the Black Sea, and a free trade terrogatories, depofitions, and the with all parts of the Ottoman empire. confession of the villain himself, who Before the conclusion of the war has acknowledged his crime. with the Turks, a very alarming re

• Sensible of the enormity of his bellion broke out in Russia. A Cofcrime, and of it's confequences with sac, named Pugatcheff, having afregard to the peace of our country, sumed the name and character of the we have referred the whole affair to late unfortunate Emperor, appeared the confideration of our feriate, which in the kingdom of Russia, and prewe have ordered, jointly with the fy- tended that he had, through an exnod, to invite the three first claffes, traordinary interpofition of Proviand the presidents of all the colleges, dence, escaped from the murderers to hear the verbal relation of Gene- who were employed to assassinate him, ral Weymarn, who has taken the pro. and that the report of his death was an per informations, to pronounce fen- invention of the court to pacify the tence in consequence thereof, and minds of the people. His person very after that fentence has been figned, strikingly resembled that of the deto present it to us for our confirmation ceased sovereign; and as he possessed of the same.

confiderable abilities and address, his « CATHARINE,' adherents foon became numerous.

Indeed, they were at length so pow. To this it will be only necessary for erful, being weil armed and provided us to add, that Mirowitz was pub- with artillery, that they actually enlicly executed on the 26th of Sep- gaged several of the best Russian getember 1764.

nerals at the head of large bodies of While this event excited the atten- troops, and committed great depretion of the Russians, the flames of dations. He was, however, at last civil war broke out with great vio- totally defeated; and, being taken lence in Poland; and, as the internal prisoner in the engagement, was cartranquillity of that country is an im- ried to Moscow in an iron cage, where portant object with Ruflia, the Em- he was pat to death on the 21st of press sent a body of troops into Po- January 1775. land, and Count Poniatowski was by Having thus given an account of her influence elected to the throne. the chief moleitations the Empress


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