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was in the mind it was : this is called the “retort courteous." If I sent him word again, it was not well cut, he would send me word, he cut it to please himself: this is called the “quip modest.” If again, it was not well cut, he disabled my judgment: this is called the “ reply churlish.” If again, it was not well cut, he would answer, I spake not true: this is called the “reproof valiant.” If again, it was not well cut, he would say, I lie: this is called the “ countercheck quarrelsome :” and so to the “lie circumstantial?," and the “ lie direct.”

Jaq. And how oft did you say, his beard was not well cut?

Touch. I durst go no farther than the “lie circumstantial,” nor he durst not give me the “lie direct ;" and so we measured swords, and parted.

Jaq. Can you nominate in order now the degrees of the lie?

Touch. O sir, we quarrel in print, by the book', as



to THE

“ lie circumstantial,”] So the second folio : the first omits "the." 3 0 sir, we quarrel in print, by the book ;] “ The poet," says Warburton, “ has, in this scene, rallied the mode of formal duelling, then so prevalent, with the highest humour and address: nor could he have treated it with a happier contempt, than by making his Clown so knowing in the forms and preliminaries of it. The particular book here alluded to is a very ridiculous treatise Vincentio Saviolo, entitled, “Of Honour and Honourable Quarrels,' in quarto, printed by Wolf, 1594. The first part of this tract he entitles, ‘A Discourse most necessary for all Gentlemen that have in regard their Honours, touching the giving and receiving the Lie, whereupon the Duello and the Combat in divers Forms doth ensue; and many other Inconveniences, for lack only of true Knowledge of Honour, and the right Understanding of Words, which here is set down. The contents of the several chapters are as follow :—I. What the Reason is that the Party unto whom the Lie is given ought to become Challenger, and of the Nature of Lies. II. Of the Manner and Diversity of Lies. III. Of Lies certain, (or direct.] IV. Of conditional Lies, [or the lie circumstantial.] V. Of the Lie in general. VI. Of the Lie in particular. VII. Of foolish Lies. VIII. A Conclusion touching the wresting or returning back of the Lie, (or the countercheck quarrelsome.] In the chapter of conditional Lies, speaking of the particle is, he says, --- Conditional lies be such as are given conditionally, as if a man should say or write these words :-if thou hast said that I have offered my lord abuse, thou liest ; or if thou sayest so hereafter, thou shalt lie. Of these kind of lies, given in this manner, often arise much contention in words, -whereof no sure conclusion can arise.'There was another edition of this work in 1595, “ Printed for William Mattes.” See the “ Cat. of the Bridgewater Library,” 4to, 1837, p. 275.

you have books for good manners : I will name you the degrees.

The first, the retort courteous; the second, the quip modest; the third, the reply churlish; the fourth, the reproof valiant; the fifth, the countercheck quarrelsome; the sixth, the lie, with circumstance; the seventh, the lie direct. All these you may avoid, but the lie direct; and you may avoid that too, with an if. I knew when seven justices could not take up a quarrel; but when the parties were met themselves, one of them thought but of an if, as If you said so, then I said so; and they shook hands and swore brothers. Your if is the only peace-maker; much virtue in if.

Jaq. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord ? he's as good at any thing, and yet a fool.

Duke S. Ile uses his folly like a stalking-horse, and under the presentation of that, he shoots his wit. Enter IIYMEN, leading ROSALIND in woman's clothes ;

and CELIA.

Still Music.
Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven,

When earthly things made eren

Atone together t.
Good duke, receive thy daughter,
Hymen from heaven brought her ;

Yea, brought her hither,
That thou might'st join her hand with his,
Whose heart within her bosom is.

Ros. [To DUKE S.] To you I give myself, for I am [To ORLANDO.] To you I give myself, for I am yours. Duke S. If there be truth in sight, you are my


* Atone together.] i. e. Agree together, or are reconciled : from at one. The use of this word is very frequent by the contemporaries of Shakespeare. 5 That thou might'st join her hand with his,

Whose heart within ser bosom is.] The old copies read his for “her” in both these instances, which is evidently wrong: the error was, no doubt, produced by the not unfrequent custom at that date, of spelling “her,hir, which misled the compositor. See p. 51 of this vol, note 3.

daughter. Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my Rosalind.

Phe. If sight and shape be true, Why then, my love adieu ! Ros. [To DUKE S.] I'll have no father, if you be not

he: [To ORLANDO.] I'll have no husband, if you be not

he: [To PHEBE.] Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not

Hym. Peace, ho! I bar confusion.

"Tis I must make conclusion

Of these most strange events :
Here's eight that must take hands,
To join in Hymen's bands,

If truth holds true contents.
[To ORLANDO and ROSALIND.] You and you

no cross shall part: [To Oliver and CELIA.] You and you are

heart in heart : [To PHEBE.) You to his love must accord, Or have a woman to your

lord :
[To TOUCHSTONE and AUDREY.] You and you

are sure together,
As the winter to foul weather.
Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
Feed yourselves with questioning,
That reason wonder may diminish,
How thus we met, and these things finish.


Wedding is great Juno's crown:

0, blessed bond of board and bed ! 'Tis Hymen peoples every town ;

High wedlock, then, be honoured :



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Honour, high honour, and renown,

To Hymen, god of every town!
Duke S. O, my dear niece! welcome thou art to me:
Even daughter, welcome in no less degree.
Phe. [To Silvius.] I will not eat my word, now thou

art mine :
Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.

Enter Second Brother 3.
2 Bro. Let me have audience for a word or two.
I am the second son of old Sir Rowland,
That bring these tidings to this fair assembly.-
Duke Frederick, hearing how that every day
Men of great worth resorted to this forest,
Address'd a mighty power, which were on foot
In his own conduct, purposely to take
His brother here, and put him to the sword.
And to the skirts of this wild wood he came,
Where, meeting with an old religious man,
After some question with him, was converted
Both from his enterprize, and from the world;
His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother,
And all their lands restor'd to him again“,
That were with him exil'd. This to be true,
I do engage my life.

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3 Enter Second Brother.) So called in the old copies to avoid confusion with the “ melancholy Jaques.” The name of this “ second brother” must have been also Jaques, and he is mentioned in the first scene as then “at school.” He is in fact the third brother introduced in the play; but what is meant is, that he is second in point of age, younger than Oliver, and older than Orlando ; but this supposition would seem to make Orlando too much of a stripling at the wrestlingmatch to have had any chance against Charles. In Lodge's novel (which ends very differently), Fernandine, the second of the three brothers, is represented as “a scholar in Paris," not " at school ” there. He, like Jaques de Bois, arrives quite at the end of the story.

4 And all their lands restor'd to him again] So the old copies, which modern editors have altered without notice to “restor'd to them again.” The meaning is, that the converted brother restores to the banished brother his dukedom, and all the lands of those who were in exile with him, in order that he (the duke) may bestow the lands again on their former possessors. The duke afterwards tells his nobles that he will give them back their estates.

Duke S.

Welcome, young man ;
Thou offer’st fairly to thy brothers' wedding :
To one, his lands withheld; and to the other,
A land itself at large, a potent dukedom.
First, in this forest, let us do those ends
That here were well begun, and well begot;
And after, every of this happy number,
That have endur'd shrewd days and nights with us,
Shall share the good of our returned fortune,
According to the measure of their 'states.
Meantime, forget this new-fall’n dignity,
And fall into our rustic revelry.-
Play, music! and you brides and bridegrooms all,
With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures fall.

Jaq. Sir, by your patience.—If I heard you rightly,
The duke hath put on a religious life,
And thrown into neglect the pompous court?

2 Bro. He hath.

Jaq. To him will I: out of these convertites There is much matter to be heard and learn'd. — You [To DUKE S.] to your former honour I bequeath ; Your patience, and your virtue, well deserve it : You [To ORLANDO] to a love, that your true faith doth

merit:You [To OLIVER] to your land, and love, and great

allies :You [To Silvius] to a long and well deserved bed : And you [To TOUCHSTONE] to wrangling; for thy

loving voyage Is but for two months victualld.—So, to your pleasures: I am for other than for dancing measures.

Duke S. Stay, Jaques, stay.

Jaq. To see no pastime, I :—what you would have, I'll stay to know at your abandon'd cave. [Exit.

Duke S. Proceed, proceed: we will begin these rites, As we do trust they'll end in true delights'.

5 As we do trust they'll end in true delights.] The universal modern stage

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