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Riches and realms; yet not for that a crown,
Golden in show, is but a wreath of thorns,
Brings dangers, troubles, cares, and sleepless nights 460
To him who wears the regal diadem,
When on his shoulders each man's burden lies;
For therein stands the office of a king,
His honour, virtue, merit, and chief praise,
That for the public all this weight he bears. 465
Yet he who reigns within himself, and rules

458. —yet not for that a crown,] Bacidulavinjwy wdožov sivao dovaciar; I reject them, yet not for that “Know'st thou not, my son, that reason because a crown, &c. and to be a king is to be a splendid in setting forth the duty and of- slave?" And see Euripides, lon, fice of a king, let the friends of 633. Dunster. the house of Stuart consider, 466. Yet he who reigns within whether he intended any com- himself, &c.] Such sentiments pliment to the king then-reign- are inculcated not only by the ing.

philosophers, but also by the 458. Milton seems here to poets, as Hor. Od. ii. ii. 9. have had in his mind several Latius regnes avidum domando parts of the King's soliloquy, in Spiritum &e. Shakespeare's Henry V. imme- and Sat. ii. vii. 83. diately before the battle of Agin

Quisnam igitur liber ? Sapiens ; sibi court,

qui imperiosus, &c. Upon the king! &c.

466. Thus also Seneca, Thyest. Compare also the Prince of 380. Wales's address to the crown, Mens regnum bona possidet. 2 Henry IV. act iv. and the so

Dunster. liloquy in the beginning of the 473. But to guide nations &c.] third act.

In this speech concerning riches Canst thou, O partial Sleep, give thy and realms, our poet has culled repose, &c.

all the choicest, finest flowers There are also many similar sen

out of the heathen poets and phitiments in the Hiero of Xeno

losophers who have written upon phon.—And compare with the

these subjects; it is not so much

their words, as their substance line,

sublimated and improved: but When on his shoulder cach man's

here he soars above them, and burden lies,

nothing could have given him the observation of Antigonus to so complete an idea of a divine his son, recorded by Ælian, Var. teacher, as the life and character Hist. ii. 20. Oux osoba, w tab, any of our blessed Saviour.


Passions, desires, and fears, is more a king ;
Which every wise and virtuous man attains :
And who attains not, ill aspires to rule .
Cities of men, or headstrong multitudes,
Subject himself to anarchy within,
Or lawless passions in him which he serves.
But to guide nations in the way of truth
By saving doctrine, and from error lead
To know, and knowing worship God aright,
Is yet more kingly ; this attracts the soul,
Governs the inner man, the nobler part ;
That other o’er the body only reigns,
And oft by force, which to a generous mind
So reigning can be no sincere delight.
Besides to give a kingdom hath been thought

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481. Besides to give a kingdom thirty years old. Our author had &c.) So Hephæstion to those before paid her considerable comwho transferred the kingdom of pliments. For I consider it most Sidon from themselves to an- probable that the verses under other. Quint. Curt. iv. 1. Vos Cromwell's picture sent to Chrisquidem macti virtute, inquit, tina are properly ascribed to estote, qui primi intellexistis, Milton; and he also honours her quanto majus esset, regnum fa- with a most splendid panegyric stidire quam accipere &c. Dio- in his Defensio secunda. In the cletian, Charles V. and others words, to lay down far more magwho have resigned the crown, nunimous, than to assume, we may were no doubt in our author's rather trace Milton to Macrobius thoughts upon this occasion. For than to Q. Curtius. He is speakas Seneca says, Thyest. iii. 529. ing of Micithus, who was slave Habere regnum, casus est: virtus,

of Anaxilaus, tyrant of Rhegium, dare.

and whom he left the guardian

of his sons and protector of the 481. Possibly Milton had here state. “Quid? quod duas virin his mind the famous Christina tutes, quæ inter nobiles quoque Queen of Sweden, who, after unicè claræ sunt, in uno video having reigned twenty-one years, fuisse mancipio, imperium reresigned her crown to her cousin gendi peritiam, et imperium conCharles Gustavus, when she was lemnendi magnanimitatem." Sastill a young woman, being only turnal. i. 11. Dunster.

Greater and nobler done, and to lay down
Far more magnanimous, than to assume.
Riches are needless then, both for themselves,
And for thy reason why they should be sought
To gain a sceptre, oftest better miss’d.

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