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And worship me as thy superior lord,
Easily done, and hold them all of me;
For what can less so great a gift deserve ?

Whom thus our Saviour answer'd with disdain. 170
I never lik'd thy talk, thy offers less,
Now both abhor, since thou hast dar'd to utter
Th' abominable terms, impious condition ;
But I indure the time, till which expir’d,
Thou hast permission on me. It is written 175
The first of all commandments, Thou shalt worship
The Lord thy God, and only him shalt serve ;
And dar'st thou to the Son of God propound
To worship thee accurs’d, now more accurs'd
For this attempt bolder than that on Eve,

180

seemed most likely to forward not be done without changing his designs. At the beginning the whole plan of the poem; as of this book, after repeated de- by pushing the question immefeats he is described as flung diately to a point, it must have from his hope ; but still he pro- precluded the gradually progresceeds. Upon his next attack sive temptations which the poet failing, the paroxysm of his des- so finely brings forward. It peration rises to such a height, might perhaps have been wished that, thrown off his guard, he that the circumstance of Satan's intemperately betrays himself thus betraying himself and his and his purpose by bringing purpose had been kept back till forward those abominable terms, the subsequent temptation had which, could it have been pos- been tried, and had also failed. sible for his temptations to have But the apologetic speech of Sasucceeded, we may imagine were tan, (v. 196.) in which he so far intended in the end to have been recovers himself, and repairs the proposed to our Lord. This then indiscretion of his present irriis the avanyuwebris, or full discovery tation, as to pave the way for who Satan really was; for though another temptation, is not only Jesus in the first book (v: 356.) marked with such admirable art had declared that he knew the and address, but gives likewise Tempter through his disguise, such material variety and relief still the temptation proceeds as to this part of the poem, that I if he had not known him. As cannot wish it to have been in to proposing the condition together any respect different from what with the gifts, this I conceive could it is. Dunster.

18.5

And more blaspheinous ? which expect to rue.
The kingdoms of the world to thee were given,
Permitted rather, and by thee usurp'd ;
Other donation none thou canst produce :
If giv'n, by whom but by the King of kings,
God over all supreme? if giv'n to thee,
By thee how fairly is the giver now
Repaid ? But gratitude in thee is lost
Long since. Wert thou so void of fear or shame,
As offer them to me the Son of God,
To me my own, on such abhorred pact,
That I fall down and worship thee as God?
Get thee behind me; plain thou now appear'st
That evil one, Satan for ever damn’d.

To whom the Fiend with fear abash'd replied.
Be not so sore offended, Son of God,
Though sons of God both angels are and men,
If I to try whether in higher sort
Than these thou bear'st that title, have propos'd

190

195

188. — But gratilude in thee is being the Son of God, he must lost

of course be like him whose son Long since.]

he is; and being like him, it Milton had made Satan declare necessarily follows, that he is long before, Par. Lost, iv. 109. lord and king. S. Athanas. Or.

3. contra Arianos. Op. vol. i. p. -all good to me is lost; Evil be thou my good!

387. edit. Col. Calton. Dunster.

191. abhorred pact,] He

uses the word pact, as it is the 191. To me my own,] The technical term for the contracts right, which the demon pre- of sorcerers with the devil. Wartends to, over the kingdoms of burton. the world, is by gift; but Christ 199. have propos'd claims them as his own by na- What both froni men and angels ture, and by virtue of his Son

I receive, &c.) ship. Yios yag a tou lov, écolos The terms of worship and vasavtov ay Elne opores de ww, KUITWG salage. See v. 166. supra. DunSOTI X4i xuelos nau Burlacus. For ster.

What both from inen and angels I receive,

200 Tetrarchs of fire, air, flood, and on the earth Nations besides from all the quarter'd winds, God of this world invok'd and world beneath ; Who then thou art, whose coming is foretold To me so fatal, me it most concerns.

205 The trial hath indamag'd thee no way, Rather more honour left and more esteem; i Me nought advantag'd, missing what I aim'd. Therefore let pass, as they are transitory, The kingdoms of this world; I shall no more 210 Advise thee; gain them as thou canst, or not.. And thou thyself seem'st otherwise inclin'd Than to a worldly crown, addicted more To contemplation and profound dispute, As by that early action may be judg’d, When slipping from thy mother's eye thou went'st Alone into the temple, there wast found Amongst the gravest Rabbies disputant On points and questions fitting Moses' chair

215

201. Tetrarchs of fire, air, flood, 213. - addicted more and on the earth]

To contemplation] See Mr. Warton's note, Par. Reg. Milton, Par. Lost, iv. 297. deii. 122. E.

scribes Adam in his state of in203. God of this world invok'd] nocence for contemplation formed. Milton pursues the same notion, Dunster. which he had adopted in his Pa 217. — there wast found? In radise Lost, of the gods of the Milton's own edition, and in Gentiles being the fallen angels, most of the following ones, it and he is supported in it by the was printed by mistake was authority of the primitive fathers, found; but the syntax plainly who are very unanimous in ac- requires wast, as there is thou cusing the heathens of worship- went'st in the verse preceding. ping devils for deities. Thyer. 219. — fitting Moses' chair,] · The devil, in Scripture, is Moses' chair was the chair in termed the god of this world, which the doctors sitting es2 Cor. iv. 4. Dunster.

pounded the law either publicly

Teaching not taught; the childhood shows the man,
As morning shows the day. Be famous then
By wisdom; as thy empire must extend,
So let extend thy mind o'er all the world
In knowledge, all things in it comprehend:
All knowledge is not couch'd in Moses' law, 225
The Pentateuch, or what the Prophets wrote;
The Gentiles also know, and write, and teach
To admiration, led by nature's light;
And with the Gentiles much thou must converse,
Ruling them by persuasion as thou mean'st; 230
Without their learning how wilt thou with them,
Or they with thee hold conversation meet?
How wilt thou reason with them, how refute

to the people, or privately to Of worth, of honour, glory, and po-
their disciples. The Scribes and pular praise.
Pharisees sit in Moses' chair, 87 The gradation also in the several
Tng MWGEWS xadedqus. Matt. xxiii. 2. allurements proposed is very fine;
220. — the childhood shews and I believe one may justly say,
the man,

that there never was a more exAs morning shews the day.] alted system of morality comThus Ben Jonson in his Verses prised in so short a compass. to Susan Countess of Montgomery; Never were the arguments for Were they that nam'd you prophets ? vice dressed up in more delusive did they see

colours, nor were they ever anEu'n in the dew of grace what you swered with more solidity of would be ?

thought or acuteness of reasonDunster.

ing. Thyer. 221. Be famous then 230. Ruling them by persuasion By wisdom ;]

as thou mean'st ;] Alluding to We are now come to the last those charming lines, i. 221. temptation, properly so called; Yet held it more humane, more and it is worth the reader's while heav'nly first to observe how well Satan has B y willing words to conquer willing pursued the scheme which he hearts,

And make persuasion do the work had proposed in council, ii. 225. Therefore with manlier objects we But Satan did not hear this; it

must try His constancy, with such as have was part of our Saviour's selfmore show

converse and private meditation.

N 3

of fear.

Their idolisms, traditions, paradoxes ?
Error by his own arms is best evinc'd.

235
Look once more e'er we leave this specular mount
Westward, much nearer by southwest, behold
Where on the Ægean shore a city stands

234. Their idolisms, traditions, Milton's inuse, as was before puradores?] Idolisms is, I be observed, is too much cramped lieve, a word of Milton's fabri- down by the argumentative cast cation. It seems to mean not so of his subject, but emerges upon much the idolatrous worship of every favourable occasion, and the Gentiles, as the opinions with like the sun from under a cloud which they might endeavour to bursts out into the same bright defend it. Our author has idol. vein of poetry, which shines isls, Sams. Agon. 453.

out more frequently, though not and op'd the mouths

more strongly, in the Paradise Of I dolists and Atheists;

Lost. Thyer.

This might be understood W. By traditions we may understand by S. that is, one point from opinions collected from those phin west towards southwest; which losophers who instructed pub- is nearly the actual position of licly, without committing their Athens, with respect to Mount precepts to writing, which was Niphates. Or it may only mean, the case with Pythagoras, Numa, that as Athens was four degrees and Lycurgus. See the lives south of Rome, our Lord must of the two latter by Plutarch. now direct his view so much Paradoxes allude to the para- more to the southwest, than doxes of the Stoic philosophers, when he was looking at Rome, then in high repute. Evinced which lay nearly west of Mount (v.235.) is used in its Latin sig- Niphates. Dunster. nification of subdued, conquereil; And the words much nearer in which sense it is more forcible seem also to shew that the deand appropriate, than as we com- scription had reference to the monly use it for shewn, proved. position of Rome, which was Dunster.

more distant from the specular 236. — this specular mount] mount. E. This mount of speculation, as in 238. Where on the Ægean shore Paradise Lost, xii. 588, where a city stands] So Milton caused see the note.

this verse to be printed, whereby 237. Westward, much nearer by it appears that he would have southwest,] This corresponds ex- the word Ægean pronounced actly to our Saviour's supposed with the accent upon the first situation upon mount Taurus. syllable, as in Paradise Lost, i. The following description of 146. and as Fairfax often uses Athens and its learning is ex- it, as was there remarked. Built tremely grand and beautiful. nobly, and Homer in his time

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