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Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil,
Athens the eye of Greece, mother of arts

240

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calls it a well built city, sürtypesVoy Achilles Tatius De Leucip. and TTorn@gov. Iliad. ii. 546. pure the Clitoph. 1. ii.) and Pindar, 01. 2. air, and light the soil, Attica calls the ancestors of Theron being a mountainous country, Σικελιας οφθαλμος. The Lating the soil was light and barren, have the same metaphor ; as and the air sharp and pure, and Cicero, Pro Leg. Manil. c. v. and therefore said to be productive in Catilin. iii. c. 10. and Velleius of sharp wits. The sum parlay Tour Paterculus, speaking of Pompey's cpwy EV QUTQ xatidoura, oro Ogorelece defeat at Pharsalia. And so Ben TATOUS avd gas olTih. Plato in Ti. Jonson terms Edinburgh, mæo, p. 24. vol. iii. edit. Serr.

The heart of Scotland, Britain's other Athenis tenue cælum, ex quo acutiores etiam putantur Attici.

Dunster. Cicero de Fato. iv. Athens the eye of Greece, and so Demosthe 289. — pure the air, and light nes somewhere calls it opodaros the soil,] This is from Dio Chry'Eanados, but I cannot at present sostom. See Spanheim on Calrecollect the place; and in Justin limachus, p. 444. De Attica cæit is called one of the two eyes teroquin dicit Dio Chrysost. Orat. of Greece, Sparta being the other, vii. p. 87. suveo yag Thu yogar esa lib. v. cap. 8; and Catullus calls palav, xai TOY depa nou poy, esse enim Sirmio the eye of islands, xxxii. regionem tenui solo, ac levem ae

rem, prout una voce de Toyiw eaPeninsularum Sirmio, insularumque

dem Attica, post Thucydidem Ocelle:

nempe, pag. 2. a Galeno dicitur, but the metaphor is more pro

poteert. cap. 7. Aeris autem ac

TTOTnta eidem tribuit Aristides, perly applied to Athens than any other place, as it was the great

Serm. Sacr. vi. p. 642. Athens

was built between two small seat of learning.

rivers, Cephisus and Ilissus; and 238. I cannot discover the

hence it is called, in the Medea passage in Demosthenes referred

of Euripides, isgwv TotaVW Toros. to by. Bp. Newton. Aristotle

See the chorus at the end of the (Rhetoric. lib. iii. c. x. s. 3.) cites

third act. The effect of these a passage from a speech of Leptines, in which he conjures the

waters upon the air is very po

etically represented in the same Athenians not to suffer Greece

beautiful chorus. to become ετεροφθαλμος, deprived of one of her eyes, by the extinc Καλλιναου τ' επι Κηφισου ροαις. tion of Sparta, The Greek poets

Ταν Κυπριν κληίζουσιν αφυ. frequently used opeenmos in a me

caueray xwpay xUTATYSUS OLI

Μετριας ανεμων taphorical sense, for the lustre of

Ηδυσνοους αυρας. superior excellence. As Aristo

Pulchrifluique ad Cephisi fluenta phanes, Nub. 284. calls the sun

Venerem ferunt [ex Cephiso) exGiligos ou,pom. Sappho describes the rose as οφθαλμος ανθεων, (see entem, regionem perflasse,

hauri.

And eloquence, native to famous wits
Or hospitable, in her sweet recess,
City' or suburban, studious walks and shades;
See there the olive grove of Academe,

Mediocres ventorum

μασθεν Ακαδημoυ, καθα και Ευπολις Dulce spirantes auras.

$) ArgHTEUTOIS Onary, Calton.

Εν συσκιους δρομοισιν Ακαδημου θεου. 240. — mother of arts

– και επαφη εν τη Ακαδημια, ενθα And eloquence]

τον πλειστον χρονον διετέλεσε φιλοσοJustin (1. v. c. 9.) terms Athens ww. odev xai Arcònpaïrn spoonyoPatria communis Eloquentiæ. And esuon ý an avtov aipscis. Being (1. ii. c. 6.) he says, Literæ certe returned to Athens from his et facundia veluti templum Athe- journey to Egypt, he settled nas habent. Cicero abounds in himself in the Academy, a gympanegyrics upon this celebrated nasium or place of exercise in seat of learning and eloquence. the suburbs of that city, beset See Cic. De Orator. 1. i. 13. ed. with woods, taking name from Proust. Brutus, S. 39, 26, 49. Academus, one of the heroes, as Orat. pro L. Flacc. 26. See also Eupolis. Roger Ascham, (English Works,

In sacred Academus' shady walks.'' Lond. 1771. p. 235.) Dunster.

010 Choinilable So Diodo. -and he was buried in the Acarus describes the Athenians, thy demy, where he continued most πατριδα κοινον παιδευτηριον παρεχο

of his time teaching philosophy, usvova Taon ay@wtors. I. xiii. c. 27.

whence the sect which sprung The Athenians indeed were re

frum him was called Academic. markable for their general hos. See Diogenes Laertius, and Stan

The pitality towards strangers, for ley in the life of Plato. whose reception and accommo- Academy is always described as dation they had particular officers a woody shady place, as here called poževos. Whilst the Lace in Laertius, and in Horace, ep. dæmonians were noted for their 11. 11. 45. ξενηλασιαις, Or driving all strangers Atque inter sylvas Academi quærere from their city. Thus Pericles verum : according to Thucydides, Hist. but Milton distinguishes it by ii. c. 39. TRI TE TONu xowum TagExo- the particular name of the olive μεν, και ουκ εστιν οτε ξενηλασιαις grove of Academe, for the olive απειργομεν τινα η μαθηματος, η θεαμα was particularly cultivated about TOS. Dunster.

Athens, being sacred to Minerva 244. See there the olive grove the goddess of the city, and he of Academe,

has besides the express authority Plato's retirement, &c.]

of Aristophanes, Nsperat, act iii. Eravado de sus Alnvas, detailey sy scene 3. Ακαδημια. το δ' εστι γυμνασιον, προ- Αλλ' εις Ακαδημιαν κατιων, υπο ταις αστειον αλωδες, απο τινος ηρωος ονο

μοριαις αποθρεξεις.

245

Plato's retirement, where the Attic bird
Trills her thick-warbled notes the summer long;

Sed in Academiam descendens, sub 244. Akenside has well sketch

sacris olivis spatiaberis. ed this Athenian scene in his Where the Attic bird, the nightin. Pleasures of Imagination, i. 715. gale, for Philomela, who accord. The reader will find a good acing to the fables was changed count of the Academy and of the into a nightingale, was the other public gardens which were daughter of Pandion king of the resort of the learned at Athens, and for the same reason Athens, in Falconer's Historical the nightingale is called Atthis view of the Taste for Gardening in Latin, quasi Attica avis. Mar- and luying-out Grounds among the tial, lib. i. ep. 46. edit. Westm. nations of Antiquity, p. 30. The Sic. ubi multisona fervet sacer At. nightingale is with peculiar prothide lucus,

priety introduced in the descripImproba Cevropias offendit pica que. tion of the Academe; in the relas,

neighbourhood of which (see Ludovicus de la Cerda in his Pausanias, 1. i. c. 30.) lay the notes upon Virgil observes, how scene of the Cdipus Coloneus often the ancient poets have of Sophocles, and which he celemade use of the comparison of brates as particularly abounding the nightingale; Sophocles has in nightingales. Ed. Col. 17. it no less than seven times, Ho- and 703. Homer has a descripmer twice, and Euripides and tion of the song of this bird not several others : and we observed unlike Milton's trills her thickupon the Paradise Lost, how warbled notes ; much Milton was delighted with

-Πανδαρεου κουρη χλωρηις αηδων the nightingale; no poet has introduced it so often, or spoken of Ητι θαμα τρωκωσα χεει πολυηχεα it with such rapture as he; and pornu. Odyss. xix. 521. perhaps there never was a verse

It is remarkable that Milton demore expressive of the harmony

scribes the nightingale singing of this sweet bird than the fol

the summer long, when it is comlowing,

monly supposed to sing only in Trills her thick-warbled notes the the spring. Sappho calls it, (see summer long.

the Scholiast on Soph. Electr. So that upon the whole I believe 148.) it may be asserted, that Plato's

Hgos d'aygsdos inesgopuros andwr. . Academy was never more beautifully described than here in a And Pliny says that its song few lines by Milton. Cicero, continues in its greatest perfecwho has laid the scene of one of tion only fifteen days, " afterhis dialogues there, De Fin. lib. wards, as summer advances, it v. and had been himself upon loses all its variety and modulathe spot, has not painted it in tion." (l. x. 29.) So Shakespeare more lively colours.

describes it as ceasing to sing as

There flow'ry hill Hymettus with the sound
Of bees industrious murmur oft invites
To studious musing; there Ilissus rolls
His whisp’ring stream: within the walls then view 250
The schools of ancient sages; his who bred
Great Alexander to subdue the world,
Lyceum there, and painted Stoa next:

the summer advances, in his drus on the banks and at the fifty-first sonnet; and Milton spring of this pleasant river.himself describes it singing χαριεντα γουν και καθαρα και διαφανη While the jolly hours lead on pro

Ta vdatia DeivsTAI, Nonne hinc pitious May,

aquulæ puræ ac pellucidæ ju

cundo murmure confluunt? Ed. in his Sonnet to the Nightingale:

Serr. vol. iii. p. 229. The philobut in various other places the

sophical retreat at the springsong of the nightingale is one of

head is beautifully described by his favourite circumstances of

Plato in the next page, where description, when he is painting

nung Socrates and Phædrus are reprea summer's night. Dunster.

sented sitting on a green bank 247. There flow'ry hill Hymet

el shaded with a spreading plantain, tus &c.] And so Valerius Flaccus

ccus of which Cicero hath said very calls it Florea juga Hymetti, Ar

prettily, that it seemeth to have gonaut. y. 344. and the honey

grown not so much by the water was so much esteemed and cele.

which is described, as by Plato's brated by the ancients, that it

eloquence; quæ mihi videtur non was reckoned the best of the

tam ipsa aquula, quæ describitur, Attic honey, as the Attic honey

quam Platonis oratione crevisse. was said to be the best in the

De Orat. 1. 7. world. The poets often speak

253. Lyceum there, and painted of the murmur of the bees as in

Sloa next :] Lyceum was another viting to sleep, Virg. Ecl. i. 56.

gymnasium of the Athenians, and Sæpe levi somnum suadebit inire su- was the school of Aristotle, who surro:

had been tutor to Alexander the but Milton gives a more elegant Great, and was the founder of turn to it, and says that it invites the sect of the Peripatetics, so to studious musing, which was called aro TOU TOITATE.y from his more proper indeed for his pur. walking and teaching philosophy. pose, as he is here describing the Stoa was the school of Zeno, Attic learning.

whose disciples from the place 249. — there Ilissus rolls had the name of Stoics; and

His whisp'ring stream:] this Stoa or portico, being 'aMr. Calton and Mr. Thyer have dorned with variety of paintings, observed with me, that Plato was called in Greek Horrean or hath laid the scene of his Phæ- various, and here by Milton very

255

There thou shalt hear and learn the secret power
Of harmony in tones and numbers hit
By voice or hand, and various-measur'd verse,
Æolian charms and Dorian lyric odes,
And his who gave them breath, but higher sung,

properly the painted Stoa. See painted, principally by PolygnoDiogenes Laertius in the lives of tus, with representations of the Aristotle and Zeno. But there most renowned of the Athenian is some reason to question, whe victories, such as those of Mather the Lyceum was within the rathon and Salamis; hence Perwalls, as Milton asserts. For sius, sat. iii. 53. Suidas says expressly, that it was

Quæque docet sapiens, braccatis illita a place in the suburbs, built by Medis, Pericles for the exercising of sol. Porticus diers : and I find the scholiast The porch, with trowser'd Persiaps upon Aristophanes in the Irene pictur'd o'er. [Howes.]. speaks of going into the Lyceum, On the origin of the name of the and going out of it again, and Peripatetics see the note below returning back into the city : on v. 278. Dunster. 465 TO Auxulov EICLOYTES --- Kalb waru 257. Æolian charms and Do. εξιοντες εκ του Λυκείου, και απιοντες τian lyric odes,] Holian charms, ESS TOV zonos.

Æolia carmina, verses such as 253. That the Lyceum stood those of Alcæus and Sappho, who without the walls clearly appears were both of Mitylene in Lesfrom the beginning of Plato's bos, an island belonging to the Lysis; see also Strabo, 1. ix. p. Æolians. Hor. Od. ii. xxx. 13. 397. Its establishment has been

Princeps Eolium carmen ad Italos attributed both to Pisistratus and

Deduxis modos. Pericles. (See Meursius, Athena

Od. iv. ii. 12. Atticæ, 1. ii. c. 3. and Plutarch's Life of Pericles.) The same Fingent Æolio ca mine nobilem. writer (Sympos. viji. q. 4.) says, Dorian lyric odes, such as those that it was dedicated to Apollo, of Pindar, who calls his Ampracy as the god of healing, because Oogponyace the Dorian harp, Olymp. health alone can furnish the re- i. 26. Awal mediaq Dorian buskin, quisite strength for the corporeal Olymp. iii. 9. Awgree ropa Dorian exercises of the place. From hymn, Pyth. viii. 29. the epithets of Apollo, Auxios, 257. - charms] Our EngAurnyains, AuroxtovOS, (not the wolf- lish word charm is derived from slaying God, but the extender of carmen; as are inchant and inlight, from auxos or auxen, lux, and cantation from canto. Dunster. EXTEINW, as also Auxnyarns signifies 258. And his who gave them not born in Lyciu, but producer breath, &c.] Our author agrees of light,) the Lyceum probably with those writers, who speak of derived its name. The Stoa was Homer as the father of all kinds

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