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Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil,
Athens the eye of Greece, mother of arts

240

eye.

calls it a well built city, süxtius Achilles Tatius De Leucip. and Tos@gov. Iliad. ii. 546. pure the Clitoph. 1. ii.) and Pindar, 01. 2. air, and light the soil, Attica calls the ancestors of Theron being a mountainous country, Σικελιας οφθαλμος. The Latins the soil was light and barren, have the same metaphor ; as and the air sharp and pure, and Cicero, Pro Leg. Manil. c. v. and therefore said to be productive in Catilin. iii. c. 10. and Velleius of sharp wits. την ευπρασιαν των

Paterculus, speaking of Pompey's egwy OUTO xatidoura, óri ogovipewe defeat at Pharsalia. And so Ben τατους ανδρας οισει. . Plato in Ti. Jonson terms Edinburgh, mæo, p. 24. vol. iii. edit. Serr. Athenis tenue cælum, ex quo

The heart of Scotland, Britain's other acutiores etiam putantur Attici.

Dunster. Cicero de Fato. iv. Athens the eye of Greece, and so Demosthe- 239. -pure the air, and light nes somewhere calls it operuos the soil,] This is from Dio Chry'Errados, but I cannot at present sostom. See Spanheim on Calrecollect the place; and in Justin limachus, p. 444. De Attica cæit is called one of the two eyes teroquin dicit Dio Chrysost. Orat. of Greece, Sparta being the other, vii. p. 87. Eivoco yae thy twear alib. v. cap. 8; and Catullus calls palay, xxt tov asgae rouPor, esse enim Sirmio the eye of islands, xxxii. regionem tenui solo, ac levem ae1.

tem, prout una voce deTToysuç eaPeninsularum Sirmio, insularumque dem Attica, post Thucydidem Ocelle :

nempe, pag. 2. a Galeno dicitur, but the metaphor is more pro

7 ROT ETT. cap. 7. Aeris autem deperly applied to Athens than any Serm. Sacr. vi. p. 642. Athens

TTOTITH eidem tribuit Aristides, other place, as it was the great

was built between two small seat of learning.

and 238. I cannot discover the rivers, Cephisus and Ilissus;

hence it is called, in the Medea passage in Demosthenes referred to by. Bp. Newton. Aristotle

of Euripides, δερων ποταμων πολις.

See the chorus at the end of the (Rhetoric. lib. iii. c. x. $. 3.) cites third act. The effect of these a passage from a speech of Lep

waters upon the air is very potines, in which he conjures the Athenians not to suffer Greece

etically represented in the same

beautiful chorus. to become ετεροφθαλμος, deprived of one of her eyes, by the extinc- Καλλιναου σ' εσι Κηφισου ροαις . tion of Sparta. The Greek poets

Ταν Κυπριν κληίζουσιν αφυ- . frequently used oponamos in a me

σαμεναν χωραν καταπνευσαι

Μετριας ανεμων taphorical sense, for the lustre of superior excellence. As Aristophanes, Nub. 284. calls the sun

Pulchrifuique ad Cephisi fluenta

Venerem ferunt [ex Cephiso] exGiQigos 04445%. Sappho describes

hauri. the rose as οφθαλμος ανθεων, (see entem, regioncm perflasse,

Ηδυσνοους αυρας.

And eloquence, native to famous wits
Or hospitable, in her sweet recess,
City' or suburban, studious walks and shades;
See there the olive grove of Academe,

Mediocres ventorum

μασθεν Ακαδημoυ, καθα και Ευπολις Dulce spirantes auras.

εν Αστρατευτοις φησιν, Calton.

Εν ευσκιους δρομοισιν Ακαδημιν θεου. 240. -mother of arts

- και επαφη εν τη Ακαδημια, ενθα And eloquence] Justin (1. v. c. 9.) terms Athens Pos. olev rai Arcòmpairn Ergorayon

τον πλειστον κρονος διετέλεσε φιλοσοPatria communis Eloquentiæ. And gavên at' avtov aigscis. Being (1. ii. c. 6.) he says, Literæ certe returned to Athens from his et facundia veluti templum Athe- journey to Egypt, he settled nas habent. Cicero abounds in himself in the Academy, a gympanegyrics upon this celebrated nasium or place of exercise in seat of learning and eloquence. the suburbs of that city, beset See Cic. De Orator. 1. i. 13. ed. with woods, taking name from Proust. Brutus, s. 39, 26, 49. Academus, one of the heroes, as Orat. pro L. Flacc. 26. See also Eupolis, Roger Ascham, (English Works,

In sacred Academus' shady walks. Lond. 1771. p. 235.) Dunster.

242. -hospilable) So Diodo- -and he was buried in the Acarus describes the Athenians, thy

demy, where he continued most πατριδα κοινον παιδευτηριων παρεχο

of his time teaching philosophy, μενους πασιν ανθρωποις. 1. xiii. c. 27.

whence the sect which sprung The Athenians indeed were re

from him was called Academic. markable for their general hos- See Diogenes Laertius, and Stanpitality towards strangers, for ley in the life of Plato. The whose reception and accommo- Academy is always described as dation they had particular officers a woody shady place, as here called agoševo.. Whilst the Lace- in Laertius, and in Horace, ep. dæmonians were noted for their ii. ii. 45. ξενηλασιαις, or driving all strangers Atque inter sylvas Academi quærere from their city. Thus Pericles according to Thucydides, Hist. but Milton distinguishes it by ii. c. 39. την τε πολιν κοινή παρέχο- the particular name of the olive μεν, και ουκ εστιν οτε ξενηλασιαις grove of Academe, for the olive απειγομεν τινα η μαθηματος, η θεαμα- was particularly cultivated about Dunster.

Athens, being sacred to Minerva 244. See there the olive grove the goddess of the city, and he of Academe,

has besides the express authority Plalo's retirement, &c.] of Aristophanes, Nspinas, act ii. Επανελθων δε εις Αθηνας, διατριβεν εν ecene 3. Ακαδημια. το δ' εστι γυμνασιον, προ- Αλλ' εις Ακαδημιαν κατιων, υπο ταις αστειον αλσώδες, απο τινος ήρωος ονο

μοριαις αποθρεξεις. .

veruin:

TOS.

245

Plato's retirement, where the Attic bird
Trills her thick-warbled notes the summer long;

Sed in Academiam descendens, sub 244. Akenside has well sketchsacris olivis spatiaberis.

ed this Athenian scene in his Where the Attic bird, the nightin- Pleasures of Imagination, i. 715. gale, for Philomela, who accord. The reader will find a good acing to the fables was changed count of the Academy and of the into a nightingale, was the other public gardens which were daughter of Pandion king of the resort of the learned at Athens, and for the same reason Athens, in Falconer's Historical the nightingale is called Atthis view of the Taste for Gardening in Latin, quasi Attica avis. Mar- and luying-out Grounds among the tial, lib. i. ep. 46. edit. Westm. nations of Antiquity, p. 30. The Sic, ubi multisona fervet sacer Ate nightingale is with peculiar prothide lucus,

priety introduced in the descripImproba Cecropias offendit pica que. tion of the Academe; in the relas,

neighbourhood of which (see Ludovicus de la Cerda in his Pausanias, 1. i. c. 30.) lay the notes upon Virgil observes, how

scene of the Edipus Coloneus often the ancient poets have of Sophocles, and which he celemade use of the comparison of brates as particularly abounding the nightingale; Sophocles has in nightingales. Ed. Col. 17. it no less than seven times, Ho- and 703. Homer has a descripmer twice, and Euripides and tion of the song of this bird not several others: and we observed unlike Milton's trills her thickupon the Paradise Lost, how warbled notes ; much Milton was delighted with the nightingale; no poet has in

-Πανδαριου κουρη χλωρηις αηδων troduced it so often, or spoken of Ησι θαμα τρωπωσα και πολυηχεία it with such rapture as he; and perny. Odyss, xix. 521. perhaps there never was a verse more expressive of the harmony scribes the nightingale singing

It is remarkable that Milton deof this sweet bird than the fol

the summer long, when it is comlowing,

monly supposed to sing only in Trills her thick. warbled notes the

the spring. Sappho calls it, (see summer long.

the Scholiast on Soph. Electr. So that upon

the whole I believe 148.) it may be asserted, that Plato's

Ηρος δ' αγγελος ιμεροφωνος αηδων. . Academy was never more beautifully described than here in a And Pliny says that its song few lines by Milton. Cicero, continues in its greatest perfecwho has laid the scene of one of tion only fifteen days, “afterhis dialogues there, De Fin. lib. wards, as summer advances, it v. and had been himself upon loses all its variety and modulathe spot, has not painted it in tion.” (l. x., 29.) So Shakespeare more lively colours.

describes it as ceasing to sing as

There flow'ry hill Hymettus with the sound
Of bees industrious murmur oft invites
To studious musing; there Ilissus rolls
His whisp'ring stream: within the walls then view 250
The schools of ancient sages; his who bred
Great Alexander to subdue the world,
Lyceum there, and painted Stoa next:

the summer advances, in his drus on the banks and at the fifty-first sonnet; and Milton spring of this pleasant river.-himself describes it singing καριεντα γουν και καθαρα και διαφανη While the jolly hours lead on pro- aquulæ puræ ac pellucidæ ju

τα υδατια φαινεται, Νonne hinc pitious May, in his Sonnet to the Nightingale : Serr. vol. iii. p. 229. The philo

cundo murmure confluunt? Éd. but in various other places the song of the nightingale is one

of sophical retreat at the spring

head is beautifully described by his favourite circumstances of description, when he is painting Socrates and Phædrus are repre

Plato in the next page, where a summer's nighț. Dunster. 247. There flow'ry hill Hymet- shaded with a spreading plantain,

sented sitting on a green bank tus &c.] And so Valerius Flaccus

of which Cicero hath said very calls it Florea juga Hymetti, Argonaut. v. 344. and the honey prettily, that it seemeth to have was so much esteemed and cele. grown not so much by the water brated by the ancients, that it

which is described, as by Plato's

eloquence; quæ mihi videtur non was reckoned the best of the Attic honey, as the Attic honey tam ipsa aquula, quæ describitur, was said to be the best in the quam Platonis oratione crevisse.

De Orat. 1. 7. world. The poets often speak of the murmur of the bees as in- Sloa nert:] Lyceum was another

253. Lyceum there, and painted viting to sleep, Virg. Ecl. i. 56.

gymnasium of the Athenians, and Sæpe levi somnum suadebit inire su- was the school of Aristotle, who

had been tutor to Alexander the but Milton gives a more elegant Great, and was the founder of turn to it, and says that it invites the sect of the Peripatetics, so to studious musing, which was called απο του περιπατειν from his more proper indeed for his pur. walking and teaching philosophy. pose, as he is here describing the Stoa was the school of Zeno, Attic learning.

whose disciples from the place 249. -there Ilissus rolls had the name of Stoics ; and

His whisp'ring stream:] this Stoa or portico, being aMr. Calton and Mr. Thyer have dorned with variety of paintings, observed with me, that Plato was called in Greek Torrian or hath laid the scene of his Phæ- various, and here by Milton very

surro:

255

There thou shalt hear and learn the secret power
Of harmony in tones and numbers hit
By voice or hand, and various-measur’d verse,
Æolian charms and Dorian lyric odes,
And his who gave them breath, but higher sung,

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εις την πολιν. .

properly the painted Stoa. See painted, principally by PolygnoDiogenes Laertius in the lives of tus, with representations of the Aristotle and Zeno. But there most renowned of the Athenian is some reason to question, whe- victories, such as those of Mather the Lyceum was within the rathon and Salamis; hence Perwalls, as Milton asserts. For sius, sat. iii. 53. Suidas says expressly, that it was

Quæque docet sapiens, braccatis illita a place in the suburbs, built by

Medis, Pericles for the exercising of sol- Porticusdiers : and I find the scholiast

The porch, with trowser'd Persians upon Aristophanes in the Irene pictur'd o'er. (Howes.) speaks of going into the Lyceum, On the origin of the name of the and going out of it again, and Peripatetics see the note below returning back into the city : - on v. 278. Dunster. εις το Λυκειου εισιoντες - και

257. Æolian charms and Doεξιοντες εκ του Λυκείου, και απιοντες rian lyric odes,] Æolian charms,

Æolia carmina, verses such as 253. That the Lyceum stood those of Alcæus and Sappho, who without the walls clearly appears were both of Mitylene in Lesfrom the beginning of Plato's bos, an island belonging to the Lysis ; see also Strabo, 1. ix. p. Æolians. Hor. Od. iii. xxx. 13. 397. Its establishment has been

Princeps Eolium carmen ad Italos attributed both to Pisistratus and

Deduxisse modos.
Pericles. (See Meursius, Athenæ

Od. iv. iii. 12.
Atticæ, l. ii. c. 3. and Plutarch's
Life of Pericles.) The same

Fingent Æolio ca mine nobilem. writer (Sympos. viii. q. 4.) says, Dorian lyric odes, such as those that it was dedicated to Apollo, of Pindar, who calls his Amprov as the god of healing, because pogueyys the Dorian harp, Olymp. health alone can furnish the re- i. 26. Awal mediaq Dorian buskin, quisite strength for the corporeal Olymp. iii. 9. August zorimu Dorian exercises of the place. From hymn, Pyth. viii. 29. the epithets of Apollo, Auxios, 257. charms] Our EngAuraysons, Aurortoros, (not the wolf- lish word charm is derived from slaying God, but the extender of carmen; as are inchant and inlight, from auros or auxn, lux, and cantation from canto. Dunster, EXTENW, as also Auxnyerns signifies 258. And his who gave them not born in Lyciu, but producer breath, &c.] Our author agrees of light,) the Lyceum probably with those writers, who speak of derived its name. The Stoa was Homer as the father of all kinds

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