French Trade in Istanbul in the Eighteenth Century
This work deals with French trade in Istanbul in the eighteenth century, using French and Ottoman sources, and integrating the political and social dimensions of the question. It also sheds light on the financial dimension of trade, particularly that of bills of exchange and monetary trade, linking Istanbul to other Ottoman cities and to European financial centers. Finally, it tackles the issue of western economic penetration, arguing that, despite some signs of domination, French control over the market was efficiently opposed by local actors, that economic integration with the West was often realized on equal terms, and that much of the domination witnessed toward the end of the century was, in fact, the result of French diplomatic leverage and of the gradual estrangement of non-Muslim traders from the Ottoman "commonwealth."
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Facts and Figures French Trade in the Levant
French Imports to Istanbul Cloth and Manufactured
Balancing the Accounts Trade Surplus and Bills
Of Men and Trade French and Local Traders
The Birth of a Domination Trade Politics
Sources and Bibliography
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AAFC ACCM ACVC Agha Aleppo ambassador Archives Armenians arzihâl bailo Bandırma Bill drawn bills of exchange cahier sans numéro capitulations Carrière Chamber of Commerce cloth dealers cloth trade clothiers coffee coins commerce du Levant commodities Constantinople Correspondance des députés Courdurié dirhem documents domination dragomans draps drawee drogmans échelles economic Edirne eighteenth century emr-i entry Escalon especially États Evliya Çelebi exchange rates exports fact Ferriol Florenville foreign França France French cloth French nation French traders Greeks guild gurus Istanbul Izmir Janissaries Jews l'ambassade lettres Levant Levant trade Levantine livre tournois major manufacturers Marseilles Mémoire des députés merchants muhassil Muslim Négociants Ottoman capital Ottoman Empire paras Paris payment piasters Porte profit purchases Rémuzat Roux Frères seilles shipments ships siècle silver Spanish piaster sugar takrir textile thalers tion traders in Istanbul Turks Turquie Venetian Villeneuve western wool XVIII