Page images


song." The two stanzas are in the t-agedy, ascribed to Fle'cter of " Rollo, Duke of Normandy.” There is no possibility, we apprehend, of deciding the authorship of the second statza, (see Illustrations of Measure for Measure, Activ.) The other poem,


“Let the bird of loudest las," –

is found with Shakspeare's name in a book printed in 1601, ile greater part of which consists of a poem translated from the Italian by Robert Chester, entitled " Love's Martyr; or, Russia's Complaint: allegorically shadowing the Truth of Love, in the Constant Fate of the Phænix and Turtle.” There is a second tie to this volume prefixed to some supplementary vers: “ Hereafer follow diverse Poetical Essaies on the former Subiect, viz, the Turtle and Phænix. Done by the best and chicfest of our modern Writers, with their Names subscribed to their parciar Works. Never before extant.” The name “ Wm. Shakespare" is ss» scribed to this poem, in the same way that the names of Bein some son, Marston, and Chapman are subscribed to oil cr poems.


The PassionATE PIlgrim was originally published in 1599, by William Jaggard, with the name of Shakspeare on the title-page. A reprint, with some additions and alterations of arrangement, appeared in 1612, bearing the following title : “ The Passionate Pilgrime, or certaine amorous Sonnets, betweene Venus and Adonis, newly corrected and augmented. By W. Shakspeare. The third Edition. Whereunto is newly added two Love-Epistles, the first from Paris to Hellen, and Hellen's Answere backe again to Paris. Printed by W. Jaggard, 1612.” The second edition was in all probability, a mere reprint of the first edition ; but in the third edition there are, as the title-page implies, important alterations. There is one alteration which is not expressed in the title page. A distinction is established in the character of the poems by classifying six of them under a second title-page, “Sonnets to Sundry Notes of Musick.” This distinction we have preserved. There can be no doubt, we apprehend, that the “newly added two Love-Epistles, the first from Paris to Hellen, and Hellen's Answere backe again to Paris," were not written by Shakspeare. There is the best evidence that they were written by Thomas Heywood. In 1609 that writer published a folio volume of considerable pretension, entitled “ Troia Britanica, or Great Britaine's Troy." In this volume appear the two translations from Ovid which William Jaggard published as Shakspeare's in 1612. Heywood in that year published a treatise entitled “ An Apology for Actors ; " to which is prefixed an epistle to his bookseller, Nicholas Okes. The letter is a curious morsel in literary history :

“ To my approved good friend, Mr. Nicholas Okes.

“ The infinite faults escaped in my book of Britain's Troy, by the negligence of the printer, as the misquotations, mistaking of syllables, misplacing half-lines, coining of strange and never heardof words: these being without number, when I would have taken a particular account of the errata, the printer answered me, he would not publish his own disworkmanship, but rather let his own fault lie

upon the neck of the author : and being fearful that others of his quality had been of the same nature and condition, and finding you, on the contrary, so careful and industrious, so serious and laborious, to do the author all the rights of the press, I could not choose but gratulate your honest endeavors with this short remembrance. Here, likewise, I must necessarily insert a manifest injury done me in that work, by taking the two Epistles of Paris to Helen, and Helen to Paris, and printing them in a less volume. under the name of another which may put the world in opinion I might steal them from him, and he, to do himself right, hath since published them in his own name : but as I must acknowledge my lincs not worthy his patronage under whom he hath published them, so the author I know much offended with M. Jaggard that (altogether unknown to him) presumed to make so bold with his name. These, and the like dishonesties, I know you to be clear of; and I could wish but to be the happy author of so worthy a work as I could willingly commit to your care and workmanship.

6. Yours ever,


[ocr errors]

Jaggard, upon the publication of this, appears to have been com. pelled to do some sort of justice to Heywood, however imperfect. He cancelled the title-page of the edition of The Passionate Pil. grim of 1612, removing the name of Shakspeare, and printing the collection without any author's name. Malone had a copy of the book with both title-pages. This transaction naturally throws great discredit on the honesty of the publisher; and might lead us to suspect that Ileywood's was not the only case in which Shakspearo was “ much offended with M. Jaggard, that (altogether unknown to him) presumed to make so bold with his name.” There are other pieces in The Passionate Pilgrim that have been attributed on reasonable grounds to other authors than Shakspeare. It may be well, therefore, that we should run through the whole collection, offering a few brief observations on the authenticity of these poems.

The two first Sonnets in Jaggard's edition of The Passionate Pilgrim are those which, with some alterations, appear as the 138th and the 1441h in the collection of Sonnets published in 1609. The variations of thosc Sonnets, as they appeared in The Passionate Pilgrim, are given in our foot-notes at pages 216 and 219. The third Sonnct in the collection (the first in our reprint) is found in Love's Labor 's Lost. The fourth is one of the four Sonnets on the subject of Venus and Adonis. In Malone's first edition of these poems (1780) be followed the order of the original, as we now do; but in his posthumous edition, by Boswell, that order is changed, and the four Sonnets on the subject of Venus and Adonis are placed together, the first in the series. Malone's opinion, which he did not subsequently alter, was, that “ several of the Sonnets in this collection seem to have beer 'ssays of the author when be first conceived the notion of writing a poem on the subject of Venus and Adonis, and before the scheme of his work was conple:e's a used." Boswell justly says that some doubt is ti.cwn balacoe's conjecture by the circumstance that one of these four Sanets, with some variations, is found in a volume of poers te before The Passionate Pilgrim, namely, “ Fidessa ICC Coppaa Kinde," by B. Griffin, 1596. In Griffin's lit:le scuze, w ch tas been reprinted, the Sonnet stands as follows:

Tires, with young Adinis sitting by her,

taita errile sauc bezsa to woo him;
Sbest the poanziaz həw god Vars dil try her,

Aal as he is" to her, so feż she to him.
Ere thas, quyih sbe, the wanton god errbraced me;

And thus she ciasped Aionis in her arms :
Eren thus, quoth she, the warlike god unlaced me,

As if the boy should use Eke loring charms.
Ba: be, a warwarl bor, refused her offer,

Az i ran swar, the bcaato 23 quen neglecting;
Show both for to abuse her proffer,

Aza" scs of curardice detecting.
O, that I had cr mistress at that bay,
Tots aiep me to I ran awas!"

Te rraces between this Sonnet and that printed in the Pas. sicePin are rery remarkable; but there can be no doubt, westerns, that the authorslip belongs to Grifin. This vol. we w25 2x bished arormusly; and it is dedicated " to Mr. 12 Exl, c# Limbourre, Berks, and to the Gentlemen of the less of Cert" 1: is ro: likely that he would have adopted a Siece: tr Saispeare foa:ng about in society, and made it his own by these changes

The ti poem in Jamari's collection is Biron's Sunnet in Lore's Laber's Los!. Tre sertr:h, - Fair is my love," stands as Shekspeare's, without any rival to impugn Jaggard's authority. Tle eta is not so fortunate. I would be pleasant to believe the Sunr, coameneinz

** If nz an swot poetry agrec," was wren by Siakspeare. It would be satisfactory that the

• We have prerijus's erressed an opinion that it was written by Shak. grare: it has been geacras att:ibuted to him; and we had adopted the runned endis, akin; chiefy a: the character of the Sonnet. Sce page

gicatest dramatic poet of the world should pay his homage to that great contemporary from whose exhaustless wells of imagination every real lover of poetry has since drawn waters of " deep Jelight.” But that Sonnet is claimed by another; and we believe that the claim must be admitted. There was another publisher of the name of Jaggard — John Jaggard ; and he, in 1598, printed a volume bearing this title : “ Encomion of Lady Pecunia; or, the Praise of Moncy: The Complaint of Poetrie for the Death of Liberalitie : i.e. The Combat betweene Conscience and Covetousness in the Minde of Man : with Poems in divers Humors.” The volume bears the name, as author, of Richard Barnfield, graduate of Oxford, who had previously published a volume entitled “Cynthia.” The volume of 1598 contains a Sonnet 6 addressed to his friend Master R. L., in praise of Music and Poetry.” This is the Sonnet that a year after William Jaggard prints with the name of Shakspeare. But Barnfield's volume contains another poem, which the publisher of The Passionate Pilgrim also assigns to Shakspeare, amongst the “ Sonnets to Sundry Notes of Music ". - the last in the collection,

“As it fell upon a day."

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

It is remarkable that, after the publication of Barnfield's volume in 1598, and The Passionate Pilgrim in 1599, a large portion of this poem was, in 1600, printed in “ England's Helicon,” with the signature of “ Ignoto.” It there follows the poem which is the 18th in The Passionate Pilgrim,

“My flocks feed not."

That poem bears the title of “The Unknown Shepherd's Complaint,” and is also signed, in “ England's Hclicon," " Ignoto." " As it fell upon a day” is entitled " Another of the same Shepherd's.” Both the poems in “ England's Helicon” immediately follow one bearing the signature of “ W. Shakespeare,” the beautiful Sonnet in Love's Labor 's Lost, –

“On a day, alack the day,”.

which is given as one of the Sonnets to Music in The Passionate Pilgrim.

For the following poems in The Passionate Pilgrim no claim of authorship has appeared further to impugn the credibility of W, Jaggard :



« PreviousContinue »