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of mountain pasturages, where dairy-farming is carried on.

The valleys of the Alps form the natural means of communication. Some are more 7 accessible than others. On many of the high roads which link the


valleys, it has been found necessary to blow up long ridges of rock, to build terraces, to make stone bridges, as well as to erect 8 hospices. The construction of these roads may be reckoned among the boldest and most skilful works of man.

The Alpine mountains present many peculiarities worthy of notice in the animal kingdom. On the sunny heights, the number of insects is very great; the butterflies are especially numerous. Although the lofty mountains are inhabited by eagles, hawks, and various species of owls, yet the birds are few in comparison with the numbers in the plains. Among the quadrupeds the wild goat is occasionally met with ; the chamois is more frequently seen, chiefly in the eastern district. The marmot inhabits the upper Alpine regions. Wolves, bears, lynxes, and wild cats are also found, but these are diminishing in number. Of the domestic animals, goats and oxen are scattered everywhere in large herds. Mules and asses are used as beasts of burden. Dogs are not common; they are used almost solely by the herdsmen, or are kept in the hospices, to assist in searching for the unfortunate wanderers who


be lost in the snow. The Alpine, mountains are rich in singularly beautiful natural scenery, of which the inhabitants of flat countries can scarcely form an idea. Here, the hardened masses of the icy o glacier cover the naked rock, avalanches are hurled into immeasurable 10 abysses, the fall of rocks or mountain-slips overwhelms the dwellings, and covers the fields in the valleys. There, the sun glances upon the scattered silver threads of a waterfall, or 11 mirrors himself in the peaceful waters of a glassy lake, while his rising and his setting are announced to the " expectant traveller by the ruddy glow on the



snowy mountain-tops.

In his constant struggle with the elements, the Alpine dweller strengthens both body and mind; he opens his heart to the impressions of nature ; he gives utterance to his childlike gladness in simple songs, and at the same time defends, with self-sacrificing devotion, his mountain fortresses against foreign aggression.

system, assemblage. Celtic, that of the Celts, a race of people who in ancient times inhabited Central and Western Europe. The Irish and Welsh are descended from the Celts. 3 North Sea, by the river Rhine. * Black Sea, by the Danube. -5 Mediterranean, by the Po and its tributaries, and by the Rhone.

means of communication, the means of passing from place to place. 'accessible, easy of access or approach. 8 hospices, places of refuge or entertainment for travellers among the Alps, kept by monks, who also occupy them as convents. glacier, an immense mass of ice, or snow and ice, formed in the region of perpetual snow and moving slowly down mountain slopes or valleys. 10 abyss, . a hole or gulf which appears bottomless. 11 mirrors himself, is reflected. 2 expectant, waiting and expecting to see or receive something.





What hid'st thou in thy treasure-caves and cells,

Thou hollow-sounding and mysterious main ?
Pale glistening pearls, and rainbow-coloured shells,

Bright things which gleam 'unrecked of and in vain !
Keep, keep thy riches, melancholy sea !

We ask not such from thee.
Yet more, the depths have more !- What wealth untold,

Far down, and shining thro' their stillness lies !
Thou hast the starry gems, the burning gold

Won from ten thousand royal 3 Argosies !
Sweep o'er thy spoils, thou wild and wrathful main !

Earth claims not these again.



Yet more, the depths have more !—Thy waves have rolled

Above the cities of a world gone by ! Sand hath filled up the palaces of old,

Seaweed o'ergrown the halls of " revelry
Dash o'er them, ocean, in thy scornful play!

Man yields them to decay.
Yet more ! the billows and the depths have more !

* High hearts and brave are gathered to thy breast ! They hear not now the booming waters roar,

The battle-thunders will not break their rest. Keep thy red gold and gems, thou stormy grave !

Give back the true and brave ! Give back the lost and lovely! those for whom

The place was kept at board and hearth so long ! ? The prayer went up through midnight's breathless gloon,

And the vain yearning woke ʼmidst festal song ! Hold fast thy s buried isles, thy towers o'erthrown

But all is not thine own. To thee the love of woman hath

gone down, Dark flow thy tides o'er manhood's noble head, O'er youth's bright locks and beauty's flowery crown;

9 Yet must thou hear a voice-Restore the dead ! Earth shall "reclaim her precious things from thee ! Restore the dead, thou sea !

Mrs. Hemans.




i unrecked of, unheeded ; uncared for. 2 riches, pearls, shells, bright things, mentioned in preceding lines. 3 Argosies, large ships, either for merchandise or war. So called from Ragusa, an ancient port in the Adriatic Sea. "cities of a world, etc. ; this refers to Tyre, Sidon, and other cities whose ruins are now wholly or partly covered by the sea. Traditions of a great deluge exist among the Persians, Greeks, Hindoos, some of the African tribes, and those of North and South America. 5 revelry, noisy festivity. 6 high hearts, etc., refers to sailors, with fearless hearts. The prayer, etc., means that bereaved ones mourn for their young daughters and wives lost at sea. The longing to have their loved ones again is constantly presenting itself, not only in the still dark night when they are alone, but also when they are in the midst of joyous friends. 8 buried isles, islands which have become submerged (covered by the sea). °yet must, etc.: Rev. xx. 13, “And the sea gave up the dead which were in it.” 10 reclaim, claim again ; recover.

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man-u-fac'-to-ries dec-or-a'-tions Ven-e'-tians fa-cil'-i-ties un-sub-stan'-tial foun-da'-tions ar-ti-fi-cial A-dri-at'-ic mar'-vel-lous-ly fas'-ci-na-ting suf-fi'-cient Ar-te'-sian tho'-rough-fare sub-di-vi'ded mar'.i-time har'-assed mag-nif-i-cent re-fine'-ment in-creased gon'-do-la VENICE, in Northern Italy, is one of the noblest, most famous, and most remarkable cities in the

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