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nights, and gather together his bones from beneath the gallows, until she had gathered them every one and buried them in consecrated ground beside the churchyard wall. It is as terrible a tale as could well be imagined, and is told with a plain and classic force, a freedom from shrillness or emphasis, which leaves the terror all the more piercing and unescapable.'
The 'Edinburgh Review' for October, 1881, refers to the poem as one in which Tennyson 'has broken on the world with a new strength and splendor,' and 'has achieved a new reputation.' The writer adds: Of this astonishing production it has been said that, were all the rest of the author's works destroyed, this alone would at once place him among the first of the world's poets. Such was the verdict pronounced by Mr. Swinburne. It has all his characteristic generosity, and not much of his characteristic exaggeration.
A work of this order can never be done justice to by quotations; but we have used them with no further end than to indicate baldly the outline of the poet's subject. For his sublime treatment of it, for the tenderness and the terror of his pathos, we must refer the reader to the poem itself in its entirety. Nothing in Maud," nothing in “ Guinevere,” can approach in power to Rizpah." This fact can, we conceive, be accounted for by the special nature of the subject. Of all the affections of human nature that are least subject to change, either in the way of contraction or development, is the passion of mother for child. It asks least aid either from faith or reason. And something may be said of the three other poems that we have associated with “ Rizpah” 5* The First Quarrel
,: The Northern Cobbler, and The Village Wife'). These three deal all of them with the life of the common people, and touch our feelings and principles in their rudest and simplest form. They take us below the reach of either conscious faith or philosophy; and they elude, they do not meet, the problems of human destiny: Thus Mr. Tennyson's genius has escaped, in these cases, from the external circumstances that have been depressing it; and, once supplied with a fitting theme to handle, it has shown itself as strong, if not stronger than ever.'
For the suggestion of the title of 'Rizpah,' see 2 Samuel, xxi. 1-14.
Line 7. The creak of the chain. It was formerly the custom in England to hang the bodies of certain malefactors in chains after execution. The bodies of pirates were so hanged on the banks of the Thames.
54. They had moved in my side. For the use of side,' compare Comus,' 1009:
And from her fair unspotted side
Youth and Joy; 80 Jove hath sworn.
• The general lines of the Northern Cobbler's position are the same as of many reformed drinkers, but no one but himself could have set
the bottle up in the window, or declared that he would take it with him after death, like a Norse warrior his sword, before the throne (Stopford Brooke).
Line 6. The line. The equator.
13. I could fettle and clump, etc. Repair and put new soles to old boots and shoes. 'Shake speare uses “fettle' once, in 'Romeo and Juliet,' i. 5. 154:
But fettle your fine joints 'gainst Thursday next,
To go with Paris to Saint Peter's Church; where it means to prepare, make ready.
19. I slither'd. That is, slipped.
20. Slaäpe down i' the squad. Suddenly down in the slush.
22. Scrawm'd and scratted. Clawed and scratched.
32. Weär'd it o' liquor. Spent it for liquor. 53. All in a tew. All in a fuster. 78. Snaggy. Snappish, ill-tempered.
108. Feät. Trim; used by Shakespeare sereral times.
110. A codlin. A codling, or unripe apple. Compare Twelfth Night,' i. 5. 167: a codling when 't is almost an apple.'
Page 458. THE REVENGE. Line 51. Having that within her womb, etc. · Womb' is here used in its original sense of belly. Compare Wiclif's Bible, Luke, xv. 16: ' And he coveitide to fille his wombe of the coddis that the hoggis eaten,' etc.
118. And the little Revenge herself went down, etc. Markham, in a postscript to his poem, says: “What became of the Reuenge after Sir Richards death, diuers report diuersly, but the most probable and sufficient proofe sayth, tbat within fewe dayes after the Knights death, there arose a great storme from the VVest and North-west, that all the Fleet was disperced, aswell the Indian Fleet, which were then come vnto them, as all the rest of the Armada, which attended their ariuall; of vvhich fourteene sayle, together with the Reuenge, and in her two hundred Spanyards, were cast away vppon the Ile of S. Michaels; so it pleased them to honour the buriall of that renowned Ship the Reuenge, not suffering her to perrish alone, for the great horour shee atchiued in her life time.'
Page 461. THE SISTERS.
Line 91. Lake Llanberis. In North Wales. Compare · The Golden Year':
And found him in Llanberis: then we crost
Between the lakes, etc. The lakes are Llyn Padarn and Llyn Peris; but they are often called the 'Llanberis Lakes.'
111. Of our New Forest. An ancient royal hunting demesne, extending westward from Southampton Water. There are about 140 square miles in the district, little more than two thirds of which now belongs to the crown.
117. My Rosalind in this Arden. The allosion to “As You Like It’ is obvious.
Page 465. THE VILLAGE WIFE. Line 19. Can tha tell ony harm on 'im, lass! All the English editions omit the comma befox lass.'
64. The 'Ouse. That is, the poorhouse: a stone. Like the carvings by prisoners of state folloquial use of the word in England.
still to be seen on the walls of the Beauchamp 80. White wi' the maäy. That is, with the Tower in the Tower of London. blossoms of the white hawthorn. See note on 16. The proud Archbishop Arundel. Thomas • The Miller's Daughter,' line 130. All the Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, a zealous English editions have ‘Maäy' in the present persecutor of the Lollards. passage.
19. Bara. Bread (Welsh). 88. Fur he cad 'is 'erse Billy-rough-un. For 20. Vailing a sudden eyelid. The'vailing 'in he called his horse Bellerophon. Similarly, the the obsolete word meaning to lower or let fall. name of the warship Bellerophon is said to 21. Dim Saesneg. No English; that is, I do have been corrupted by the sailors into · Billy- not speak English. ruffian.'
24. Not least art thou, thou little Bethlehem, 99. Siver the mou’ds rattled down upo' poor etc. See Micah, v. 2. oud Squire i the wood. Howsoever (however) 26. Little Lutterworth. Lutterworth, the the mould (earth) rattled down on the poor old parish in Leicestershire of which Wiclif was Squire's coffin.
rector. 107. Hes fur Miss Hannie the heldest hes now, 77. Sir Roger Acton. A prominent Lollard. etc. This is the reading of the English editions; 78. Beverley. John of Beverley, who was but elsewhere in the poem we have · Miss An- martyred January 19, 1413–14. nie' and 'es' (for ' as ') except in the preceding 79. Thy two witnesses. See Revelation, xi. 3. line, where it is misprinted as.'
84. Him, who should bear the sword, etc. Henry 121. Hugger-mugger they lived. They lived V. The poet seems here to identify the speaker in a slovenly way (Century Dict.). The word, with the Sir John Oldcastle who appears as whether as noun or adjective, often means in one of Prince Henry's wild companions in the privacy or secrecy. Compare · Hamlet,' iv. 5. old play of. The Famous Victories of Henry 84:
the Fifth,' on which Shakespeare founded his and we have done but greenly,
• Henry IV. and · Henry V.;' and it is well In hugger-mugger to inter him.
known that 'Sir John Oldcastle' was originally 126. Roomlin' by. Rumbling by (in his the name of Falstaff in the 'Henry IV. plays. coach).
The dramatist changed the name to avoid ofPage 468. IN THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL. fending the Protestants and gratifying the Ro
Line 10. Drench'd with the hellish oorali. A man Catholics. See the epilogue to 2 Henry drug, also known as 'woorali' and 'curari' (or IV.': Falstaff shall die of a sweat, unless al'curara'), extracted from the Strychnos torifera. ready a' be killed with your hard opinions; for It acts by paralyzing the nerves of motion with- Oldcastle died a martyr, and this is not the man.' out impairing the sensibility. It is used by Fuller, in his . Church History' (lib. iv.), says: the South American Indians for poisoning their 'Stage poets have themselves been very bold arrows. The reference here is to the practice with, and others very merry at, the memory of of vivisection for purposes of physiological in- Sir John Oldcastle, whom they have fancied a vestigation. Tennyson evidently sympathized boon companion, a jovial royster, and yet a cow. with the criticisms, not wholly groundless,
ard to boot. The best is, Sir John Falstaff which have been urged against it, and which hath relieved the memory of Sir John Oldcastle, have led in England to the enactment of laws and of late is substituted buffoon in his place.' restricting and regulating it.
93. Or Amurath of the East. A Turkish Page 470. DEDICATORY POEM TO THE PRIN- Sultan. Compare .2 Henry IV.' v. 2. 48: CESS ALICE.
This is the English, not the Turkish court; Line 7. Thy soldier-brother's bridal orange
Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds, bloom, etc. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught,
But Harry Harry. was married at Windsor, on the 13th of March, 159. Sylvester. Sylvester II., who became 1879, to Louise-Marguerite, Princess of Prussia. Pope A. D. 999.
Page 470. THE DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW. Page 476. COLUMBUS.
Lin 20. The brute bullet. The senseless When Columbus returned to San Domingo bullet; antithetical to the sentient ‘brain.' on his third expedition, the colony was in a de
25. Mine ? yes, a mine! Sir James Outram, plorable condition. Things went from bad to describing the siege, says: 'I am aware of no worse, and the Spanish monarchs sent an officer parallel to our series of mines in modern war. of the royal household, Francis de Bobadilla, Twenty-one shafts, aggregating two hundred to make investigations, with authority to send feet in depth, and 3291 feet of gallery have been back to Spain any cavaliers or other persons executed. The enemy advanced twenty mines whom he thought proper. It is not probable againɛt the palaces and outposts; of these they that the intention was to include Columbus in exploded three which caused us loss of life, and the list of persons subject to arrest; but Bobatwo which did no injury; seven have been blown dilla, soon after his arrival in the island, put in; and out of seven others the enemy have been the great admiral in chains, and sent him to driven and their galleries taken possession of Spain, where he arrived in November, 1499. by our miners.'
Line 18. The great • Laudamus.' The Te Page 472. Sir John OLDCASTLE.
Deum. Line 5. Scribbled or carved upon the pitiless 25. The Dragon's Mouth. The name (Bocca del Drago) which Columbus gave to a channel called Athbrea, on the Boyne, A. D. 284. Ossian, between the island of Trinidad and the main- or Oisin, the famous hero-poet, to whom the land of South America.
bards attribute many poems still extant, was 26. The Mountain of the World. The 'Moun- the son of Finn. tain of Adam,' or Mountain of the Gods,' 55. The Isle of Fruits. The poet may have the highest peak in Ceylon, on the summit of got the hint of this island from the isle of inwhich the print of Buddha's foot is supposed to toxicating wine-fruits' in the Celtic tale; but be visible.
the rich details of the picture are all his own. 46. King David call'd the heavens a hide, a 77. That undersea isle. The description here tent. See Psalms, civ. 2.
is developed from the simple statement in the 48. Some cited old Lactantius. An eminent old legend that “they could see, beneath the Christian author, who flourished early in the clear water, a beautiful country, with many 4th century. The 1st edition of his works, one mansions surrounded by groves and woods.' of the oldest of printed books, was brought out So far from being tempted to dive down to the at Subiaco in 1465.
place, the sight of an animal fierce and ter74. Guanahani. The native name of the rible' which infests it makes them tremble lest first island discovered by Columbus.
they may not be able to cross the sea over the 107. The belting wall of Cambalu, etc. The monster, on account of the extreme thinness of royal residence of the Khan of Cathay. Com- the water; but after much difficulty and danger pare Milton, “ Paradise Lost,'xi. 388: •Cambalu, they get across it safely.' seat of Cathayan Can.'
105. The Isle of the Double Towers. If I had 109. Prester John was a mythical Christian not read the old tale, I should have said that king of India. Compare • Much Ado About this quaint and wild conception must have Nothing,' ii. 1. 274: ‘I will fetch you a tooth- been taken froin it; but, though it seems so picker now from the furthest inch of Asia, thoroughly like a Celtic fancy, there is nothing bring you the length of Prester John's foot.' in the legend that could have suggested it.
117. Howl'd me from Hispaniola. The name 115. Saint Brendan. One of the most fawhich Columbus gave to the island of Hayti. mous of the ancient Celtic legends is that of
125. Fonseca, my main enemy at their court. • The Voyage of Saint Brendan,' undertaken Juan Rodriguez Fonseca, a bigoted Spanish in the sixth century. He set out from Kerry, prelate, who called Columbus a visionary and sailed westward into the Atlantic, and, as some treated him with persistent malignity.
believed, landed on the shore of America. The 126. Boradilla. The Francisco de Bobadilla adventures he met with were as varied and mentioned above.
surprising as those of Maeldune. 144. Veragua. A province of New Granada Page 484. PREFATORY SONNET TO THE in South America.
NINETEENTH CENTURY.' 190. The Catalonian Minorite. Bernardo
Line 3. Their old craft, seaworthy still. “The Buil (Boyle), a Benedictine monk, according to Contemporary Review. the best authorities (not a Minorite, or Fran- 7. This roaring moon of daffodil. Compare ciscan), who was sent by the Pope to the new The Winter's Tale,' iv. 4. 118: – Indies in June, 1493, as apostolical vicar. He
daffodils hated Columbus, but there seems to be no evi
That come before the swallow dares, and take dence that he excommunicated him.
The winds of March with beauty. 206. Colon. The Spanish form of 'Columbus.'
Page 484. TO THE REv. W. H. BROOK Page 479. THE VOYAGE OF MAELDUNE. FIELD. Line 22. Fainter than any flittermouse-shriek.
Line 6. We paced that walk of limes. Com The cry of the bat, which in England is popu- pare ' In Memoriam,' lxxxvii.: larly called 'Aittermouse' (fluttering-mouse),
Up that long walk of limes I past * Aickermouse,' or 'findermouse.' Compare
To see the rooms in which he dwelt. Ben Jonson, 'Sad Shepherd,' ii. 8: “And giddy
11. Our kindlier, trustier Jaques. The alluflittermice, with leather wings,' etc.
sion to · As You Like It' needs no explanation. 26. They almost fell on each other. This idea,
Page 484. MONTENEGRO. which occurs so often in the poem, is not to be found in the old legend.
Line 12. Great Tsernogora! Or Tzernagora,
the native name of Montenegro. 48. The triumph of Finn. Finn, the son of
Page 488. To E, FITZGERALD, Cumal, was the most renowned of all the heroes
Line 15. Your table of Pythagoras. For the of ancient Ireland. He was commander of the Feni, or · Feni of Erin,' a sort of standing army
allusion to the vegetarianism of the old phi
losopher, based on the doctrine of metempsymaintained by the monarch for the support of
chosis, compare Twelfth Night,' iv, 2. 54:the throne. Each province had its own soldiers under a local captain, but all were under one
Cloun. What is the opinion of Pythagoras concertcommander-in-chief. Finn was equally brave
Malvolio. That the soul of our grandam might haply and sagacious. His foresight was, indeed, so
inhabit a bird. extraordinary that the people believed it to be
Clown. What thinkest thou of his opinion ? a preternatural gift, and a legend was invented Malvolio. I think nobly of the soul, and no was to account for it. He was killed at a place approve his opinion.
Cloun. Fare thee well. Remain thou still in darkDess. Thou shalt hold the opinion of Pythagoras ere I will allow of thy wits, and fear to kill a woodcock lest thou dispossess the soul of thy grandam.
For the poet's account of the vegetarian dream, see the ‘Memoir,' vol. ii. p. 317. The visit to Fitzgerald was made in 1876.
16. A thing enskied. See ‘Measure for Measure,' i. 4. 34: 'I hold you as a thing enskied and sainted.'
28. Of Eshcol hugeness. See Numbers, xiii. 23.
32. Your golden Eastern lay. The 'Rubalyát?. of Omar Kayyam, translated by Fitzgerald in 1859.
46. My son. Hallam, the present Lord Tennyson.
Page 489. TIRESIAS.
Line 9. My son. Used in a familiar figurative way. Menaceus, whom he addresses below, was the son of Creon, and directly descended from Cadmus, who had offended Ares (Mars) by killing the dragon guarding a spring sacred to the god.
25. Subjected to the Heliconian ridge. “Subjected' is used in its etymological sense of lying below.
38. There in a secret olive-glade I saw, etc. The description of the goddess is nowise inferior to that of the same goddess and her companion deities in Enone.”
96. The song-built towers and gates. The walls of Thebes rose to the music of Amphion's harp, as those of Troy to Apollo's. Compare Enone.' 147. A wiser than herself. Edipus.
164. Their ocean - islets. The Isles of the Blest.
192. Find the gate Is bolted, and the master gone. For the figure, compare “The Deserted House.'
Page 495. DESPAIR.
Line 21. In the drear nightfold of your fatalist. The 1881 reading was dark nightfold.'
75. Tho' glory and shame dying out for ever, etc. The 1881 reading was: Tho' name and fame dying out,' etc.
Page 504. To-MORROW.
Line 31. The white o’the may. All the English editions have · May; ' but I have no doubt that the reference is to the blossoms of the white hawthorn, as in “The Village Wife,' line 80. See note on that passage.
48. The Sassenach whate, The Saxon (English) wheat. Page 508. PROLOGUE TO GENERAL HAMLEY.
Line 5. You came, and look'd, and loved the view, etc. The view from the poet's summer residence at Aldworth.
28. Tel-el-Kebir. A village in Lower Egypt, about fifty miles northeast of Cairo. Here, on the 13th of September, 1882, the English under General Wolseley defeated the Egyptian insurgents under Arabi Pasha, whose surrender soon followed.
Page 509. THE CHARGE OF THE HEAVY BRIGADE AT BALACLAVA.
Line 5. When the points of the Russian lances arose on the sky. Originally, 'broke in on the sky.'
14-21. Thousands of horsemen had gather'd there on the height, etc. For these eight lines the first version had: Down the hill slowly thousands of Russians Drew to the valley, and halted at last on the height, With a wing push'd out to the left, and a wing to the
right But Scarlett was far on ahead, and he dashed up alone Thro' the great gray slope of men, And he wheel'd his sabre, he held his own Like an Englishman there and then; And the three that were nearest him follow'd with
force, etc. 45. 'Lost are the gallant three hundred of Scarlett's Brigade! Originally, the gallant three hundred, the Heavy Brigade!' In the preceding line, whispering' was 'muttering.'
46. 'Lost one and all!' were the words. This line and the next were not in the first version.
60. Drove it in wild dismay. Not in the first version.
66. And all the Brigade. Originally, the Heavy Brigade.'
Page 510. EPILOGUE.
Irene. The name, which is the Greek word for peace,' is in keeping with the character.
Line 14. Or Trade re-frain the Powers, etc. The hyphen is apparently intended to call attention to the derivation of “re-frain from the late Latin refrenare, to bridle or hold in with a bit (frenum).
17. Kelt. Elsewhere the poet uses the form Celt.! Compare 'In Memoriam,' cix.: Tho blind hysterics of the Celt; ' 'A Welcome to Alexandra': Teuton or Celt, or whatever we be,' etc.
I will strike,' said he, etc. See his Ode (i. 1. 35, 36):
Quod si me lyricis vatibus inseres,
Sublimi feriam sidera vertice. 52. Yon myriad-worlded way. The Galaxy.
59. The falling drop will make his name As mortal as my own. That is, by finally obliterating the record; apparently suggested by Ovid's Gutta cavat lapidem non vi sed saepe cadendo.' Page 511. To VIRGIL.
The allusions to the Æneid,' the 'Georgics,' and certain · Eclogues ' need no explanation.
Line 3. He that sang the Works and Days. Hesiod.
18. The Northern Island sunder'd once from all the human race. Compare the first . Eclogue,' 67: Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.'
Page 513. EARLY SPRING. Line 19. The woods with living airs. Originally, ‘by living airs.'
33. A gleam from yonder vale. Originally, 'Some gleam,' etc.
Page 514. Frater Ave Atque Vale. The Latin quotations in the poem are from Catullus, the
Frater ave atqne vale' being the end of his lament for the loss of his brother (101.10).
Page 514. HELEN'S TOWER.
original reading on the tower and in Good Words ') was: • Mother's love engraved in gold.' In the “Tiresias' volume engraved' was changed to 'engrav'n.' The present reading was adopted in 1889,
The reading in the 8th line was originally to last so long,' changed in the · Tiresias' volume.
Page 515. HANDS ALL ROUND.
The version of this song in the Examiner' was as follows: First drink a health, this solemn night,
A health to England, every guest; That man 's the best cosmopolite
Who loves his native country best.
With stronger life from day to day;
Hands all round !
And the great name of England, round and round. A health to Europe's honest men !
Heaven guard them from her tyrants' jails ! From wronged Poerio's noisome den,
From iron'd limbs and tortured nails !
The Russian whips and Austrian rods —
Yet hands all round!
And the great name of England, round and round ! What health to France, if France be she,
Whom martial prowess only charms ? Yet tell her - better to be free
Than vanquish all the world in arms. Her frantic city's flashing heats
But fire, to blast, the hopes of men. Why change the titles of your streets ? You fools, you 'll want them all again.
Yet hands all round ! God their tyrant's cause confound ! To France, the wiser France, we drink, my friends,
And the great name of England, round and round. Gigantic daughter of the West,
We drink to thee across the flood, We know thee most, we love thee best,
For art thou not of British blood ?
Permit not thou the tyrant powers
Hands all round !
And the great name of England, round and round. O rise, our strong Atlantic sons,
When war against our freedom springs !
They can be understood by kings.
That wish to keep their people fools;
Hands all round !
And the great cause of Freedom, round and round
All the reprints (not excepting that in the Memoir,' which has the tyrant's in the 3d stanza, and great kinsmen' in the last) are more or less inaccurate. Only the first stanza of this version appears in the present song, which was written to be sung by Mr. Santley, at St. James's Hall, London, on the Queen's birthday, May 24, 1882.
The 6th line then had larger' for 'stronger,' and the 11th line had the great,' as also in the 11th line of the other two stanzas.
This new version as printed in the Tiresias' volume had 'true Cosmopolite' and 'best Con servative.' In 1889 it took its present form.
Page 516. FREEDOM.
Line 3. The pillard Parthenon. Sometimes printed (without authority, as Lord Tennyson told me) 'the column'd Parthenon.'
17-20. Of knowledge fusing class with class, etc. This stanza was not in the poem as first printed.
21. Who yet, like Nature, etc. Originally, Who, like great Nature,' etc. The next line had 'our Human Star.'
Page 516. POETS AND THEIR BIBLIOGRAPHIES.
Line 6. Adviser of the nine-years ponder'd lay. See Horace, · Ars Poetica,' 388.
8. Catullus, whose dead songster never dies. Lesbia's sparrow.
Page 517. LOCKSLEY HALL SIXTY YEARS AFTER.
For a long review of the poem by Mr. W. E. Gladstone, see The Nineteenth Century for January, 1887. In the closing paragraph there is a reference to a criticism in the Spectator' (of December 18, 1886) · bearing the signs of a master hand,' and finding ' a perfect harinony, a true equation, between the two “Locksley Halls; ” the warmer picture due to the ample vitality of the prophet's youth, and the colder one not less due to the stinted vitality of his age.' I add a portion of the article to which Mr. Gladstone alludes:
“The critics hitherto have done no justice to Tennyson's "Locksley Hall," if, indeed, they have carefully read it. We venture to say that it is at least as fine a picture of age reviewing the phenoniena of life, and reviewing them with an insight impossible to youth into all that threatens man with defeat and degradation, though of course without any of that irrepressible elasticity of feeling which shows eren by the very wildness and tumult of its despair that despair is, for it, ultimately impossible; as Tennyson's earlier poem was of youth passionately resenting the failure of its first bright hope, and yet utterly unable to repress the
promise and potency” of its buoyant vitality: The difference between the “Locksley Hall of Tennyson's early poems and the “ Locksley Hall" of his latest is this - that in the former all the melancholy is attributed to personal grief, while all the sanguine visionariness which really springs out of overflowing vitality justifies itself by dwelling on the cumulative resources of science and the arts; — in the latter, the met