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After proceeding to describe the production of all beings from the mundane egg floating. on the waters, the Aitaréya asks, "What is this soul? that we may worship him. Which is the soul? Is it that, by which a man sees? By which he hears? By which he smells odours? By which he utters speech? By which he discriminates a pleasant or an unpleasant taste? Is it the heart, or understanding? Or the mind, or will? Is it sensation? or power? or discrimination? or comprehension? or perception? or retention? or attention? or application? or taste (or pain?) or memory? or assent? or determination? or animal action? or wish? or desire?

"All these are only various forms of apprehension. But this (soul consisting in the faculty of apprehension) is BRAHMA; he is INDRA, he is (PRAJAPATI) the lord of creatures: these gods are he; and so are the five primary elements, earth, air, the etherial fluid, water and light; these, and the same joined with minute objects and other seeds of existence, and again other beings produced from eggs, or borne in wombs, or originating in hot moisture, or springing from plants; whether horses, or kine, or men, or elephants, whatever lives, and walks, or flies, or whatever is immoveable, as trees and herbs: all that is the eye of intelligence. On intellect every thing is founded: the world is the eye of

intellect; and intellect is its foundation. Intelligence is (Brahme) the great one.

"By this intuitively intelligent soul, that sage ascended from the present world to the blissful region of heaven, and, obtaining all his wishes, became immortal. He became immortal.

"May my speech be founded on understanding; and my mind be attentive to my utterance. Be thou manifested to me, O self-manifested (intellect!) For my sake, O speech and mind! approach this Veda. May what I have heard be unforgotten: day and night may I behold this, which I have studied. Let me think the reality: let me speak the truth. May it preserve me; may it preserve the teacher; me may it preserve; the teacher may it preserve; may it preserve the teacher."

To this long quotation I will only add the conclusion of a hymn on the same subject, which is found in a different part of the Rigveda.

"Who knows exactly, and who shall in this world declare, whence and why this creation took place? The gods are subsequent to the production of this world; then who can know whence it proceeded? or whence this varied world arose? or whether it uphold itself or not? He, who is in the highest heaven, the ruler

of this universe, does indeed know; but not another can possess that knowledge."

Perhaps you will be as much struck as I was with the grandeur and simplicity of "He thought, I will create worlds; thus He created these worlds." But you must be aware that this is the creed of the learned, and not that of the people, who are taught the common mythological fables of the alternate destruction and renovation of the earth, with the periodical sleep of Brahma, or rather of Vishnu, the preserving power, during whose slumbers the genius of destruction prevails.

These better notions of the Vedas, and particularly those of the Aitaréya Aranyaca are professedly the fundamental doctrines of the philosophers of the Vedanta sect, whose speculations appear to coincide nearly with those of Berkeley, and perhaps, of Plato. The Sastra which contains the doctrines of the Vedantas is ascribed to Vyasa, and the commentator is Sancara, who explains and enlarges the very ancient and almost obsolete texts of this author. The opinions of this school concerning matter are, that it has no existence independent on mental perception, and consequently that existence and perceptibility are controvertible terms. That external appearances and sensations are illusory, and would vanish into nothing if the

divine energy which alone sustains them were suspended but for a moment.

Their notions concerning the human soul approach nearly to the Pantheism of some other philosophical sects, and may be understood from the following text. "That spirit from which these created beings proceed; through which, having proceeded from it, they live; toward which they tend, and in which they are ultimately absorbed, that spirit study to know; that spirit is the great one*."

The oldest philosophical sect in India appears, however, to have been that of the followers of Capila, inventor of the Sanc'hya or numeral philosophy which Sir William Jones thought resembled the metaphysics of Pythagoras, who is said, indeed, to have travelled into India in search of knowledge, and who might possibly have adopted the tenets of the

"Know first that heaven and earth's compacted frame And flowing waters, and the starry flame

And both the radiant lights, one common soul
Inspires and feeds, and animates the whole,
This active mind, infused through all the space-
Unites and mingles with the mighty mass.
Hence men and beasts the breath of life obtain,
And birds of air, and monsters of the main.
Th'etherial vigour is in all the same;
And ev'ry soul is filled with equal flame.'


6th Eneis. Dryden's Translation.

Brahmins his instructors. Next to the Sanc'hya, Gotama and Canáda invented the Nyáya or lọgical philosophy, admitting the actual existence of material substance in the popular sense of the word matter, and comprising a body of dialectics, with an artificial method of reasoning, with distinct names for the three parts of a proposition and even for those of a regular syllogism*.

The philosophy of the Baudd'ha and Jaina religious sects is branded with the name of atheism by the orthodox Brahmins, who assert that they deny the existence of spirit independent on matter, and consequently that of the supreme intelligence. But we may, I think, doubt how far the assertions of enemies and rivals are entitled to belief.

Thus you see the forests and groves of Hindostan produced systems of philosophy long before she

From heav'n descended to the low-roofed house

Of Socrates.

* Sir William Jones, in his eleventh Discourse, printed in the 4th vol. of the Asiatic Researches, p. 170, mentions the following-curious tradition which, according to the author of the Dabistan, prevailed in the Panjab. "Among other Indian curiosities which Callisthenes transmitted to his uncle, was a technical system of logic which the Brahmins had communicated to the inquisitive Greek," and which the Mahomedan writer supposes to have been the groundwork of the famous Aristotelian method.

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