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I had prolonged; the whole family loaded me with caresses and kindness, and when the peasant was alone with me I enquired how he came to be so well provided for. "I kept my word with you, father, (said the man) and resolved to lead a good life: I begged my way hither, which is my native country, and engaged in the service of the master of this farm; and gaining his favour by my fidelity and attachment to his interests, he gave me his only daughter in marriage : God has blessed my endeavours; I have amassed a little wealth, and I beg, that you will dispose of me and all that is mine : I shall now die content, since I have been able to see and testify my gratitude towards my deliverer. I told him I was wėll repaid for all I had done by the use he had made of his preservation. I could not be prevailed on to accept the offers he made me; but did not refuse remaining with him for some days, during which time I received a treatment fit for a monarch; and when he could no longer prevail on me to stay, he mounted me on his best horse, and never quitted me to my journey's end.'
Thus was a subject saved to the State by the divine mercy of a friar, a subject whose generations may by this time have populated a province; and in the moments of future dangers be able to serve the sovereign of an empire, by saving his country from a destructive enemy:
To come nearer home, to show the merciful spirit fif possible) in a more amiable light, I will narrate, on a future day, an oca currence that befell our own countryman the tuneful Shenstone, at his Farme-Orne, near Birmingham.
The tuneful bard, whose sweet descriptive song;
ON THE MOON.
A Parish is that circuit of ground in which the souls under the care of one Parson or Vicar do inbabit. * These are com. puted to be ncar ten thousand in number. How antient the division of parishes is, may at present be difficult to ascer: tain, for it seems to be agreed on all hands, that in the carly ages of Christianity in this island, parishes were unknown, or at least signified the same that a diocese does now. There was then no appropriation of ecclesiastical dues to any particular church; but every man was at liberty to contribute his tithes to whatever Priest or church he pleased, pro. vided only he did it to some : or if he' made no special ape pointment or appropriation thereof, they were paid into the hands of the Bishop, whose duty it was to distribute them among the Clergy, and for other pious purposes, according to his own discretion.
Mr. Camden:says, England was divided into parishes by Archbishop Honorius about the year 630. Sir Henry Hobart lays it down, that parishes were first erected by the Council of Lateran, which was held A.D. 1179. Each widely differing from the other, and both of them perhaps from the truth 1; wbich will probably be found in the medium between the two extremes. For Mr. Selden has clearly shewn, that the Clergy lived in common without any division of parishes, long after the time mentioned by Camden. And it appears from the Saxon laws, that parishes were in being long before the date of that Council of Lateran, to which they are ascribed by Hobart,
We find the distinction of parishes, nay even of mother churches, so early as in the laws of King Edgar, about the year 970. Before that time the consecration of tithes was in general arbitrary; that is, every man paid his own (as was before observed) to what church or parish he pleased. But this being liable to be attended with either fraud, or at lçast caprice, in the persons paying; and with either jealousies or mean compliances in such as were competitors for receiving them; it was now ordered by the law of King Edgar, that all tithes should be given to the mother church, to which the parish belongs. However, if any thane, or great Lord, had a church within his own demesnes, distinct from the mother-church, in the nature of a private chapel ; then, provided such church had a coemitery or consecrated place of burial belonging to it, he might allot one third of his tithes for the maintenance of the officiating Minister : but, if it bad no coemitery, the thane must bimself have maintained
tithes were ordained to be paid to the mother church.
This proves that the kingdom was then universally divided ieto parishes; which division happened probably not all at
önce, but by degrees. For it seems pretty clear and certain, that the boundaries of parishes were originally ascertained by those of a manor or manors : since it very seldom happens that a manor extends itself over more parishes than one, though there are often many manors in one parish. The Lords, as Christianity spread itself, begen to build churches upon their own demesnes or wastes, to accommodate their tenants in one or two adjoining Lordships; and, in order to have divine service regularly performed therein, obliged all their tenants to appropriate their tithes to the maintenance of the one officiating Minister, instead of leaving them at liberty to distribute them among the Clergy of the diocese in general; and this tract of land, the tithes whereof were so approa priated, formed a distinct parish. Which will well enough account for the frequent intermixture of parishes one with another. For if a Lord had a pareel of land detached from the main of his estate, but not sufficient to form a parish of itself, it was natural for him to endow his newly erected church with the tithes of those lands; especially if no church was then built in any Lordship, adjoining to those outlying parcels.
Thus parishes were gradually formed, and parish churches ondowed with the tithes that arose within the circuit assigned. But some lands, either because they were in the hands of irreligious and careless owners, or were situate in forests and desart places, or for other now unsearchable reasons, were not united to any parish, and therefore continue to this day extrag parochial; and their tithes are now by immemorial custom payable to the King instead of the Bishop, in trust and confidence that he will distribute them, for the general good of the church yet extra-parochial wastes and marsh lands, when improved and drained, are by the statue 17 Geo. Il. 37. to be assessed to all parochial rates in the parish next adjoining
- There are in the world," said the old Gentleman, "a: class of beings aptly denominated - unlucky devils :” men who, from infâncy to youth, from youth to maturity, and from maturity to old age, from the cradle to the grave, . failed in every undertaking, reçeire for all their offenees. frequently more than Pleserved. punishment, and often for the performance of good offices little or no reward, Includ. ed in this class, if not by nature, void of superstition, I. should be inclined strongly to embrace the vulgar notion that each individual is born subject to some favouring or inauspi. cious influence ; for, however weak in mind or weak in principle, the fingers of some men seem to be allowed the privilege of converting, like those of Midas, all they touch. to gold; whilst others appear in all their conduct equally unfortunate. Few of us can revieweven the characters and circumstances that are comprehended, within the sphere of our own knowledge, without beholding amongst them some instances of this nature. We shall there notice, some of the most honourable and prudential projects met frequently with an uninterrupted tide of the most cruel and unexpected disappointment, whilst the measures of the feeble-minded, and the inventions of the artful, thrive with a continuance of good fortune almost beyond credence. We shall there view the best meanings repeatedly misconstrued, honest counsels, rejected with scorn, undisguised sentiments. rea' ceived with insult, and fidelity of friendship sacrificed to the fictitious praises of wicked and designing sycophants. I can never persuade myself but that some men, whatever be their merit, are predestined to be in this world unpropie tious, and that others, whatsoever be their iniquity, are: born to flourish. But at the same time I believe, that the prosperities of the one and the adversities of the other are, no less than states of probation, which according as they are supported in this yorld will be punished or rewarded in the world to come.
Born, he, proceeded, at Liverpool, in the October. of 1750, I was the youngest of a family of six children. The night of my wativity was remarkable for two occurrences; the most violent and incessant tempest that had been remembered for many years; and a fire which happening in the house at the time of my birth, spread the greatest alarm; and though shortly extinguished, and productive of little damage to the property, occasioned, by the fright sbe received in consequence of this accident, the death of my esteemed mother. Thus ushered into the world in the midst of fire and water, confusion and distress, the circumstances attendant on the occasion seemed in some degree to progo nosticate an existence predestined for misfortune.,
“My father, thc collector of customs for the town above. mentioned, bore in bis arduous situation a high character. If he had not the lore of a classic or the polish of a courtier,