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These wait the owners last despair,

The horns of oren and cows are larger than the And what's permitted to the flames invade. Id. bulls; which is caused by abundance of moisture. There's nothing sillier than a crafty knave out

Bacon. witted, and beaten at his own play. L'Estrange. Although there be naturally more males than fe

It is conceit rather than understanding, if it must males, yet artificially, that is, by making geldings, be under the restraint of receiving and holding opi- oxen, and wethers, there are fewer. Graunt. nions by the authority of any thing but their own The field is spacious I design to sow, perceived evidence.

Locke, With oren far unfit draw the plough. Dryden. Others will own their weakness of understanding. I saw the river Clitumnus, celebrated by the poets

Id. for making cattle white that drink of it. The inhaIn a real action, the proximate cause is the pro- bitants of that country have still the same opinion, perty or ownership of the thing in controversy. and have a great many oxen of a whitish colour to Ayliffe's Parergon. confirm them in it.

Addison. That small muscle draws the nose upwards, when

The frowning bull it expresses the contempt which the owner of it has And or half-raised.

Thomson's Summer. upon seeing any thing he does not like. Addison.

Ox. See Bos. It must be owned, that, generally speaking, good

OXALIC Acid, in chemistry, which abounds parents are never more fond of their

daughters, than in wood sorrel, and which, combined with a when they see them too fond of themselves. Law.

small portion of potash, as it exists in that plant, Victory hath not made us insolent, nor have we taken advantage to gain any thing beyond the honour has been sold under the name of salt of lemons, of restoring every one's right to their just owners.

to be used as a substitute for the juice of that

Atterbury. fruit, particularly for discharging ink spots and Passion and pride were to her soul unknown, iron-moulds, was long supposed to be analogons Convinced that virtue only is our own. Pope. to that of tartar. In the year 1776, however,

Others on earth o'er human race preside, Bergman discovered that a powerful acid might Of these the chief, the care of nations own, be extracted from sugar by means of the nitric; And guard with arms divine the British throne.

and a few years afterwards Scheele found this to Id.

be identical with the acid existing naturally in What is this wit, which must our cares employ?

sorrel. Hence the acid began to be distinguished The owner's wife, that other men enjoy. Id.

For he that wrote so much, and so fast, would by the name of saccharine; but has since been through inadvertence and hurry, unavoidably have known in the new nomenclature by that of departed from rules which he might have found in oxalic. books: but his own truly poetical talent was a guide

Scheele extracted this acid from the salt of which could not suffer him to err. Cowper. sorrel, or acidulous oxalate of potash, as it exists But, by each joy of his I've known,

in the juice of that plant, by saturating it with And all í yet shall make my own,

ammonia, when it becomes a very soluble triple Never will I, with humble speech,

salt, and adding to the solution nitrate of barytes Pray to a heaven I cannot reach. Sheridan. dissolved in water. Having well washed the

Then how, my soul, can we be poor, oxalate of barytes, which is precipitated, he disWho own what kingdoms could not buy?

solved it in boiling water, and precipitated its of this true heart thou shalt be queen, And, serving thee, a monarch I.

Id.

base by sulphuric acid. To ascertain that no The patient Sculptor owns an humbler part,

sulphuric acid remained in the supernatant liA ruder toil, and more mechanic art;

quor, he added a little of a boiling solution of Content with slow and timorous stroke to trace

oxalate of barytes till no precipitate took place, The lingering line, and mould the tardy grace.

and then filtered the liquor, which contained

Id. nothing but pure oxalic acid, which he crystalBut Virtue's self, with all her tightest laces, lised by evaporation and cooling. Has not the natural stays of strict old age ;

It may be obtained, however, much more reaAnd Socrates, that model of all duty,

dily and economically from sugar in the followOwned to a penchant, though discreet, for beauty. ing way :-To six ounces of nitric acid in a

Byron. stoppered retort, to which a large receiver is Adeline, no deep judge of character,

luted, add, by degrees, one ounce of lump sugar Was apt to add a colouring from her own. 'Tis thus the good will amiably err,

coarsely powdered. A gentle heat may be apAnd eke the wise, as has been often shown. Id.

plied during the solution, and nitric oxide will France at our doors, be sees no danger nigh,

be evolved in abundance. When the whole of But heaves for Turkey's woes the’ impartial sigh ;

the sugar is dissolved, distil off a part of the A steady patriot of the world alone,

acid, till what remains in the retort has a syrupy The friend of every country--but his own.

consistence, and this will form regular crystals,

Canning amounting to fifty-eight parts from 100 of sugar. OX, n. s.? Plural Oxen. Sax. oxa; Goth. These crystals must be dissolved in water, reOxoang. Dan. and Swed. ore ; Teut. ochg; crystallised, and dried on blotting paper. Welch ych. A castrated bull: a general name

Oxalate of lime is found in the roots of the for black cattle: an oxgang was an ancient mea

following plants :-Alkana, apium, bistorta, carsure of land, containing twenty acres.

lina acaulis, curcuma, dictamnus albus, fænicuSheep run not half so tim'rous from the wolf,

lum, gentiana rubra, vincetoxicum, lapathum, Or horse or oren from the leopard,

liquiritia, mandragora, ononis, iris Florentina, As you fly from your oft-subdued slaves.

iris nostras, rheum, saponaria, scilla, sigillum Shakspeare.

salomonis, tormentilla, valeriana, zedoaria, zingiThe black or hath not trod on his foot. ber. And in the following barks :-berberis,

Camden. cassia fistularis, canella alba, cinamomum, cascarilla, cassia caryophyllata, china, culilavan, wise a greater affinity for lime than for any other frangula, fraxinus, quassia, quercus, simaruba, of the bases, and forms with it a pulverulent inlignum sanctum, ulmus. In the state of binoxy- soluble salt, not decomposable except by fire, late of potash it exists in the leaves of the oxalis and turning syrup of violets green. acetosella, oxalis corniculata, different species of From the oxalate of lead Berzelius infers its rumex, and geranium acidum.

prime equivalent to be 4.552, and by igneous The juice of the cicer parietinum is said to be decomposition he finds it resolved into 60.534 pure oxalic acid. Bergman procured it from oxygen, 33-222 carbon, and (•244 hydrogen. honey, gum-arabic, alcohol, and the calculous Since Berzelius published his analysis, oxalic concretions in the kidneys and bladders of ani- acid has been made the subject of some ingenious mals. Scheele and llerinbstadt from sugar of remarks by Dobereiner, in the 16th vol. of milk. Scheele from a sweet matter contained in Schweitzer's Journal. We see that the carbon fat oils, and also from the uncrystallisable part and oxygen are to each other in the simple ratio of the juice of lemons. Hermbstadt from the of 1 to 2; or, referred to their prime equivalent, acid of cherries, and the acid of tartar. Goett- as 2 of carbon = 1.5, to 3 of oxygen = 3:0. ling from beech-wood. Kohl from the residuum This proportion is what would result from a in the distillation of ardent spirits. Westrumb, prime of carbonic acid = C + 2. O, combined not only from the crystallised acids of currants, with one of carbonic oxide =(+0. C being cherries, citrons, and raspberries, but also from carbon, and () oxygen. The sum of the above the saccharine matter of these fruits, and from weights gives 4:5 for the prime equivalent of the uncrystallisable parts of the acid juices, oxalic acid, disregarding hydrogen, which conlloffmann from the juice of the barberry; and stitutes but one-thirty-seventh of the whole, and Berthollet from silk, hair, tendons, wool; also may possibly be referred to the imperfect desicfrom other animal substances, especially from the cation of the oxalate of lead subjected to analysis. coagulum of blood, whites of eggs, and likewise Oxalic acid acts as a violent poison when swalfrom the amylaceous and glutinous parts of lowed in the quantity of two or three drachmis; flour. M. Berthollet observes that the quantity and several fatal accidents have lately occurred of the oxalic acid obtained by treating wool with in London, in consequence of its being imnitric acid was very considerable, being above properly sold instead of Epsom salts. Its vulhalf the weight of the wool employed. lle men- gar name of salts, under which the acid is bought tions a difference which he observed between for the purpose of whitening boot-tops, occasions animal and vegetable substances thus treated these lamentable mistakes. But the powerfully with nitric acid, namely, that the former yielded, acid taste of the latter substance, joined to its beside ammonia, a large quantity of an oil which prismatic or needlc-formed crystallisation, are the nitric acid could not decompose; whereas sufficient to distinguish it from every thing else. the oily parts of vegetables were totally destroyed The immediate rejection from the stomach of by the action of this acid : and he remarks ihat this acid by an emetic, aided by copious draughts in this instance the glutinous part of flour re- of warm water containing bicarbonate of potası, sembled animal substances, whereas the amy- or soda, chalk, or carbonate of magnesia, are laceous part of the flour retained its vegetable the proper remedies. properties. He further remarks that the quantity With barytes it forms an insoluble salt; but of oxalic acid furnished by vegetable matters this salt will dissolve in water acidulated with thus treated is proportionable to their nutritive oxalic acid, and afford angular crystals. If, quality, and particularly that, from cotton, he however, we attempt to dissolve the crystals in could not obtain any sensible quantity. Deyeux, boiling water, the excess of acid will unite with having cut with scissars the hairs of the chick the water, and leave the oxalate, which will le pea, found they gave out an acid liquor, which, precipitated. on examination, proved to be an aqueous solu- The oxalate of strontian too is a nearly insolution of pure oxalic acid. Proust, and other ble compound. chemists, had before observed that the shoes Oxalate of magnesia too is insoluble, unless of persons walking through a field of chick peas the acid be in excess. were corroded.

The oxalate of potash exists in two states, that Oxalic acid crystallises in quadrilateral prisms, of a neutral salt, and that of an acidule. The the sides of which are alternately broad and par- latter is generally obtained from the juice of the row, and summits dihedral ; or, if crystallised leaves of the oxalis acetosella, wood sorrel, or rapidly, in small irregular needles. They are rumex acetosa, common sorrel. The expressed! efforescent in dry air, but attract a little liu- juice, being diluted with water, should be set by midity if it be damp; are soluble in one part of for a few days, till the freulent parts have stibhot and two of cold water; and are decomposable sided, and the supernatant Hund is become clear; by a red heat, leaving a small quantity of coaly or it may be claritied, when expressed, with the residuum. 100 parts of alcohol take up nearly wbites of curs. It is then to be struned ott's fifty-six at a boiling heat, but not above forty evaporated to a pellicle, avid set in a cool place cold. Their acidity is so great that, when dis- to crystallise. The first product of crystals being solved in 3600 times their weight of water, the taken out, the liquor may be further evapcraiend solution reddens litmus paper, and is perceptibly ad crystallised; and the sume process repeteil acid to the taste.

can be obvined. In this vill The oxalic acid is a good test for detecting Schlereih informis ils, about wine dacims of lime, which it separates from all the other acids, crushels muy lie obcement from two pounds rif unless they are present in excens. It has lihts Heile, which are onerally afforded by len pounil:

till no

nore

of wood sorrel. Savary, however, says that ten which in the extent and number of its instituparts of wood sorrel, in full vegetation, yield tions and the wealth of its endowments is unlive parts of juice, which give little more than a equalled. The city stands on a gentle eminence, 200th of tolerably pure salt

. He boiled down in a valley, at the confluence of the Isis and the juice, however, in the first instance, without Cherwell, which descending towards the south, clarifying it; and was obliged repeatedly to dis- and uniting at an acute angle, nearly encompass solve and recrystallise the salt to obtain it white. it. Between these streams and the city, particu

This salt is in small, white, needley, or lamel- larly on the south and west, are beautiful and lar crystals, not alterable in the air. It unites luxuriant meadows; and beyond them the proswith barytes, magnesia, soda, ammonia, and most pect is bounded on the east, south, and west, by of the netallic oxides, into triple salts. Yet its an amphitheatre of hills. From these hills the solution precipitates the nitric solutions of mer- city presents a noble spectacie. It is of an oval cury and silver in the state of insoluble oxalates form, and was formerly surrounded by a wall, of these metals, the nitric acid in this case com- about two miles in circumference, having basbining with the potash. It attacks iron, lead, tions at 150 feet distant from each other; very tin, zinc, and antimony.

little of these works, however, remain. The This salt, beside its use in taking out ink spots, city and suburbs now include a circuit of three and as a test of lime, forms with sugar and miles, extending in length a mile and a quarter water a pleasant cooling beverage; and, accord- from east to west, and out as much from north ing to Berthollet, it possesses considerable powers to south. The entrances east, south, and west, as an antiseptic.

present bridges crossing the respective rivers. The neutral oxalate of potash is very soluble, Magdalen bridge is an elegant stone building and assumes a gelatinous form, but may be over the Cherwell, 526 feet in length, built in brought to crystallise in hexahedral prisms with 1779, at an expense of £8000. That over the dihedral summits, by adding more potash to the Isis, on the west, consists of three substantial liquor than is sufficient to saturate the acid. arches. On the south is another over the same

Oxalate of soda likewise exists in two different river, on which, till lately, stood a lofty tower, states, those of an acidulous and a neutral salt, termed Friar Bacon's Study. From Magdalen which in their properties are analogous to those bridge the High-street stretches westwards, unof potash.

der different names, through the whole city. At The acidulous oxalate of ammonia is crystal- Quarte Vois, or Carfax church, this is crossed lisable, not very soluble, and capable, like the at right angles by St. Giles's, the other principal preceding acidules, of combining with other street ; and from these most of the other streets bases, so as to form triple salts. But, if the acid diverge. be saturated with ammonia, we obtain a neutral High-street is perhaps the most beautiful in oxalate, which, on evaporation, yields very fine the world for its length and breadth, the number crystals in tetrahedral prisms with dihedral sum- and elegance of its public buildings, and its mits, one of the planes of which cuts off three remarkably graceful curvature, continually presides of the prism. This salt is decomposable senting new combinations of objects. St. · by fire, which raises from it carbonate of am- Giles's begins near the church of that name, and

monia, and leaves only some slight traces of a is for some distance of a fine width. It contains coaly residuum. Lime, barytes, and strontian, the town hall and Christ Church. All the unite with its acid, and the ammonia flies off in streets are well lighted, paved, and watched.

The houses originally erected as lodgings for the The oxalic acid readily dissolves alumina, students or gentry during the occasional resiand the solution gives on evaporation a yellowish dence of the court here, still appear, and are transparent mass, sweet and a little astringent io often built of stone on an extensive scale. The the taste, deliquescent, and reddening tincture of best modern houses are situated in St. Giles's. litmus, but not syrup of violets. This salt The university consists of twenty colleges, and swells up in the fire, loses its acid, and leaves four halls, each of which has its own students the alumina a little colored.

and teachers, revenues and regulations, while OXALIS, wood sorrel, a genus of the pen- they are all united in a common university governtagynia order, and decandria class of plants: ment. The students all live in their respective natural order fourteenth, gruinales : cal. penta- colleges at their own expense or that of the uniphyllous, the petals connected at the heels : CAPs. versity; and on their entrance qualify as mempentagonal, and opening at the angles. There bers of the church of England. The university, are seven species; the only remarkable one is as a corporate body, acts under a charter of

0. acetosella, common wood sorrel. This Charles I., and consists of the vice-chancellor, grows naturally in moist shady woods, and heads of houses, and proctors; of the house of at the sides of hedges in many parts of Britain, convocation, which is formed by the vice-chanand is seldom admitted into gardens. The roots cellor, proctors, and all doctors and masters who are coinposed of many scaly joints, which pro- have taken out their regency; and of the conpagate in great plenty. The leaves arise imme- gregation, which is composed of the vice-chandiately from the roots upon single long foot- cellor, the proctors or their deputies, the necesstalks, and are composed of three heart-shaped sary regents (doctors in divinity, law, or lobes. They are gratefully acid, and of use in medicine, or masters of arts for the first two the scurvy and other putrid disorders. years after they are admitted to their degrees),

OXFORD, a city of England, the county town and the regents ad placitum (all resident doctors, of Oxfordshire, and celebrated for its university, all public professors and lecturers, all heads of

the form of gas.

colleges and halls, and in their absence their Brazen Nose, Christ Church, Corpus Christi, deputies, the masters of the schools, the public Exeter, Jesus, Hertford, Lincoln, Magdalen, examiners, and deans and censors of colleges). Merton, New College, Oriel, Pembroke, Queen's, In the first body must originate all new statutes, St. John Baptist's, Trinity, University, Wadorders, and regulations; and, being there passed, ham, and

Forcester. All Souls college, they are ratified by the house of convocation. founded in the year 1437, by Chichele, archThe administrative officers of the university are bishop of Canterbury, has a warden, forty felthe chancellor, high steward, vice-chancellor and lows, two chaplains, and six clerks and choristwo proctors. The chancellor is elected by the ters. Two spacious courts, one entering from members of the convocation, and is usually a High-street, and the other from the paved court distinguished member of the nobility. His in which the Radcliffe library stands, are its office was once annual, but since the fifteenth cen- principal parts. The front, towards High-street, tury, when Russell, bishop of London, was is a low irregular range of building, but the made chancellor for life, this mode of election interior has considerable grandeur. One court has been continued. The chancellor has a is 172 feet by seventy-two, and the other 172 by court, in which he can preside either in person 155. The interior of the chapel was arranged or by deputy, and his authority is recognised by by Sir Christopher Wren and Sir James Thornevery one of the colleges. The high steward is hill. The hall is a room of striking elegance, nominated by the chancellor. His duty is 10 and the library is forty feet high, and 198 feet assist the chancellor, vice-chancellor, and proc- by thirty-two and a half. Sir Christopher Wren tors; and executively under the chancellor to and Sir William Blackstone were educated here. defend the privileges of the university. In the Baliol was founded about the year 1263, by court he sits when required, as legal representa- Sir John Baliol of Bernard Castle, father of tive of the chancellor, and holds the court leets Baliol, king of Scotland. The society consists of the university. His appointment is for life, of a master, twelve fellows, fourteen scholars, and he is generally a man of high birth and and eighteen exhibitioners; but none of the eminent talent. The vice-chancellor is no- present buildings are older than the reign of minated by the chancellor, recommended by the llenry VI. The chapel was built in 1529, and heads of houses, and sworn into ottice before contains fine specimens of painted glass. The the convocation. He is always the head of some hall is a neat building, in the pointed style. college, and annually nominated. His duty is The library was lately rebuilt by Wyatt, in the to superintend the performance of the university Gothic style. discipline, to call convocations, congregations, Bruzen Nose was founded in 1509 by William and courts, to license taverns, &c. He is assisted Smyth, bishop of Lincoln, and Sir Richard by four deputies, termed pro-vice-chancellors. Sutton. It consists of a principal, twenty felThe two proctors are masters of arts of at least lows, thirty-two scholars, and fifteen exhibitionfour years standing, and not more than ten from ers, and derives its name from a large brazen their regency. They are chosen from the several face, which was fixed on the door of an ancient colleges in turns. The proctors are elected by hall as a knocker. It is built on the site of the common suffrages of all doctors and masters several ancient halls, among which was Little of arts. They assist the vice-chancellor in con- University Hall, supposed to have been instituted vocations and congregations, to see that the by Alfred. The court is occupied in the south scholastic exercises are duly performed, the sta- by the library and the chapel ; and besides the tutes and discipline observed, just weights and quadrangle and court are several new buildings. measures kept, &c. They name four masters of The hall is spacious : the present chapel was arts as assistants or pro-proctors. There is also begun in 1656. a public orator of the university, who is chosen Christ Church was founded by Cardinal by the convocation, and must be at least either Wolsey in 1525 : in 1529, when he fell into a bachelor of civil law or master of arts. His disgrace, Henry VIII. suspended it for three duty is to write letters and addresses on public years, when he re-established it under his own occasions, as the organ of the university; and name, and in 1546 translated the episcopal ser to present the honorary degree of master of arts; hither from Oseney. Queen Elizabeth converted he also is keeper of the archives and charter, the grammar scholars into students, whose vaand registrar of the convocations, congrega- cancies should be supplied from the Westminster tions, and other meetings, and acts. He also school. The society consists of a dean, eight collects and receives the rents of the university, canons, 101 students, three professors, eicht

There are at Oxford public lecturers and pro- chaplains, and a suitable choir. The buildings fessors of divinity, Hebrew, Greek, civil law, consist of the cathedral, two spacious quadranmedicine, modern history, botany, natural phi- gles, and two smaller courts. The west, or losophy, astronomy, geometry, ancient history, principal front, has a noble air. From the gateanatomy, music, Arabic, poetry, Anglo-Saxon, way in the centre rises a stately tower, in which common law, and chemistry. Tour terms are is suspended the famous bell Great Tom, at the kept in the year at the university, and degrees sound of which, every evening, the students are are taken in divinity, law, physic, music, and the directed, by the statutes of the university, to arts. The total number of members in the uni- retire for the night. The grand western quadversity books is about 3000, 1000 of whom are rangle, entered through the gateway, was erected, maintained on the revenues of the university, and the foundation stone laid, by Wolsey. It and the rest at their own expense.

is nearly a square of 260 feet. The second The twenty colleges are, All Souls, Baliol, great quadrangle is termed Peckwater Court, and

the architecture is perfectly classical. The very elegant. Magdalen is required by its stasouthern side contains the library. Canterbury tutes to entertain the kings of England and Square is a small quadrangle, built after the their eldest sons, whenever they visit Oxford, model of Peckwater. Christ Church cathedral and has been honored with the presence of many is one of the most interesting objects in Oxford. of our kings. Attached to the college on the The chief parts can be traced to the reign of banks of the Cherwell are beautiful pleasure Henry I.; and the style is even of an earlier grounds. Cardinal Wolsey, Cardinal Pope, period. It has the form of a cross, with a square Hampden, Collins, and Addison, were educated tower, surmounted by a spire steeple in the here. centre. The choir is ornamented with a Merton is the most ancient college in Oxford, splendid Gothic roof. The hall was built en- and was founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, tirely under the direction of Wolsey; and is bishop of Rochester, and chancellor of England. 115 feet long, and forty wide; containing se- It consists of a warden, twenty-four fellows, veral interesting paintings. The oak ceiling is fourteen post-masters, four scholars, two chapbeautifully carved!

lains, and two clerks, and is situated to the east Corpus Christi was founded in 1516 by bishop of Corpus Christi ; consisting of three courts. Fox, lord privy seal to Henry VII. and VIII.; The first is small and irregular, but a handsome and the society consists of a president, twenty arch leads to the inner quadrangle of a pleasing fellows, twenty scholars, two chaplains, two style of Gothic architecture; the third court is clerks, and two choristers. The building is at also on a small scale : the library occupies two the east of Christ Church, and to the west of sides of it. The hall is a plain but respectable Merton College, and consisted at first of one structure. The chapel is one of the finest Gothic spacious quadrangle; but various additions buildings in the university. It is the parish have since been made. The library is well fur- church of St. John Baptist, and was erected in nished.

1424, on the ruins of a more ancient building. Exeter, was founded by Walter Stapleton, New College was founded in 1379 by William bishop of Exeter, in 1314; it consists of a rector, of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester. It is comtwenty-five fellows, one scholar, and ten exhibi- posed of a warden, seventy fellows, ten chaptioners.

sains, three clerks, and sixteen choristers, and Hertford, formerly called Hert Hall, was consists of a quadrangle, with attached chapel, founded also by Walter Stapleton in 1312. It hall, and library, a fine range of cloisters, and a consists of a principal, four senior and eight series of buildings for the use of students, junior fellows, eight probationary students, termed the Garden Court, which was completed twenty-four actual students, and four scholars. in 1684 on the model of the palace of Versailles. The buildings are incomplete, and the college The chapel is, in the interior, one of the most has had no principal since 1805. Here the late splendid in the university. It has undergone Mr. Fox was educated.

numerous modern alterations, under the direcJesus was founded in 1571 by queen Eliza- tion of Wyatt. The painted windows are a rebeth, and endowed by Hugh Price, treasurer of markable feature of the building. The library St. David's, for a principal, eight fellows, and consists of two rooms in different stories, and eight scholars, which has been since raised to the gardens are laid out in good taste. nineteen fellows, and eighteen scholars, besides Oriel was founded in 1324 by Adam de exhibitioners.

Brom, archdeacon of Stow. The society is Lincoln was founded by Richard Fleming, composed of a provost, eighteen fellows, and who obtained a license from Henry VI. in 1427, thirteen exhibitioners: the buildings consist of a to make All Saints' church collegiate, and to quadrangle, with two ranges on the east and found a college for a rector and seven scholars. west sides of the garden, between which is It was finished in 1475, by Rotherham, bishop placed the library, a chaste and classical strucof Lincoln, and consists of a rector, twelve ture, begun in 1788. fellows, eight scholars, thirteen exhibitioners, and Pembroke was founded in 1620, by Thomas a Bible clerk. The buildings consist of two Teesdale of Glympton, in Oxford, and Richard quadrangles. The chapel was built in 1631, and Wightwick, rector of Isley, Berks, being named the hall in 1636.

after the earl of Pembroke, then chancellor of Magdalen is one of the noblest institutions in the university. It consists of a master, fourteen the university. It was founded in 1458 by fellows, and thirty scholars and exhibitioners. William Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, and The chapel is a small building of the Ionic consists of a president, forty fellows, thirty de- order. mies, a divinity lecturer, four chaplains, eight Queen's takes the sixth place in the order of clerks, and sixteen choristers. No commoners foundation, though the present buildings are of are admitted. It is situated at the eastern recent date. It was founded in 1340, by Robert extremity of the city, and the side towards the Eglesfeld, confessor of queen Philippa, consort High-street is ornamented by a lofty tower. of Edward III., and consists of a provost, sixThe great quadrangle is composed of the chapel, teen fellows, eight taberdars, sixteen scholars, hall, library, a part of the president's lodgings, two chaplains, two clerks, and forty exhibitioners. and charnbers for the fellows and demies. The The hall is a fine room, sixty feet by thirty, and chapel is a beautiful Gothic structure, divided the library is one of the largest attached to any into two parts; the inner chapel retaining much university. of its original sublimity. The library is a low St. John's was founded in 1555 by Sir Thomas but extensive room. The interior of the hall is White, and consists of a president, fifty fellows,

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