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appeals on the nature of the pending struggle be- the diabolical intentions of the author, the tentween the colonies and Great Britain, which he dency of his demoralising work, and the penaldenominated the Crisis. In 1779 he was ties which all publishers of it incurred of those obliged to resign his secretarysip, owing to a admirable laws, not which were made for the controversy with Mr. Silas Deane, whom he de- case, but of those ancient and free laws which tected in a fraudulent attempt to profit by con- the United States have adopted for the governveying the secret supplies of warlike stores from ment of the press. It was therefore preventive, France. Paine divulged the real state of the not retributive justice.' (p. 156.) case, which was deemed an injurious breach of We continue our memoir, in the language of trust, and one which might alienate the French Mr. Cheetham, to the close of his connexion court from its creditable services to the new re- with this country :---- Loyal associations now public. The next year, however, he obtained sprung up to counteract the revolutionary efforts the subordinate appointment of clerk to the as- of the revolution clubs. Passion met passion, sembly of Pennsylvania; and in 1785, on the re- until, in the struggle, on the one side for a disjection of a motion to appoint him historiographer solution of the government, on the other for its to the United States, received from congress a existence, the nation became more and more donation of 3000 dollars, and 500 acres of highly agitated. In this state of things, Paine publistred, cultivated land from the state of New York. In about August 1792, his Address to the Addressors. 1787 he embarked for France, with a letter of This is a miserable lampoon on the orators in parrecommendation from Dr. Franklin to the Duke liament who had spoken on the side of the king's de la Rochefoucault, in which he calls him 'an proclamation, as well as on those placemen into ingenious honest man, the author of a famous whose offices Paine would willingly have crepi, piece entitled Common Sense.' From Paris he before he left England, in the year 1774. de returned to England, with a view to the prose- states that a prosecution had been commenced cution of a project relative to the crection of an against him ; declares the incompetency of a iron bridge, of his invention, at Rotherham, in jury to decide on work so recondite and imporYorkshire, and which was in fact the first bridge tant as the Rights of Man; talks quite philo of this kind suggested in modern times. See sophically upon the propriety of taking the sense Iron Bridges. In the course of the following of the nation upon it, by polling each man; proyear he was arrested for debt, when he was bailed nounces the laws in relation to the press as funby some American merchants, and went to Paris damentally bad, the administration of them by in 1791 to publish, under the name of Achilles the courts as notoriously corrupt, and denies that Duchatellet, a tract recommending the abolition the Rights of Man is seditious, for that it conof royalty. On returning to this country, he tains a plan for augmenting the pay of the solwrote the first part of his Rights of Man, in diers, and meliorating the condition of the poor! answer to Mr. Burke's Reflections on the French While he was preparing this stuff for the press; Revolution. The second part was published he published letters to the chairmen of several early in 1792; and, on the 21st of May that of the meetings, which were convened to comyear, a proclamation was issued against wicked pliment the king on his proclamation. He was and seditious publications, alluding to, but not now evidently awed by the vigor of the governnaming, our author's productions. On the same ment, and the pariotic spirit of the nation. All day the attorney-general commenced a prosecu- over England he was carried about in effigy, tion against him.

with a pair of stays under his arm; and the poOn these circumstances his American biogra- pulace, staymaners and all, alternately laughed pher remarks:—Whatever party and passion, and swore at the impudent attempts of a stay. prejudice and malignity, ignorance and injustice, maker to destroy their government. His trial was may roundly assert, Paine experienced from the to come on in the following December. Whilst British government a mildness, a forbearance, he foresaw, and no doubt dreaded, the imprisonwhich no man urging amongst us, in the boldest ment which awaited him, a French deputation language of sedition, a dissolution of the union, announced to him in London, in the preceding a destruction of the national government, and á September, that the department of Calais had consequent civil war, could expect from the elected him a member of the national convengovernment of the United States. The first part tion. This was doubly grateful, grateful in the of the Rights of Man, not a jot less intemperate escape which it afforded him from a just punishand rebellious than the second, was published ment, without the imputation of cowardice ; not only with impunity, but without notice from grateful in the honor which bloody anarchists the government. I do not mention the fact had conferred upon him by electing him a men. in commendation; Paine ought to have been ber of their order. Without delay he proceeded punished. Alarm, if the government was alarmed, 10 Dover, where a custom-house officer examined was a poor apology. When did fear beget respect? his barrage, and finally let him pass. He had When did imbecility avert danger?' (p. 124.) not, however, sailed from Dover for Calais more

• The king's proclamation was an act of gra- than twenty minutes, when an order was received ciousness. The work was clearly seditious in from the government to detain him. the malice of intention, as well as in the cri- his detention and examination at Dover, in a minality of object. As thousands of persons be- letter to Mr. Dundas, dated Calais, September sides the booksellers liad industriously published 15th, 1792.' (p. 160.) it, the law, if the administrators of it had been He arrived in this month at Paris ana was an vindictively inclined, had full scope for opera

convention for the trial of Louis tion. The proclamation notified to the kingdom YVI.; but he voted against the sentence of

ate in

He states

death passed on hin, proposing his imprison- fiery as the setting sun, and the whole figure ment during the war, and his subsequent banish- staggering under a load of inebriatiou. I was dent. This conduct, however, offended the on the point of enquiring for Mr. Paine, when I Jacobins, and, towards the close of 1793, he saw in his countenance something of the porwas excluded from the convention on the ground traits I had seen of him. We were desired to of his being a foreigner (though he had been natu- be seated. He had before him a small round ralised), arrested, and committed to the prison of table, on which were a beef-steak, some beer, a the Luxembourg. Just before his confinement he pint of brandy, a pitcher of water, and a glass. had finished the first part of his Age of Reason, He sat eating, drinking, and talking, with as being an investigation of true and fabulous theo much composure as if he had lived with us all logy; and, having confided it to the care of his his life. I soon perceived that he had a very refriend Joel Barlow, it was published. He was now tentive memory, and was full of anecdote. The taken ill, to which circumstance he ascribes his es- bishop of Landaff was almost the first word he cape from the guillotine; and on the fall of Robes- uttered, and it was followed by informing us pierre was released. In 1795 he published, at that he had in his trunk a manuscript reply to Paris, the second part of his Age of Reason, the bishop's Apology. He then, calmly mumand in May, 1796 addressed to the Council of bling his steak, and ever and anon drinking his Five Hundred, The Decline and Fall of the brandy and beer, repeated the introduction to his System of Finance in England; and published reply, which occupied him nearly half an hour. his pamphlet entitled Agrarian Justice. He This was done with deliberation, the utmost remained in France till August, 1802, when he clearness, and a perfect apprehension, intoxembarked for America. Paine had at this time icated as he was, of all that he repeated. Scarcelost his wife (the year following his marriage), ly a word would he allow us to speak. He and, after a cohabitation of three years and á always, I afterwards found, in all companies, hall

, had separated from a second several years drunk or sober, would be listened to : in this before by mutual consent.

regard there were no rights of men with him, Among his other lucubrations in France we no equality, no reciprocal immunities and oblifind the following sagę eulogy on the number gations, for he would listen to no one.' fised upon to constitute the directory : “ After On the 13th of October 1802 he arrived at preferring a plural to an individual executive, Baltimore, under the protection of Mr. Jefferthe next question is,' he observes, 'What shall son. But it appears that curiosity induced nobe the number of the plurality ?' And here we body of distinction to suffer his approach. While request the grave attention of some of our most at his hotel he was principally visited by the accurate calculators of the class of reformists. lower class of emigrants from England, Scot

* Three are too few, either for the variety or land, and Ireland, who had there admired his the quantity of business. The constitution has Rights of Man. With them it appears he adopted five, and experience has shown that this drank grog in the tap-room morning, noon, and number of directors is sufficient for all the pur- night, admired and praised, strutting and staggerposes, and therefore a greater number would ing about, showing himself to all, and shaking only be an unnecessary expense. The number hands with all. The leaders of the party to which France had hit upon (and which I agree which he had attached himself paid him no atwith him,' says Mr. Cheetham, “is quite suffi- tention. He had brought to America with him cient), he seems to think, designed by nature a woman, named Madame Bonneville, whom he for all governments, although human wisdom, had seduced away from her husband, with her in no part of the world, except in France, two sons; and whom he seems to have treated has as yet adopted it. Nature,' he says, "has with the utmost meanness and tyranny. Mr. given us exactly five senses, and the same Cheetham gives the following account of his number of fingers and toes; pointing out to us, manner of living at this time :by this kindness, the propriety of an executive • In the spring of 1804 he returned to his directory of five, precisely as in France. If one farm at New Rochelle, Purdy having left it, sense,' he continues, "had been sufficient, she taking with him the two Bonnevilles, and leaving would have given us no more; an individual their mother in the city. Not chosing to live executive,' he therefore infers, “is unnatural and upon the farm himself, he hired one Christopher unphilosophical, individuality being exploded Derick, an old man, to work it for him. While by nature. Surely tyranny never had a more Derick was husbanding the farm, Paine and the fawning parasite, freedom a more decided ene- two young Bonnevilles boarded sometimes with my,' p. 219.

Mr. Wilburn, in Gold-street, in the city, but This writer, ' supposing him (Paine) to be a principally with Mr. Andrew Dean, at New gentleman,' was employed to engage a room for Rochelle. Mrs. Dean, with whom I have conhim at Lovett's hotel, New York. "On his versed, tells me that he was daily drunk at their arrival' (in 1802), he says, ' about ten at night house, and that in his few sober moments he was he wrote me a note desiring to see me immedi- always quarrelling with her, and disturbing the ately. I waited on him at Lovett's, in company peace of the family. She represents him as dewith Mr. George Clinton, jun. We rapped at liberately and disgustingly filthy. It is not surthe door; a small figure opened it within, prising, therefore, that she importuned her husmeanly dressed, having on an old top coat, without band to turn him out of the house ; but owing to an under one; a dirty silk handkerchief loosely Mr. Dean's predilection for his political writings, thrown round his neck; a long beard of more her importunities were, for several weeks, unthan a week's growth; a face well carbuncled, availing Constant domestic disquiet very


p. 241.

naturally ensued, which was increased by Paine's past conduct respecting you, and try if you canpeevishness and violence. One day he ran after not raise one grain of gratitude in your heart Miss Dean, a girl of fifteen, with a chair whip towards me for all the kind acts of benevolence in his hand, to whip her, and would have done I bestowed on you. I showed your letter, at the so but for the interposition of her mother. The time I received it, to an intelligent friend; be enraged Mrs. Dean, to use her own language, said it was a characteristic of the vileness of your “tew at him.' Paine retreated up stairs into natural disposition, and enough to damn the rehis private room, and was swiftly pursued by putation of any man. You tell ine that I should his antagonist. The little drunken old man owed have come to you, and not written the letter. I his safety to the bolts of his door. In the fall did so three times; and the last you gave me of the

year Mrs. Dean prevailed with her hus- the ten dollars, and told me you were going to band to keep him in the house no longer. The have a stove in a separate room, and then you two Bonnevilles were quite neglected. From would pay me. One month had passed and I Dean's he went to live on his farm. Here one wanted the money, but still found you with the of his first acts was to discharge old Derick, with family that you resided with; and delicacy prewhom he had wrangled, and to whom he had vented me to ask you for pay of board and been a tyrant from the moment of their engage- lodging ; you never told me to fetch the account, ment. Derick left him with revengeful thoughts. as you say you did. When I called the last time

· Being now alone, except in the company of but one, you told me to come or the Sunday followthe two Bonnevilles, of whoin he took but little ing, and you would pay or settle with me; I notice, he engaged an old black woman of the came according to order, but found you particuname of Betty to do his housework. Betty lived larly engaged with the French woman and her with him but three weeks. She seems to have two boys, dic. been as intemperate as himself. Like her master “You frequently boast of what you have done she was every day intoxicated. Paine would for the woman above alluded to; that she and accuse her of stealing his New England rum, and her family have cost you 2000 dollars ; and since Betty would retort by calling him an old drunk- you came the last time to York you have been ard. Often, Mrs. Dean informs me, would they bountiful to her, and given her 100 dollars per both lie prostrate on the same floor, dead-drunk, time. This may be all right. She may have sprawling and swearing and threatening to fight, rendered you former and present secret services, but incapable of approaching each other to com- such as are not in my power to perform; but at bat. Nothing but inability prevented a battle.' the same time I think it would be just in you to

pay your debts. I know that the poor black We must not withhold from our readers part woman, at New Rochelle, that you hired as a of a letter written to Paine from an illiterate servant, and I believe paid every attention to brother democrat and infidel, after a sordid you in her power, had to sue you for her wages quarrel which had taken place between them :- before you would pay her, and Mr. Shute had

From the first time I saw you in this country, to become security for you. to the last time of your departure from my house, A respectable gentleman from New Rochelle my conscience bears me testimony that I treated called to see me a few days past, and said that you as a friend and a brother, without any hope every body was tired of you there, and no one of extra rewards, only the payment of my just would undertake to board and lodge you. I demand. I often told many of my friends, had thought this was the case, as I found you at a you come to this country without one cent. of tavern, in a most miserable situation. property, then, as long as I had one shilling, you peared as if you had not been shaved for a fortshould have a part. I declare when I first saw night, and as to a shirt it could not be said that you here I knew nothing of your possessions, or you had one on; it was only the remains of one, that you were worth £400 per year, sterling. I, and this likewise appeared not to have been off Sir, am not like yourself. I do not bow down your back for a fortnight, and was nearly the :0 a little paltry gold at the sacrifice of just color of tanned leather, and you had the most principles. I, Sir, am poor, with an independent disagreeable smell possible; just like that of mind, which perhaps renders me more comfort our poor beggars in England. Do you not than your independent fortune renders you. You recollect the pains I took to clean and wash you! tell me further that I shall be excluded from any That I got a tub of warm water and soap, and thing, and every thing, contained in your will. washed from head to foot, and this I had to do All this I totally disregard. I believe, if it was in three times before I could get you clean. I likeyour power, you would go further, and say you wise shaved you and cut your nails, that were would prevent my obtaining the just and lawful like birds' claws. I remember a remark that I debt that you contracted with me ; for when a man made to you at that time, which was, that you is vile enough to deny a debt, he is not honest put me in mind of Nebuchadnezzar, who was enough to pay without being compelled. I have said to be in this situation. Many of your toelived fifty years on the bounty and good provi- nails exceeded half an inch in length, and others dence of my Creator

, and I do not doubt the bad grown round your toes, and nearly as far goodness of his will concerning me. I likewise under as they extended on the top. Have you have to inform you that I totally disregard the forgotten the pains I took with you when you powers of your mind and pen; for should you, lay sick wallowing in your own filth? I remem, by your conduct, permit this letter to appear in ber that I got Mr. Hoo:on (a friend of mine, and public, in vain may you attempt to print or puh- whom I believe to be one of the best hearted lish any thing afterwards.

Do look back to my men in the world) to assist me in removing and

You ap

cleaning you. He told me he wondered how I months. But as he never thought of paying for could no il; for his part he would not like to do services, or for meat, or for any thing else, the same again for ten dollars. I told him you Rachel had to sue him for five dollars, the were a fellow being, and that it was our duty to amount of her wages. She got out a warrant, assist each other in distress. Have you forgotten on which he was apprehended, and Mr. Shute, my care of you during the winter you staid with one of his neighbours and political admirers. me? How I put you in bed every night, with a was his bail. The wages were finally obtained, warm brick to your feet, and treated you like an but he thought it hard that he should be sued in infant one month old ? Have you forgotten like a country for which he had done so much! wise how you destroyed my bed and bedding It is now time to bring this article to a close. by fire, and also a great coat that was worth ten We will conclude it with a passage from a letter dollars ?

written by Dr. Manley, who attended this extra• I remember, during one of your stays at my ordinary person in his last illness, in answer to house, you were sued in the justice's court by a enquiries from Mr. Cheetham :poor man, for the board and lodging of the French During the latter part of his life, though his woman, to the amount of about thirty dollars; conversation was equivocal, his conduct was but as the man had no proof, and only depended singular. He would not be left alone night or on your word, he was non-suited, and a cost of day. He not only required to have some person forty-two shillings thrown upon him. This with him, but he must see that he or she was highly gratified your unfeeling heart. I believe there, and would not allow his curtain to be you had promised payment, as you said you closed at any time; and if, as it would sometimes would give the French woman the money to go unavoidably happen, he was left alone, he would and pay it with. I know it is customary in scream and holla until some person came to him. England that when any gentleman keeps a lady, When relief from pain would admit, he seemed that he pays her board and lodging. You com thoughtful and contemplative, his eyes being plain that you suffered with the cold, and that generally closed, and his hands folded upon his there ought to have been a fire in the parlour. breast, although he never slept without the assistBut the fact is, that I expended so much money ance of an anodyne. There was something reon your account, and received so little, that I markable in his conduct about this period (which could not go to any further expense, and if I had comprises about two weeks immediately preI should not have got you away. A friend of ceding his death), particularly when we reflect yours that knew my situation told you that you that Thomas Paine was author of the Age of ought to buy a load of wood to burn in the par- Reason. He would call out during his paroxJour; your answer was that you should not stay ysms of distress, without intermission, 'O Lord above a week or two, and did not want to have help me, God help me, Jesus Christ help me, O the wood to remove; this certainly would have Lord help me,' &c., repeating the same expresbeen a hard case for you to have left me a few sion without any the least variation, in a tone of sticks of wood.

voice that would alarm the house. It was this * Now, Sir, I think I have drawn a complete conduct which induced me to think that he had portrait of your character; yet to enter upon abandoned his former opinions; and I was more every minutia would be to give a history of your inclined to that belief when I understood from life, and to develop the fallacious mask of hy- his nurse (who is a very serious, and, I believe, pocrisy and deception under which you have pious woman) that he would occasionally enacted in your political as well as moral capacity quire, when he saw her engaged with a book, of life. There may be many grammatical errors what she was reading, and being answered, and in this letter. To you I have no apologies to at the same time asked whether she should read make; but I hope the candid and impartial aloud," he assented, and would appear to give public will not view them with a critic's eye.' particular attention. WILLIAM Carver.'

I took occasion, during the night of the 5th * Thomas Paine, New York, Dec. 2, 1806.' and 6th of June, to test the strength of his opi

nions respecting revelation. I purposely made * He lived at Ryder's until 4th of May, 1809, him a very late visit ; it was a time which seemed about eleven months ; during which time, except to sort exactly with my errand : it was midnight; the last ten weeks, he got drunk regularly twice he was in great distress, constantly exclaiming a day. As to his person, said Mr. Ryder, we in the words above mentioned; when, after å had to wash him like a child, and with much considerable preface, I addressed him in the the same coaxing; for he hated soap and water. following manner, the nurse being present :He would have the best of meat cooked for him, Mr. Paine, your opinions, by a large portion of eat a little of it, and throw away the rest, that the community, have been treated with deference: he might have the worth of the money which he you have never been in the habit of mixing in paid for his board. He chose to perform all the your conversation words of course : you have functions of nature in bed.—When censured never indulged in the practice of profane swearfor it he would say, 'I pay you money enough, ing: you must be sensible that we are acquainted and you shall labor for it.'

with your religious opinions as they are given to He returned,' says Mr. Cheetham, ' to his the world. What must we think of your prefarm at New Rochelle, taking with him Madame sent conduct ? Why do you call upon Jesus Bonneville and her sons. On his arrival he hired Rachel Gidney, a black woman, to cook • The book she usually read was Mr. Hobart's for him. Rachel continued with hiin about two Companion for the Altar.

Christ to help you? Do you believe that he can the dead may draw the curtain of oblivion over help you? Do you believe in the divinity of Jesus transient obliquities of conduct, but duty to the Christ! Come now answer me honestly ; I want living demands the records of villany to be an answer as from the lips of a dying man, for honestly severe. The exa:nples of the dead either I verily believe that you will noi live twenty- for warning or imitation are the property of the four hours.' I waited some time at the end of living; and the veritable description of virtue every estion ; he did not answer, but ceased and vice is among the genuine • Rights of Man.' to exclaim in the above manner. Again I ad- We shall now leave him to his reckoning with dressed him :~Mr. Paine, you have not those whom his false and presumptuous theories answered my questions; will you answer them! may have conducted to practical misery; and Allow me to ask again-Do you believe? or let whom his Rights of Man, and Age of Reason, me qualify the question-do you wish to believe may have rendered proudly insensible to the that Jesus Christ is the Son of God!' After a concerns of the soul. pause of some minutes, he answered, “I have PAINIM, n. s. & adj. Fr. payen. Pagan; no wish to believe on that subject.' I then left infidel. him, and know not whether he afterwards spoke

Champions bold, to any person, on any subject, though he lived,

Defyed the best of Painim chivalry as I before observed, till the morning of the 8th. To mortal combat, or carriere with lance. • Such conduct, under usual circumstances,

Milion. I conceive absolutely unaccountable, though The cross hath been an ancient bearing, even with diffidence I would remark, not so much so before the birth of our Saviour, among the Painims in the present instance ; for, though the first


Peacham. necessary and general result of conviction be a Whole brigades one champion's arms o'erthrow,

Tickle. sincere wish to atone for evil committed, yet it Slay Puinims vile that force ihe fair. may be a question worthy of able consideration The Solymean sultan he o'erthrew, whether excessive pride of opinion, consummate

His moony troops returning bravely smeared

With Puinin blood effused. vanity, and inordinate self-love, might not pre

Philips. vent or retard that otherwise natural conse- PAINSWICK, a town of Gloucestershire, quence ?'

with a considerable woollen manufacture of On the 8th of June, 1809, about nine in the white cloths. It abounds with a kind of stone morning, died this memorable reprobate, aged for pavement, remarkable for its beauty. As the seventy-two years and five months.

town is seated on a high ground, it has a most * For the sake of England and humanity,' says extensive prospect every way, of great part of the an able anonymous writer, “it is to be wished counties of Salop, Hereford, and Monmouth; of that his impostures and his memory may rot to- the windings of the Severn, and of Malvern Hills, gether. In speaking of such a man it is impos- &c. It is seven miles south-east of Gloucester, sible to suppress indignation. Decency towards and 101 west by north of London.



PAINT, v. (., 1. 1., & n. s. Fr. peindre ; Live to be the shew and gaze o' the time :
PAINT'ER, n. s.

Spanpentur, We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,

Id. Macbeth. from Lat. pingo. Painted upon a pole.

Sto'delineate; rePAL'TURE.

Who fears a sentence or an old man's saw, present by lines or colors: painture is from the Shall by a painted cloth be kept in awe. Shakspeare. 'r. peinteur, and (rarely) used as synonymous

The lady is disloyal. with painting.

-Disloyal !

— The word is too good to paint out her wickedness. Jezebel painted her face and tired her head.

2 Kings ix. 30. In the placing let some care be taken how the Such is his will that paint

painter did stand in the working.

Hotton. The earth with colours fresh,

The air The darkest skies with store of starry lights. Floats as they pass, fanned with unnumbered


plumes : Hath not old custom made this life more sweet From branch to branch the smaller birds with song Than that of painted pomp? are not these woods Solaced the woods, and spread their painted wings, More free from peril than the court ? Shakspeare.

'Till even.

Milton's Paradise Lost. This is the very painting of your sear;

To the next realm she stretched her sway, This is the air-drawn dagger which you said For painture near adjoining lay, Led you to Duncan. Id. Macbeth. A plenteous province.

Dryden. Painting is welcome ;

Painting and poesy are two sisters so like, that The painting is almost the natural man :

they lend to each other their name and office; one For since dishonour trafficks with man's nature, is called a dumb poesy, and the other a speakiri, IJe is but outside. penciled figures are


ld. Dufresnou. Even such as they give out.

Id. Timon. Beauty is only that which makes all things as they If any such be here

are in their proper and perfect nature ; which the That love this painting, wherein you see me smeared, best painters always chuse by contemplating the Let him express his disposition. Shakspeare. forms of each.


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