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Pliny is the synonyme of unrivalled and unat- rising from the sea, already mentioned, which, tainable excellence; but, in our estimate of his being taken to Rome, was dedicated by Augus. talents, we must candidly consider what modifi- tus in the temple of Julius Cæsar; and upon cations may be requisite on an enumeration of which several Greek epigrams are to be found in his actual works. It is very difficult to ascertain the Anthologia. how far real value may be attached to the pane

• The refinements of the art were by Aristides gyrics on works of art. These will always be of Thebes applied to the mind. The passions bestowed, in the highest strain, on the best which history had organised for Timanthes, works of the writer's time: and thus we observe Aristides caught as they rose from the breast that, at all periods, contemporary authors have or escaped from the lips of nature herself; his expressed the same degrees of approbation, and volume was man, his scene society : he drew in the same terms, of the pictures they have seen the subtle discriminations of mind in every stage produced; whilst we know that, as art was slow of life, the whispers, the simple cry of passion, in its progress, it is impossible that in every and its most complex accents. Such, as histo y stage it could have merited equal commenda- informs us, was the suppliant whose voice you tion. The works of Apelles, so far as it is pos- seemed to hear, such his sick man's half extinsible to comprehend their nature, exhibit neither guished eye and laboring breast, such the sister the deepest pathos of expression, the widest dying for her brother, and, above all, the halfsphere of comprehension, nor the most acute slain mother shuddering lest the eager babe discrimination of character: his great prerogative should suck the blood from her palsied nipple

. consisted, perhaps, more in the unison than in This picture was probably at Thebes, when the extent of his powers: he knew heiter what Alexander sacked that town; what his feelings his capabilities could achieve, and what lay be- were when he saw it we may guess from his yond them, than any other artist. Grace of con- sending it to Pella. Its expression, poised beception, and refinement of taste, were his ele- tween the anguish of maternal affection and the ments, and went hand in hand with grace of pangs of death, gives to commiseration an image execution, and completeness in finish, irresistible which neither the infant piteously caressing his when found united. The Venus of Apelles, nr, slain mother in the group of Epigonus, nor the as it may rather be called, the personification of absorbed feature of the Niobe, nor the struggle the birthday of Love, was esteemed as the most of the Laocoon, excite. Timanthes had marked splendid achievement of art; the outline of the the limits that discriminate terror from the excess goddess baffled every attempt at improvement, of horror; Aristides drew the line that separates whilst imitation shrunk from the purity, the it from disgust. His subject is one of those that force, the brilliancy, the evanescent gradations touch the ambiguous line of a squeamish sense. of her tints. The pictures produced by this con- - Taste and smell, as sources of iragic emotion, summate artist appear to have been numerous, and, in consequence of their power, commandand the reader will find, in Pliny, lib. xxxv. cap. ing gesture, seem scarcely admissible in art or 10, a pretty extensive list. A brief enumeration on the theatre, because their extremes are more of some of them will serve to convev a just idea nearly allied to disgust, and loathsome or risible of the class of subjects generally chosen by him. ideas, than to terror. The prophetic rance of

The portraits painted by bim both of Alex- Cassandra, who scents the prepared murder of ander the Great and his father Philip were Agamemnon at the threshold of the ominous numerous ; some of them single, some accom- hall; the desperate moan of Macbeth's queen panied by other figures. Alexander launching on seeing the visionary spot still uneffaced infect thunder, in the temple of Diana at Ephesus, has her hand-are images snatched from the lap of been greatly extolled for its effect and the bold- terror-but soon would cease to be so were the ness of its relief, the hand which was raised artist or the actress to enforce the dreadful hint appearing to come forward, and the lightning to with indiscreet expression or gesture. This, be out of the picture.' In another portrait of completely understood by Aristides, was as comthe same prince he was represented in a triumphal pletely missed by his imitators, Raffaelle in the chariot, and near him ihe 'figure of war, with Morbetto, and Poussin in bis Plague of the his hands tied behind his back.

Philistines. In the group of Aristides our symThis, and another Alexander, accompanied by pathy is immediately interested by the mother, Castor and Pollux, and a figure of Victory, were still alive though mortally wounded, helpless, presented by Augustus to the forum.

beautiful, and forgetting herself in the anguish Many other portraits are alluded to: namely, for her child, whose situation still suffers hope Antiochus, king of Syria ; Antigonus ; Archelaus, to mingle with our fears: he is only approaching with his wife and daughter; Abron, an effemi- the nipple of the mother. In the group of nate debauchee; Clatus, on horseback armed Raffaelle the mother dead of the plague, herself (except his head), with an attendant delivering an object of apathy, becomes one of disgust

, by his helmet to him; and Megabysus, a priest of the action of the man, who bending over her, at the temple of Diana at Ephesus, sacrificing, in his utmost reach of arm, with one hand removes his pontifical vestments. In fanciful subjects the child from the breast, whilst the other, applied we find :-Diana attending a sacrifice, surround- to his nostrils, bars the effluvia of death. Our ed by her nymphs; Neoptolemus, son of Achil- feelings alienated from the mother, come too Jes, on horseback, contending with Persians ; late even for the child, who by his langour already Hercules, with his back towards the observer

, betrays the mortal symptoms of the poison lie and his head turned round so as to show his imbibed at the parent corpse.

It is curious to face ; and lastly his renowned picture of Venus observe the permutation of ideas which takes

place, as imitation is removed from the sources painting. He painted the temple of Safety; of nature: Poussin, not content with adopting and his works remained till that temple was the group of Raffaelle, once more repeats the burnt, in the reign of Claudius. The example loathsome attitude in the same scene; he forgot, of Fabius, surnamed Pictor from his profession, in his eagerness to render the idea of contagion did not excite his fellow citizens to imitation. still more intuitive, that he was averting our A century and a half elapsed before the tragic feelings with ideas of disgust.'

poet Pacuvius, nephew of Ennius, painted the At the same era flourished Protogenes of temple of Hercules in the forum boarium. The Rhodes, towards whom the generous conduct of glory which he had acquired by his dramatic Apelles deserves particular attention. Protogenes works shed some lustre on the art which he had painted a picture of Jalysus, which so de- exercised; bul did not confer on it that respect lighted Apelles that he sailed to Rhodes on pur- which could recommend it to general practice. pose to visit his accomplished contemporary. The paintings of Fabius were the recreations of There, finding him in poverty and obscurity, he is his youth; those of Pacuvius the amusements reported to have bought several of the performances of his old age; but painting is a difficult art, of Protogenes with the avowed intention of which requires a man's whole time and attention selling them as his own, and thus succeeded in to be solely devoted to it. exciting the notice of the people of Rhodes There were in fact no eminent painters at towards the abilities of their fellow citizen, who Rome till the time of the emperors; but, as the thence rose from his hitherto humble situation to national spirit was changed, the profession of fame and fortune. The well known friendly the fine arts acquired more respectability. The contest of Apelles and Protogenes respecting Romans, during the time of the republic, were the lines has been described elsewhere, and animated with the spirit of liberty and the destands as a fact on undeniable testimony. The sire for conquest. When these two passions tablet whereon they were drawn, having been were weakened, the love of the arts obtained taken to Rome, was there seen by Pliny himself, among them. As a proof of this, Nero himself who speaks of it as having the appearance of a gloried in being an artist. A Colossian picture large blank surface, the extreme delicacy of the of 120 feet was painted at Rome by his comlines rendering them invisible except on close mand, which was afterwards destroyed by lightinspection. They were drawn with different ning. The name of the painter is not recorded. colors-one upon, or rather within the other. but this is the only painting on cloth mentioned Judging from Pliny's account it might be ima- by ancient authors. gined that all the beauty lay in the extreme The paintings of the ancient artists were either delicacy of the points which had been used, and moveable, or on the ceilings or compartments of of the hands which had applied them ; but it buildings. According to Pliny, the most emiis reasonable to suppose that the first direction nent were those who painted moveable pictures. of the line might have some principle of beauty The latter were either on fir wood, larch, boxfor its guide, by which, as well as by the neatness wood, or canvas, sometimes on marble. When of its execution, Protogenes was immediately they employed wood, they laid on first a white moved to the declaration, that none but Apelles ground. Among the antiquities of the Hercucould have drawn it.

laneum are four paintings on white marble. In comparing the performances of modern Their immoveable paintings on walls were painters with the character of those the names and either in fresco, or dry stucco in distemper. description of which ancient authors have handed Indeed all the ancient paintings may be reduced down to us, it will appear pretty clearly that to, 1st, fresco painting ; 2dly, water color, or the Greek artists surpassed the moderns in sen- distemper painting on a dry ground ; and, 3dly, timent, in invention or imagination, in expres- encaustic painting. The ancient fresco paintings sion, in position of figures, in proportion, and appear to have been always on a white stucco contour. With regard to color, although they ground, the colors inlaid very deep, and the are remarkable for vividness, the case is by no drawing much more bold and free than any means so evident. Pliny allows them the use similar performance of modern art. The outof but four, and yet at other times makes allu- lines of the ancient paintings on fresco were sions which palpably imply their means of that probably done at once, as appears from the kind to be far more extensive. The use of oils depth of the incision, and the boldness and has however given to moderns a decided advan- freedom of the design, equal to the care and tage in this particular.

spirit of a penciled outline. In A. R. 259, and A. A. C. 494, Appius In general the ancients painted on a dry Claudius consecrated a number of shields in the ground, even in their buildings, as appears from temple of Bellona, which contained in basso the Herculanean antiquities, most of which are relievo the portraits of his family. This exam- executed in this manner. At Rome and Naples ple was followed ; and in process of time it the first (deepest) coat is of true Puzzolana, of was common among the Romans to place those the same nature with the terras now used in images in private houses. The execution in mortar, required to keep out wet, about one finger basso relievo is a proof that they had an idea of thick: the next of ground marble or alabaster, and painting, at least with one color. As long as the sometimes of pure lime or stucco, in thickness Romans employed artists of other nations, they about one-third of the former. Upon this they had little desire to cultivate the arts ; but about appear to have laid a coat of black, and then the year of Rome 450, and 303 years before another of red paint; on which last the subject Christ, one of the Fabii employed himself in itself was executed. Such seems to have been

aro-scuro.

their method of painting on walls; but in their them. It will not fail, however, to strike the moveable pictures, and in the performance of artist that every thing stated by Pliny to have their first artists, and where the effects of shade been known by the ancient artists is resolvable and light were necessary, they doubtless used into that which is requisite for the due execution white. The colors employed they seemed to of a single figure on a plain ground, and in the have mixed up with size, of which they pre- most simple style of execution. In the best of ferred that made by boiling the ears and genitals the paintings found at Herculaneum there is of bulls. This appears to have made the exhibited an unusually skilful management of colors so durable and adhesive, that the ancient chiaro-scuro in the reduction of tone on parts, paintings lately found bear washing with a soft both of the flesh and drapery, but it is inconclucloth and water; and sometimes even diluted sive on the general point at issue. aquafortis is employed to clean their paintings With respect to their knowledge of perspecon fresco. Pliny says, that glue, dissolved in tive similar uncertainty appears to exist. litruvinegar and then dried, is not again soluble. vius, indeed, reports it to have been practised

The ancient colors, we have said, were vivid: by Agatharcus (a contemporary of Eschylus and it is obvious also that they were remarkably en- Polygnotus) in the theatre at Athens; and to during, from the fact of the Greek paintings have been shortly after reduced to principles, having existed uninjured, and become objects and treated as a science by Anaxagoras and Deof admiration to the Romans several ages after mocritus. The deductions, however, are made they were executed. They were in the habit of from premises of a similarly inconclusive nature employing a sort of varnish called atramentum, to those enumerated in our observations on chiwhich served to secure their paintings from the influence of the atmospheric air.

Lastly, we may remark that no mention, at Whether the art of composition, at least in the all events none of consequence, is made of a scientific way now practiced, was ever under- ground of relief on the ancient writers on paintstood by them, or whether they possessed any ing. Landscape also appears to have been knowledge whatever of the laws of chiaro-scuro, wholly disregarded. There are attempts at is wrapped up in doubt and mystery which it is background made in several of the paintings of next to impossible any opportunity will occur Herculaneum, but undeserving of any commendof unravelling. The accounts of these perform- ation; and the most beautiful of those producances by ancient writers do not seem to have tjons of ancient art which have hitherto been sprung from any practical acquaintance with the displayed to the eyes of the moderns are of rules of the art, and hence they are, as will be figures relieved off plain grounds, or rather amalreadily imagined, very vague and unsatisfactory gamated into them. In none of the criticisms to the painter. According to the light which is or observations of ancient authors is a secondary thus afforded us we are led to conclude that the object ever mentioned as being in the distance. chief aim of the Greek artists was to impress on We shall not dwell on the degree of cultivathe mind of the spectator in the most energetic tion bestowed on the art of painting by the way the effect of one particular image ; we do, ancient Romans, but pass on to enumerate the it is true, occasionally encounter descriptions several colors stated by Pliny to have been known of pictures containing many figures, but in to them. See lib. XXXV., caps. 6 and 7. general the subject is confined to the introduc- WHIES.-- Melinum. A native wbite earth tion of two or three. Nothing is said by these from the island of Melos, used by Apelles before writers of what we term background, and little white lead prepared with vinegar was invented. on the contrasts of light and shade, &c. That Puratonium. An Egyptian white earth used they had some knowledge of this kind, however, in distemper, and similar, probably, to the white is apparent from an observation of Plutarch, now called Cremnitz white, from Hungary namely, that`painters heighten the brilliancy of Pliny complains that parætonium was often light colors by opposing them to dark ones, or adulterated with Cimolian earth, which was used to shades;' and from another of Pliny, who, by the fullers at Rome. speaking of painters in the monochromatic style, Eretria. An ashy white.

It is so named adds :—- In process of time the art assumed new from a town of Eubea, now Trocco. powers, and discovered light and shadow, by Cerussu. White lead. gradating which the colors are alternately kept Anulare. Gypsum. Creta. Chalk. down or heightened. Afterward splendor was YELLOWS.-Sil. Ochre of four kinds; named added, which was different from light, and Atticum, Lucidum, Syricum, and Marmorosum. which, being a medium between light and shade, duripigmentum, or Arsenicum. Orpiment. was denominated tonon; while the union of Cerussa usta. Masticot, first discovered by colors, and transition from one to another, they the fire at the Piræus. called harmogen ;' lib. xxxv. c. 5. Hence we Rens.- Mlinium. Red lead, both natural and find that the great requisites for the science of artificial. The best native minium was found in chiaro-scuro, viz. contrast, tone, and harmony, a quicksilver mine near Ephesus ; and, in enwere comprehended by them; that the various deavouring to extract gold' from it, Callias the degrees of light and shade, distinctly and in com- Athenian discovered vermilion. bination, were duly felt; and that the value of l'ermilion. The same as now used middle or half tint was perceived and attended Sinopis. A red earth. The best was found to. Led away by these facts, M. du Bos and near Lemnos, and was so valuable as to be sold others have concluded that chiaro-scuro was sealed up. It approached near, in color, 10 scientifically comprehended and practised by minium.

tain green.

Rubrica. A red earth.

and without beauty. In Italy, where the first Cinnabur. Native Indian name for dragon's attempts were made, they were employed chiefly blood.

on subjects connected with religious feelings, Sandaracha. A red orpiment.

such as the mysteries of the passion, &c.; and Sandyr. By some thought to be vegetable their labors were principally in the adornment of red, and obtained somewhat after the manner of ecclesiastical buildings. Painting, however, did our lakes, viz. absorbing the coloring matter of not long continue in the imperfect condition in a decoction of the vegetable matter in chalk. which it was left by those who first cultivated it

Purpurissum. A lake made from the ingre- among the moderns. It was to be expected that dient used in dyeing purple, being absorbed in their successors would endeavour to surpass tripoli.

them by joining some degree of theory to the Syricum. A mixture of sinopis and sandyx. barbarous practice they had adopted. Among

Årmenium, or Azure, also called Ceruleum. the first points of art discovered after its restoraVerd'azur, or blue vitriol. Pliny calls it a sand; tion was the principle of perspective, a knowand says there were three kinds, viz. the Egyp- ledge of which made the artists capable of tian, the Scythian, and the Cyprian.

expressing what is denominated foreshortening, Indicum. Indigo.

by means of which a greater degree of truth and Greens.—Chrysocolla. Malachite, or moun- effect was afforded to their performances. Cima

bue, Giotto, Masaccio, Mantegna, and Luca SigAppianum. Another of the same nature. norelli, successively upheld the dawning glories

Blacks.—Atramentum. A common name for of revived art. The latter, in particular, appears all black colors. Pliny speaks of one kind as to have been the first who contemplated objects oozing from the earth ; and it may possibly have with a discriminating eye; perceived what was been some kind of bitumen : of another as being accidental, what essential; balanced light and made from smoke of resin and pitch. Burnt shade, and decided the motion of his figures. lees of wine, or husks of grapes, produced a He foreshortened with equal boldness and intelthird, used by Polygnotus and Mycon, under the ligence; and thence it is, probably, that Vasari name of truginon; and a fourth was invented fancies to have discovered, in the Last Judgment and used by Apelles, by burning ivory. That, of Michael Angelo, traces of imitation from the being made thin by some process, was probably Lunetta, painted by Luca in the church of the the atramentum or varnish, which he is said to Madonna, at Orvieto; but the powers which anihave laid over the surface of his pictures. What mated him there, and before at Arezzo, are no this process was is unknown: perhaps, as the longer visible in the Gothic medley with which mode of painting with wax by heat was practised, he filled two compartments in the chapel of it might have been some modification of that ma- Sextus IV. at Rome. terial. Of the above coloring substances, Apelles Two years after the death of Masaccio, namely, and other ancient artists employed, if we are to in 1445, was born Leonardo da Vinci, whose give credit to Pliny, only four. 'Here, however, genius broke forth with a splendor which dishe seems to have placed himself between the tanced former excellence : made up of all the honis of a dilemma: since we are compelled to elements that constitute the essence of genius, question either his correctness as to their limita- favored by education and circumstances, all ear, tion of colors, or the abundant encomiums which all eye, all grasp; painter, poet, sculptor, anatohe bestows on their works. Four perfect colors, mist, architect, engineer, chymist, machinist, muit is true, with all their modifications and combi- sician, man of science, and sometimes empiric, nations, may be regarded as adequate to every he laid hold of every beauty in the enchanted purpose the art of coloring might require. But circle, but, without exclusive attachment to one, the celebrated historian has forbidden us to specu- dismissed in her turn each. Fitter to scatter late on the possibility of this perfection, by naming hints than to teach by example, he wasted life, the substances; and since the present practice of insatiate in experiment. To a capacity which at art, although possessed of substances far more once penetrated the principle and real aim of the powerful than those enumerated above, denies art, he joined an inequality of fancy that at one the knowledge of any four pigments equal to the moment lent him wings for the pursuit of beauty, production of a really fine piece of coloring, we and the next flung him on the ground to crawl are, as before observed, compelled to suspend after deformity: we owe him chiaro-scuro with our judgment on the subject.

all its magic, we owe him caricature with all its

incongruities. His notions of the most elaborate Sect. II.-OF MODERN PAINTING.

finish, and his want of perseverance, were at The art of painting was revived in Europe least equal ;-want of perseverance alone could about the end of the thirteenth, or beginning of make him abandon his cartoon destined for the the fourteenth, century. It might have been great council chamber at Florence, of which the practised in an humble and obscure manner celebrated contest of horsemen was but one somewhat earlier ; but it was not until a still group; for to him who could organise that comlater period that it made any thing like progress. position, Michael Angelo himself ought rather to The human mind, having been plunged into pro- have been an object of emulation than of fear : found ignorance, was destitute of every principle and, that he was able to organise it

, we may be of sound philosophy which enables it to deter- certain from the remaining sketch in the Etruria mine on the object of the arts; and consequently Pittrice lately published, but still more from the the painters contented themselves with work's admirable print of it by Edelinck, after a drawadapied to the general taste, without proportion ing of Rubens, who was Leonardo's great ad

mirer, and has done much to impress us with whom his tuition weaned from the meanness of the beauties of his Last Supper, in the Refectory Pietro Perugino, and prepared for the mighty of the Dominicans at Milan, which he abandoned style of Michel Angiolo Buonarrotti. likewise without finishing the head of Christ, ex- Sublimity of conception, grandeur of form, hausted by a wild chase after models for the and breadth of manner, are the elements of heads and hands of the apostles: had he been Michel Angiolo's style. By these principles he: able to conceive the centre, the radii must have selected or rejected the objects of imitation. As followed of course. Towards the beginning of painter, as sculptor, as architect, be attempted, the century in which Leonardo da Vinci was and above any other man succeeded, to unite born, the use of oil was adopted as a vehicle for magnificence of plan, and endless variety of painting, and afforded the means of most exten- subordinate parts, with the utmost simplicity sive improvements, particularly in color and ef- and breadth. His line is uniformly grand : fect. The methods to which the former execu- character and beauty were admitted only as far tion of the art had been restricted (namely, as they could be made subservient to grandeur. distemper, in colors mixed with size and water. The child, the female, meanness, deformity, were and afterwards fresco) were of a limited nature, by him indiscriminately stamped with grandeur. especially the latter, in which, no means being A beggar rose from his hand the patriarch of given to change or retouch the colors without poverty; the hump of his dwarf is impressed manifest detriment to the work, the artist was irith dignity; his women are moulds of generahampered in his plan of conduct and manage- tion; his infants teem with the man; his men are ment of design. The invention of oil-painting a race of giants. This is the 'terribil via' hinted remedied this disadvantage ; and, as it allowed at by Agostino Caracci, though perhaps as little endless variety in effects as well as disposition understood by the Bolognese as by the blindest of colors, together with complete harmony of his Tuscan adorers, with Vasari at their head. throughout the whole, the fancy of the artist was To give the appearance of perfect ease to the now permitted to take its full swing, and to most perplexing difficulty was the exclusive produce enchantments which successive ages power of Michel Angiolo. He is the inventor have not been sufficient to dissolve or even of epic painting, in that sublime circle of the weaken.

Sistine chapel, which exhibits the origin, the The circumstance of varnishing over pictures progress, and the final dispensations of theocracy. which had been painted in water colors is thought, ile has personified motion in the groups of the and perhaps justly, to have been that which led cartoon of Pisa; embodied sentiment on the to this important discovery. John Van Eyck, monuments of St. Lorenzo; unravelled the feawho flourished at Brussels in 1410, is the artist tures of meditation in the prophets and sybils of to whom the first exercise of painting with the chapel of Sextus; and in the Last Judgment, colors ground and mixed with oil has been at- with every attitude that varies the human body, tributed. At all events, if he was not the first traced the master-trait of every passion that who actually applied it to the purposes of his sways the human heart. Though, as sculptor, art, it was he who first made effectual use of it. he expressed the character of flesh more perIn any other case, his application of the system fectly than all who went before or came after would not, to use the words of Vanmander, him, yet he never submitted to copy an indiJiave made as much noise in the world as the vidual, Julio the second only excepted, and in discovery of gunpowder by Bertoldo Schwartz him he represented the reigning passion rather had done nearly a century before.' According to than the man. In painting he contented himself this same writer, the art of painting had been with a negative color; and, as the painter of carried into Flanders, about the time of Giotto, mankind, rejected all meretricious ornament. by some Flemings, who went to Italy for the The fabric of St. Peter, scattered into an intinity purpose of receiving instruction in it; and he of jarring parts by Bramante and his successors, goes on to describe it as having been practised he concentrated ; suspended the cupola, and to 'with gum and eggs, at its first commencement, the most complex gave the air of the most simby Cimabue.' The Germans, likewise, acquired ple of edifices. Such, take him all in all, was the art about the same time; but its most succes- M. Angiolo, the salt of art : sometimes he no ful progress and achievements were confined to doubt had his moments of dereliction, deviated the classic countries of Italy.

into manner, or perplexed the grandeur of his * Bartolomeo della Porta, or di S. Marco, the forms with futile and ostentatious anatomy: he last master of this period, first gave gradation to met with armies of copyists, and it has been his color, form and masses to drapery, and a grave fate to have been censured for their folly. dignity, till then unknown, to execution. If he . The inspiration of Michel Angiolo was folwas not endowed with the versat lity and com- lowed by the milder genius of Raffaelle Sancio, prehension of Leonardo, his principles were less the father of dramatic painting, the painter of mixed with base matter, and less apt to mislead humanity; less elevated, less vigorous, but more him. As a member of a religious order, he con- insinuating, more pressing on our hearts, the fined himself to subjects and characters of piety; warm master of our sympathies. What effect of but the few nudities which he allowed himself human connexion, what feature of the mind, io exhibit show sufficient intelligence and still from the gentlest emotion to the most fervid more style : he foreshortened with truth and burst of passion, has been left unobserved, has boldness; and, whenever the figure admitted of not received a characteristic stamp from that it, made his drapery the vehicle of the limb it examiner of man? M. Angiolo came to nature, invests. He was the true master of Raffaelle, nature came to Raffaelle-he transmitted her

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