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16.hied 112, and COLLIE 2015, in ste thai the tydse Tiles artva!CETEICIS are als performed, the sta- tittaisay nine Carli to the t'* and desire obiet, je weights and çadrar. un cont at walcre semmdir... 1.6.476 km dic. They made four masters of Tietosuus:ite pirkni cha; el was arts an entants Or I (p?on. There is also on 317 a ja see order of the crittritt, Los Chicinen ('head (uch an und by Cardinal tyle COE062 nm, ani trust to at least either Wonen in 15:25 : in 1529, wien lie itil into asario? Of cal law Or 1.& its of arts. His de tice Henry VIII. Send i to: thite dutyno write leier and additintä on public years, when be re-esaset it under own Gr.Cas..., as the orzan of the converty; and Inte, and in 1516 transied the scopal ser 10 patient tot. honorar de It. Of manits of arts; birer from (serietQueta Etika uterit bu ala is keeper of the arrives and charter, this tima: scolas 1.0 sliders, whest laand rear of the convocations, CONTEZA. Cncies should be super from the Westminster 1.0.", and other thing, and acts. lie also school. The soclity consists of a dean, eight CO!!!: and received them tonis of the university: carons, 101 s.derts. thite profesorii esht

There are at (voerd public lecturers and pro chluins, and a vuitable choir.' The buildings fraz 683 o demy, Hebr*, Greek, civil laws, cons of the Cathedral, two spacious quadrun55+41 int, mirem bistory, borany, nairad pole Eles, and two smaller courts. The wesi, or Joapbox, aurronomy, geometry, ancient tistory; principal fron', las a noble ur. From the sitealia'stly, ul., Arabic, poetry, Anzlo-Saxon, wdy in tié centre rives a iaitly rower, in which (90140n law, and chemistry. Four terms are is suspended the fan.ous bell Crest Tom, at the kept in the year at the university, and deters sound of which, every evening, the students are are taken in divny, law, physic, music, and the direcied, by the satures of the university, 10

The total muinber of members in the uni- retire for the night. The stand western quadversity book is about 3000, 1000 of whom are ranule, entered through the gatewas, was erected, maintained on the revenues of the university, and the foundation stone laid, bi Wolsey. It and the rest at their own expense.

is nearly a square of 360 feet. The second The twenty colleges are, All Souls, Baliol, great quadrangle is termed Peckwater Court, and



the architecture is perfectly classical. The very elegant. Magdalen is required by its stasouthern side contains the library. Canterbury tutes to entertain the kings of England and Square is a small quadrangle, built after the their eldest sons, whenever they visit Oxford, model of Peckwater. Christ Church cathedral and has been honored with the presence of many is one of the most interesting objects in Oxford. of our kings. Attached to the college on the The chief parts can be traced to the reign of banks of the Cherwell are beautiful pleasure Henry I.; and the style is even of an earlier grounds. Cardinal Wolsey, Cardinal Pope, period. It has the form of a cross, with a square Hampden, Collins, and Addison, were educated tower, surmounted by a spire steeple in the here. centre. The choir is ornamented with Merton is the most ancient college in Oxford, splendid Gothic roof. The hall was built en- and was founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, tirely under the direction of Wolsey; and is bishop of Rochester, and chancellor of England. 115 feet long, and forty wide; containing se- It consists of a warden, twenty-four fellows, veral interesting paintings. The oak ceiling is fourteen post-masters, four scholars, two chapbeautifully carved

lains, and two clerks, and is situated to the east Corpus Christi was founded in 1516 by bishop of Corpus Christi; consisting of three courts. Fox, lord privy seal to Henry VII. and VIII.; The first is small and irregular, but a handsome and the society consists of a president, twenty arch leads to the inner quadrangle of a pleasing fellows, twenty scholars, two chaplains, two style of Gothic architecture; the third court is clerks, and two choristers. The building is at also on a small scale : the library occupies two the east of Christ Church, and to the west of sides of it. The hall is a plain but respectable Merton College, and consisted at first of one structure. The chapel is one of the finest Gothic spacious quadrangle; but various additions buildings in the university. It is the parish have since been made. The library is well fur- church of St. John Baptist, and was erected in nished.

1424, on the ruins of a more ancient building. Exeter, was founded by Walter Stapleton, New College was founded in 1379 by William bishop of Exeter, in 1314; it consists of a rector, of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester. It is comtwenty-five fellows, one scholar, and ten exhibi- posed of a warden, seventy fellows, ten chaptioners.

lains, three clerks, and sixteen choristers, and Hertford, formerly called Hert Hall, was consists of a quadrangle, with attached chapel, founded also by Walter Stapleton in 1312. It hall, and library, a fine range of cloisters, and a consists of a principal, four senior and eight series of buildings for the use of students, junior fellows, eight probationary students, termed the Garden Court, which was completed twenty-four actual students, and four scholars. in 1684 on the model of the palace of Versailles. The buildings are incomplete, and the college The chapel is, in the interior, one of the most has had no principal since 1805. Here the late splendid in the university. It has undergone Mr. Fox was educated.

numerous modern alterations, under the direcJesus was founded in 1571 by queen Eliza- tion of Wyatt. The painted windows are a rebeth, and endowed by Hugh Price, treasurer of markable feature of the building. The library St. David's, for a principal, eight fellows, and consists of two rooms in different stories, and eight scholars, which has been since raised to the gardens are laid out in good taste. nineteen fellows, and eighteen scholars, besides Oriel was founded in 1324 by Adam de exhibitioners.

Brom, archdeacon of Stow. The society is Lincoln was founded by Richard Fleming, composed of a provost, eighteen fellows, and who obtained a license from Henry VI. in 1427, thirteen exhibitioners: the buildings consist of a to make All Saints' church collegiate, and tó quadrangle, with two ranges on the east and found a college for a rector and seven scholars. west sides of the garden, between which is It was finished in 1475, by Rotherham, bishop placed the library, a chaste and classical strucof Lincoln, and consists of a rector, twelve ture, begun in 1788. fellows, eight scholars, thirteen exhibitioners, and Pembroke was founded in 1620, by Thomas a Bible clerk. The buildings consist of two Teesdale of Glympton, in Oxford, and Richard quadrangles. The chapel was built in 1631, and Wightwick, rector of Isley, Berks, being named the hall in 1636.

after the earl of Pembroke, then chancellor of Magdalen is one of the noblest institutions in the university. It consists of a master, fourteen the university. It was founded in 1458 by fellows, and thirty scholars and exhibitioners. William Waynflete, bishop of Winchester, and The chapel is a small building of the Ionic consists of a president, forty fellows, thirty de- order. mies, a divinity lecturer, four chaplains, eight Queen's takes the sixth place in the order of clerks, and sixteen choristers. No commoners foundation, though the present buildings are of are admitted. It is situated at the eastern recent date. It was founded in 1340, by Robert extremity of the city, and the side towards the Eglesfeld, confessor of queen Philippa, consort High-street is ornamented by a lofty tower. of Edward III., and consists of a provost, sixThe great quadrangle is composed of the chapel, teen fellows, eight taberdars, sixteen scholars, hall, library, a part of the president's lodgings, two chaplains, two clerks, and forty exhibitioners. and charnbers for the fellows and demies. The The hall is a fine room, sixty feet by thirty, and chapel is a beautiful Gothic structure, divided the library is one of the largest attached to any into two parts; the inner chapel retaining much university. of its original sublimity. The library is a low St. John's was founded in 1555 by Sir Thomas but extensive room. The interior of the hall is White, and consists of a president, fifty fellows,

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Siznanil tusidoro rim: in the this, Oportunis turtten other churches, beC.Tiitinatantei of 1 ::.

Ingin: re-pastsely tü the thirteen puishes into Bien vid Lund in 1611, i Vicinos winan it isdiritto, viz. All Saints, Cartax or

of Ec and Mirritiei. in Soe St. Martin's. Si. Clement -, St. Ebb's, St. Giles's, mir2021.9. ti ti treniss. itera Hotell, Si. Joni's, Si. Mary Magdalen's, St.

nais, :16, chirard w) Clarks I(.10- Vichueis, St. Petri in the East, si. Peter's in 5.**s of a ne 120 feet squar: tiro the Bailey, st. lllzzie's of St. Old':, and Si.

nike sructure, in the Good Thomas's. There are also places of worship for se, ani ititinkl. tannie ( 70cc windon: the Ronin Catolica quaktrs, Jethodists, sari litre the Royal Society Biptiis, dic. The uthier puvic buildings are

the town and countr-hull and jail, city bridewell, Il montes, 061211; named Gloucester Col- music room, Ruitte infirmary, and the well16, Watusin 1711, bv Sir Touma. Come contrived derfral market. Here are also various (f Biolti, Horairesire. The whole charity cheils; but no theatrical representations Cucture in of a colle character. It has had are allowed in this ciri Sebral 67.dowments since, and now consists of a Oxford has no considerable manufacture or Provost, turn*y-one fellows, ten scholars, and branch of trade : the cunilhowever, has reIhre Eibationer Bein: a seminary for edu- cently opened new sources of commerce; and Cuinz the noricus of Gloucesier monasitry, it the city and four nienbers to parliament, two was at the reformation converted for some time for the ciiri t'écied by the citizens and freemen, into an "piscopal palace. It is arretably situa'ed and two for the university. The government, er the basuithe Western extremity of the city, sulyject to the chancellor or rice-chancellor of

The hills at Oxford were originally houses the universiat, in all atfairs of moment, is vested citetasi by tło: citizens of Oxford for the accoul- in a multos, nich steward, recorder, four alder11.odation of the students, to whom the wire men, eight assistants, two hailitis, a town-clerk, lit. tfits the foundation of so many wlexes, two chamberlains, and twenty-four common tipy cunk klo nenteet; four, however, remain, Cuncil. The mavor, at the Coronation feasts of viz. Si. Allan's, Si. Edmond, St. Jury Manila- the kina and queens of En land, receives a gilt len, and Vew Inn Hall, and have been enriched bowl and cover as his fee. The history of Oxby various endowments. Each is governed by for would require a volume of no ordinary size a principal, and by the university statutes; tie to trace: its early poruons are involved in oliscustudents possessing the privile_ts, and wearing rity, and no credit can be given to any accounts the same dress, with those of the colle ves. If of it before the reign of Alfred, when it appears entitled to live notice, amidst the blaze of archi- to have had a famous monastery dedicated to the tectural beauty around, the buildings are in ge- Trinity: The name is supposed to be derived teral commodious, and he halls have produced from a ford for oxen, beins formerly written a due proportion of eminent characters. Of the Oxenford, and it was certainly a town in ti e other public buildings, ihe schools form, tostther tenth century: William the Conqueror was with the Bodleian literary and the picture sallery, compelled to force an entrance into this city; his a noble quadraněle. These schools were a

Necessor frequently made Oxford the place of in the fiferuth century, the professors readent their residence, and sunmoned both parliaments lecture in their sciences, and the scholars of the and councils bere. Charles I. spent here the university being enjoined to perform here their whole winter of 1046. Oxford early attained a exercises for degrees. The Bodleian comprises degree of distinction from the number of its three extensive rooms, du posed in the conve- schools, but no re_ular corporate institution denient form of the letter H.' It was founded by serving the name of a university appears to have Plumphrey duke of Gloucester, but greatly anya evited even at the period of the Worman (on, mented by the munificence of Sir Thomas qrest. Heny balls and schools were erected Boiley, and now conuins one of the mont 13- inder the patronnige di Richard I. ; and, in te


reign of king John, the number of scholars is stone walls, and consequently afford little or no said to have amounted to 3000. In that of shelter. It is cold also upon and near the ChilHenry III. the students greatly increased; and tern Hills, especially on the poor white lands at about this time was introduced the practice of the foot of the hills, where it is always to be oberecting and endowing colleges, which since this served that the frost will take effect sooner and reign have gradually accumulated to their pre- continue longer on that soil than it does on the sent state. Market on Wednesday and Saturday. deeper lands further situated from the bills. Fifty-eight miles west by north of London, The climate of the Chiltern country is moist, on

OXFORD, a county in the west part of Maine, account of the fogs, which are more frequent on bounded east by Somerset and Kennebeck the hills and woods than in the vale. The soil counties, south by Cumberland and Oxford of this county contains (according to Young's counties, and west and north-west by New Hamp- Survey) three distinctions of soil, that are so shire. Population 17,630. Chief town, Paris. marked by nature as to allow of little doubt

OXFORD, a post town of Chenango county, respecting them. 1. The red land of the northNew York, eight miles south of Norwich, 1ió ern district, which in fertility much exceeds that west of Albany. Population 2988. It is a of any other portion of equal extent. 2. The flourishing town, has an academy, and a con- district of Stonebrush. 3. The Chiltern Hills. siderable village. A weekly newspaper is pub- 4. Miscellaneous loams. The proportionate exlished here. Also a post town of Sussex county, tent of these soils, taking the total of the county New Jersey, on the east side of the Delaware ; at 450,000 acres, may be thus stated, in the esseventeen miles N. N. E. of Easton. Popu- timation of Mr. Neele:-Red land 79,635 acres, lation 2470.

Stonebrush 164,023, Chiltern 64,778, miscelOXFORD, a post town and port of entry, Tal- laneous 166,400; total 474,836. In so much bot county, Maryland, on the Treadhaven, eight as the counties of Oxford and Berks are conmiles above its mouth. Thirteen miles S. S. W. tiguous, they are separated from each other by of Easton, forty-eight south-east of Baltimore. the rivers Isis and Thames. The river Thames, It is a place of considerable trade. The ship- which runs through the county, falls into the Isis ping belonging to this port in 1816 amounted to at Dorchester, and from that place takes the 15,720 tons.

name of Thames. Other rivers in Oxfordshire OXFORDSHIRE. This county takes its are the Cherwell, which divides this county name from the city of Oxford. When the Ro- from Northamptonshire on a part of the bounmans entered Britain under Aulus Plantius, by dary only; the Windrush; the Evenlode; the command of the emperor Claudius, a great por- Glym; and the Ray, besides numerous streams tion of the districts now denominated Glouces- of inferior note : so that this county may be tershire and Oxfordshire was inhabited by a race considered as inferior to none in point of being of aboriginal Britons termed Dobuni; and du- well watered. The Oxford Canal enters the ring the Saxon heptarchy it formed a part county at its northern extremity, between Clayof the kingdom of Mercia. Oxfordshire is an don and the Three Shire Stone. Approaching inland county, bounded on the east by Buck- the vicinage of the river Cherwell

, at Cropredy, inghamshire, on the west by the county of Glou- it proceeds at a small distance from the banks of cester; on the S. S. W. and south-east its limits that river to the city of Oxford, where it falls unite with those of Berkshire; the river Cher- into the navigation of the Isis. The advantages well separates Oxfordshire from Northampton- derived from this recent cut are incalculably shire on the north-east, while the county of great, as it opens an immediate connexion Warwick lies contiguous to the north-west. It between the interior of the county and Birmingis of a very irregular figure ; near the centre of ham, Liverpool, Manchester, and the Wednesthe county, at the city of Oxford, it is not more bury collieries. The produce of this county is than seven miles across; and yet in the more chiefly like that in most of the midland farming Dorthern part, at no great distance, its diameter counties: much butter and cheese are made, and is thirty-eight miles. Proceeding northward it numerous calves are reared and fed for the assumes the resemblance of a cone, and termi- London markets; it grows also a considerable nates at what is called the Three Shire Stone, in quantity of corn. The principal manufactures a complete point or apex; the part south of are those of blankets at Witney, shag at BanOxford is likewise disproportionately narrow, bury, gloves and polished steel at Woodstock, when compared with the chief central districts and some lace-making and spinning by the of the county; at no point south of the city of country people towards the borders of BuckingOxford above twelve miles in width : its greatest hamshire. This county returns nine members length is fifty miles. Oxfordshire is divided to parliament, viz. two for the county, two for into fourteen hundreds ; and contains one city, the city of Oxford, two for the university of Oxtwelve market towns, and 207 townships. Ac- ford, two for Woodstock, one for Banbury. The cording to a topographical survey, made by Mr. dukes of Marlborough have long possessed a Davis, there are about 450,000 acres of land in great sway over this county; but the Jenkinsons the county. The whole is in the diocese of Ox- represented it from 1707 to 1734. ford, and in the province of Canterbury. It is OXIDES. Substances combined with oxygen, included in the Oxford circuit. The climate of Ox- without being in the state of an acid. fordshire may be accounted in general cold, OXIGENĚ, in chemistry. See OXYGEN. particularly the westward part of the northern

OX’LIP, n. s.

Ox and lip. Another name division, where the fences consist chiefly of for the cowslip.


A bank whereon the wild thyme blows, its distinguishing properties of rendering comWhere oslip and the nodding violet grows. bustion more vivid and eminently supporting

Shakspeare, life. Scheele obtained it in different modes in OXNAJ, formerly called Oxenham, a parish 1775; and in the same year Lavoisier, who had of Scotland, in Roxburghshire, nine miles in begun, as he says, to suspect the absorption of length, and upon an average five miles in breadth. atmospheric air, or of a portion of it, in the calIt is watered by the rivers Oxnam, Coquet, cination of metals, expelled it from the red oxide and various other streams. The number of in- of mercury heated in a retort. habitants is between 700 and 800.

Oxygen gas forms about a fifth of our atmoOXTONGCE, n. s. Fr. buglossa. A plant. sphere, and its base is very abundant in nature.

OXCCLE, in natural history, from Gr. ošvc. Water contains 88.88 per cent. of it; and it sharp, and kiviv, a column, a genus of fossils of exists in most vegetable and animal products, the class of selenitæ, but of the columnar, not acids, salts, and oxides. the rhomboidal, kind. Of this genus there are

This gas may be obtained from nitrate of potonly two known species :—1. A fine kind with ash, exposed to a red heat in a coated glass or flakes and transverse filaments, found in the earthen retort, or in a gun-barrel; from a pound clayey banks of the river Nen, near Peterborough of which about 1200 cubic inches may be obin Northamptonshire ; and, 2. A dull kind with tained; but this is liable, particularly towards thick plates and longitudinal filaments. This the end of the process, to a inixture of nitrogen. is common in Yorkshire, and lies sometimes in It may be expelled, as already observed, from a yellow and sometimes in a blue clay.

the red oxide of mercury, or that of lead ; and OXTS, a river of Central Asia, the principal still better from the black oxide of manganese, part of whose course is through Independent heated red hot in a gun-barrel, or exposed to a Tartary, rises in the high table land of Pamer, gentle heat in a retort with half its weight, or in a narrow valley, enclosed on three sides by a somewhat more, of strong sulphuric acid. To obhigh mountain called Pooshtikhur, where the tain it of the greatest purity, however, the chlostream is seen issuing from a vast mass of ice. rate of potash is preferable to any other subIt first rolls S. S.W., and then W. N. W., but stance, rejecting the portions that first come over always between lofty mountains, and receiving as being debased with the atmospheric air in the large accessions of water. It then bursts into retort. Growing vegetables, exposed to the solar the plain, and, being turned by a branch of the liyht, give out oxygen gas; so do leaves laid on Hindoo Coosh, directs its course to the north

water in similar situations, the green matter that It now flows through the plain of Buk- forms in water, and some other substances. haria, on passing which it reaches an extensive

Oxygen gas has neither smell nor taste. Its desert, near the Tartar cities of Khiera and Ur- specific gravity is 1•1111; 100 cubic inches gunge, and at length falls into the Aral Sea, weizh 33.88 grains. It is a little heavier than after a course of more than 1200 miles. It has atmospheric air. Under great pressure water been believed that it fell anciently into the Cas- may be made to take up about half its bulk. 1: pian, and was turned artificially into its present is essential to the support of life: an animal receptacle; but this is solely founded upon the will live in it a considerable time longer than in ancients being ignorant of the existence of the atmospheric air; but its respiration becomes Aral as a separate sea, and who therefore could hurried and laborio's before the whole is confind no other termination for the Oxus than the sumed, and it dies, though a fresh animal of the Caspian. It passes through a desart country

same kind can still sustain life for a certain time abounding with sands.

in the residuary air. OXYCRATE, n. s.

Combustion is powerfully supported by oxya Gr. οξυκρατον; French orycrat; Gr. oļuç and kepaw. A mixture of kindled, and introduced into it, burns rapidly

gen gas. Any intammable substance previously water and vinegar.

and vividly. If an iron or copper wire be in. Apply a mixture of the same powder, with a com- troduced into a bottle of oxygen yas, with a bit press prest out of orycrate, and a suitable bandage. of lighted touchwood or charcoal at the end, it


will burn with a bright light, and throw out a OXYDATION, a term applied by modern number of sparks. The bottom of the bottle chemists to express the process by which bodies should be covered with sand, that these sparks are converted into oxides; and it is allowed on may not crack it. If the wire coiled all hands to be exactly similar to combustion. Spiral like a corkscrew, as it usually is in this The nature of this process has been much dis- experiment, be moved with a jerk the instant a puted; and the question involves in it great part melted globule is about to fall, so as to throw of the between the followers of Stahl it against the side of the glass, it will melt its and the celebrated Lavoisier, the founders of the way through in an instant, or, if the jerk be phlogistic and antiphlogistic theories, which for less violent, lodge itself in the substance of the some years divided the chemical world. But glass. If it be performed in a bell glass, set the latter doctine has now completely triumphed, in a plate filled with water, the globules will and the former is quite exploded. See Calci- frequently fuse the vitreous glazing of the plate, Nation, Chemistry, COMBUSTION, INFLAMMA- and unite with it so as not 10° be separable TION, and PHLOGISTON.

without detaching the glaze, though it has passed OXYGEN Gas. This gas was obtained in through perhaps two inches of water. 1774 from red oxide of mercury exposed to

OXYGENATION. This word is often used a burning lens, by Dr. Priestley, who observed instead of oxidation, and frequently confounded




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