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cleaning you. He told me he wondered how I months. But as he never thought of paying for could no it; for his part he would not like to do services, or for meat, or for any thing else, the same again for ten dollars. I told him you Rachel had to sue him for five dollars, the were a fellow being, and that it was our duty to amount of her wages. She got out a warrant, assist each other in distress. Have you forgotten on which he was apprehended, and Mr. Shute, my care of you during the winter you staid with one of his neighbours and political admirers. me? How I put you in bed every night, with a was his bail.
The wages were finally obtained, warm brick to your feet, and treated you like an but he thought it hard that he should be sued in infant one month old ? Have you forgotten like- a country for which he had done so much ! wise how you destroyed my bed and bedding It is now time to bring this article to a close. by fire, and also a great coat that was worth ten We will conclude it with a passage from a letter dollars ?
written by Dr. Manley, who attended this extra* I remember, during one of your stays at my ordinary person in his last illness, in answer to house, you were sued in the justice's court by a enquiries from Mr. Cheetham :poor man, for the board and lodging of the French During the latter part of his life, though his woman, to the amount of about thirty dollars ; conversation was equivocal, his conduct was but as the man had no proof, and only depended singular. He would not be left alone night or on your word, he was non-suited, and a cost of day. He not only required to have some person forty-two shillings thrown upon him. This with him, but he must see that he or she was highly gratified your unfeeling heart. I believe there, and would not allow his curtain to be you had promised payment, as you said you closed at any time ; and if, as it would sometimes would give the French woman the money to go unavoidably happen, he was left alone, he would and pay it with. I know it is customary in scream and holla until some person came to him. England that when any gentleman keeps a lády, When relief from pain would admit, he seemed that he pays her board and lodging. You com thoughtful and contemplative, his eyes being plain that you suffered with the cold, and that generally closed, and his hands folded upon
his there ought to have been a fire in the parlour. breast, although he never slept without the assistBut the fact is, that I expended so much money ance of an anodyne. There was something reon your account, and received so little, that I markable in his conduct about this period (which could not go to any further expense, and if I had comprises about two weeks immediately preI should not have got you away. A friend of ceding his death), particularly when we reflect yours that knew my situation told you that you that Thomas Paine was author of the Age of ought to buy a load of wood to burn in the par- Reason. He would call out during his paroxJour; your answer was that you should not stay ysms of distress, without intermission, O Lord above a week or two, and did not want to have help me, God help me, Jesus Christ help me, O the wood to remove; this certainly would have Lord help me,' &c., repeating the same expresbeen a hard case for you to have left me a few sion without any the least variation, in a tone of sticks of wood.
voice that would alarm the house. It was this Now, Sir, I think I have drawn a complete conduct which induced me to think that he had portrait of your character; yet to enter upon abandoned his former opinions; and I was more every minutia would be to give a history of your inclined to that belief when I understood from life, and to develop the fallacious mask of hy- his nurse (who is a very serious, and, I believe, pocrisy and deception under which you have pious woman) that he would occasionally enacted in your political as well as moral capacity quire, when he saw her engaged with a book, of life. There may be many grammatical errors what she was reading, and being answered, and in this letter. To you I have no apologies to at the same time asked whether she should read make; but I hope the candid and impartial aloud,* he assented, and would appear to give public will not view them with a critic's eye.' particular attention.
« WILLIAM CARVER.' • I took occasion, during the night of the 5th · Thomas Paine, New York, Dec. 2, 1806.' and 6th of June, to test the strength of his opi
nions respecting revelation. I purposely made * He lived at Ryder's until 4th of May, 1809, him a very late visit ; it was a time which seemed about eleven months ; during which time, except to sort exactly with my errand : it was midnight; the last ten weeks, he got drunk regularly twice he was in great distress, constantly exclaiming a day. As to his person, said Mr. Ryder
, we in the words above mentioned; when, after a had to wash him like a child, and with much considerable preface, I addressed him in the the same coaxing; for he hated soap and water. following manner, the nurse being present : He would have the best of meat cooked for him, , Mr. Paine, your opinions, by a large portion of eat a little of it, and throw away the rest, that the community, have been treated with deference: he might have the worth of the money which he you have never been in the habit of mixing in paid for his board. He chose to perform all the your conversation words of course : you have functions of nature in bed.-When censured never indulged in the practice of profane swearfor it he would say, 'I pay you money enough, ing: you must be sensible that we are acquainted and you shall labor for it.'
with your religious opinions as they are given to • He returned,' says Mr. Cheetham,' to his the world. What must we think of your prefarm at New Rochelle, taking with him Madame sent conduct ? Why do you call upon Jesus Bonneville and her sons. On his arrival he hired Rachel Gidney, a black woman,
cook * The book she usually read was Mr. Hobart's for him. Rachel continued with him about two Companion for the Altar.
Christ to help you? Do you believe that he can the dead may draw the curtain of oblivion over help you ? Do you believe in the divinity of Jesus transient obliquities of conduct, but duty to the Christ? Come now answer me honestly ; I want living demands the records of villany to be an answer as from the lips of a dying man, for honestly severe. The examples of the dead either I verily believe that you will not live twenty- for warning or imitation are the property of the four hours.' I waited some time at the end of living; and the veritable description of virtue every question; he did not answer, but ceased and vice is among the genuine • Rights of Man.' to exclaim in the above manner. Again I ad- We shall now leave him to his reckoning with dressed him :- Mr. Paine, you have not those whom his false and presumptuous theories answered my questions; will you answer them! may have conducted to practical misery; and Allow me to ask again-Do you believe? or let whom his lights of Man, and Age of Reason, me qualify the question-do you wish to believe may have rendered proudly insensible to the that Jesus Christ is the Son of God!' After a concerns of the soul. pause of some minutes, he answered, I have PAI'NIM, n. s. & adj. Fr. payen. Pagan; no wish to believe on that subject.' I then left infidel. him, and know not whether lie afterwards spoke
Champions bold, to any person, on any subject, though he lived, Defyed the best of Painim chivalry as I before observed, till the morning of the 8th. To mortal combat, or carriere with lance. • Such conduct, under usual circumstances,
Milion. I conceive absolutely unaccountable, though The cross hath been an ancient bearing, even with diffidence I would remark, not so much so before the birth of our Saviour, among the Painums in the present instance ; for, though the first
Peacham. necessary and general result of conviction be a Whole brigades one champion's arms o'erthrow,
Tickle. sincere wish to atone for evil committed, yet it Slay Puinims vile that force the fair. may be a question worthy of able consideration The Solymean sultan he o'erthrew, whether excessive pride of opinion, consummate
His moony vroops returning bravely smeared
With Painin blood effused. vanity, and inordinate self-love, might not pre
Philips. vent or retard that otherwise natural conse- PAINSWICK, a town of Gloucestershire,
with a considerable woollen manufacture of On the 8th of June, 1809, about nine in the white cloths. It abounds with a kind of stone morning, died this memorable reprobate, aged for pavement, remarkable for its beauty. As the seventy-two years and five months.
high ground, it has a most * For the sake of England and humanity,' says extensive prospect every way, of great part of the an able anonymous writer, “it is to be wished counties of Salop, Hereford, and Monmouth; of that his impostures and his memory may rot to- the windings of the Severn, and of Malvern Hills, gether. In speaking of such a man it is impos- &c. It is seven miles south-east of Gloucester, sible to suppress indignation. Decency towards and 101 west by north of London.
PAINT, v.a., v. 1., & 7.s. Fr. peindre ; Live to be the shew and gaze o' the time :
Span.pentar, We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,
Id. Macieth. PAL'TURE.
To delineate; re
Who fears a sentence or an old man's saw, present by lines or colors : painture is from the Shall by a painted cloth be kept in awe. Shakspeare. F'r. peinteur, and (rarely) used as synonymous
The lady is disloyal. with painting
— The word is too good to paint out her wickedness. Jezebel painted her face and tired her head.
la. 2 Kings ix. 30. In the placing let some care be taken how the Such is his will that paint
painter did stand in the working.
ll'otton. The earth with colours fresh,
The air The darkest skies with store of starry lights. Floats as they pass, fanned with unnumbered
plumes Hath not old custom made this life more sweet From branch to branch the smaller birds with song Than that painted pomp? are not these woods Solaced the woods, and spread their painted wings, More free from peril than the court? Shakspeare. 'Till even.
Milton's Paradise Lost. This is the very painting of your sear;
To the next realm she stretched her sway, This is the air-drawn dagger which you said
For painture near adjoining lay,
Dryden. Painting is welcome ;
Painting and poesy are two sisters so like, that The painting is almost the natural man:
they lend to each other their name and office; ong For since dishonour trafficks with man's nature, is called a dumb poesy, and the other a speaking He is but outside : penciled figures are
Id. Dufresnoy. Even such as they give out.
Id. Timon. Beauty is only that which makes all things as they If any such be here
are in their proper and perfect nature; which the That love this painting, wherein you see me smeared, best painters always chuse by contemplating the Let him express his disposition. Shakspeare.
forms of each.
Till we from an author's words paint his very Even that great improvement in painting, tha thoughts in our minds, we do not understand bim. Claro-Obscuro, was discovered by the Greeks
Locke. before the invention and proper application of The church of the annunciation looks beautiful in colors. the inside, all but one corner of it being covered
Plato, who lived 400 years before the Chriswith statues, gilding, and paint.
tian era, states, that painting had been practised To copy out ideas in the mind :
in Egypt for 10,000 years. Without regarding Words are the paint by which their thoughts are
his Egyptian chronology as accurate, we may shown,
consider it as designed to impress us with the And nature is their object to be drawn. Granville. very remote antiquity of the art. 'Tis in life as 'tis painting,
The monuments of Egyptian painting with Much may be right, yet much be wanting. which we are best acquainted, says Winckel
Prior. man, are the chests of mummies. These have Oh! if to dance all night, and dress all day, resisted the injuries of time, and are still subCharmed the small-pox, or chased old age away, mitted to the examination of the curious. The To patch, nay ogle, might become a saint,
white, made of white lead, is spread over the Nor would it sure be such a sin to paint. Pope. Her charms in breathing paint engage,
ground of the piece; the outlines of the figure Her modest cheek shall warm a future age. Id.
are traced with black strokes, and the colors are Arts on the mind, like paint upon the face,
generally blue, red, yellow, and green, laid on Fright him, that's worth your love, from your em
without any mixture or shading. The red and brace.
blue prevail most; and these colors seem to have The showery arch
been prepared in the coarsest manner. The With listed colours gay, or, azure, gules,
light is formed by leaving those parts of the Delights and puzzles the beholder's eye,
ground where it is necessary covered with the That views the watery brede with thousand shews white lead, as it is formed by the white paper in Of painture varyed.
Philips. some of our drawings. This description is suffiSie Bens. Nay now, Lady Sneerwell, you are cient to convince us that the whole art of paintsevere upon the widow. Come, come: 'tis not that ing in Egypt consisted in coloring; but every she paints so ill—but when she has finished her face, she joins it so badly to her neck, that she looks like person knows that without tints, and the mixa mended statue, in which the connoisseur sees at
ture of colors, painting can never arrive at peronce that the head's modern, though the trunk's an
fection. Pliny says, that the Egyptian artists tique.
Sheridan. painted the precious metals; that is, they varPainting is the art of representing to the this art was, but most probably it consisted in
nished or enamelled them. It is doubtful what eyes, by means of figures and colors, every ob- covering gold or silver with a single color. The ject in nature that is discernible by the sight; Egyptians are supposed to have continued this and of sometimes expressing, according to the principles of physiognomy, and by the attitudes
coarse style till the reign of the Ptolemies. of the body, the various emotions of the mind. ling in the arts, that the paintings of Egypt were
The ancient Persians were so far from excelA smooth surface, by means of lines and colors, represents objects in a state of projection; and highly esteemed among them after they had may represent them in the most pleasant dress, painter of Persia, whose name is preserved, is
The only ancient and in a manner most capable of enchanting the Manes ; and he is more celebrated for his atsenses. The art of painting is extremely difficult in the execution; and its merit can only be tempt to accommodate the Persian theology of
two first principles to the Christian system, than appreciated by devotees to the art. The painter who is distinguished for noble for his skill
as a painter. He was famed, howand profound conceptions ; who by means of a The modern Persians bave made no progress in
ever, for drawing straight lines without a ruler. perfect delineation, and colors more capable of
the art. fixing the attention and dazzling the eye, conveys
In India the art seems to be confined to monto the spectators the sentiments with which he strous figures connected with their religion. See himself was inspired; who animates them with POLYTHEISM. And the paintings of Thibet are his genius, and makes a lasting impression on only remarkable for the fineness of their strokes. their mind; this artist resembles a poet, and is
T'he Chinese seem never to have had the least worthy to share even in the glories of Homer.
idea of perspective. Their landscapes have no PART I.
plan, no variety in the appearance of the clouds, HISTORY OF THE ART.
and no diminishing of the objects in proportion
to their distance; and their representations of SECT. I.-OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF
human beings are caricatures upon the human PAINTING IN Ancient Times.
figure. Painting originally consisted of simple out- It is undoubtedly to the Greeks that we are lines, and long continued in this state before the indebted for the highest cultivation which the expression of relievo, or the application of color. imitative arts have known. In sculpture this is
The next step in the art was to render the even now sufficiently palpable, since at this day imitation more complete by applying colors; their performances remain not only unequalled which was done in the same way that we color but unapproached. The same observation holds maps, and several nations, as the Egyptians, with respect to architecture; and it is probable the Chinese, and the different nations of India, that, so far as relates to the perfect representation have never yet painted in a better manner. of a single figure, it might be applied also to
ther painting; but there is great reason to con- certain. The tool was a style or pen of wood clude that in many branches of this art they or metal; the materials a board, or a levigated are surpassed by the great names among the plane of wood, metal, stone, or so.ne prepared inoderns. In Egypt the knowledge of that compound; the method, letters or lines. principle which is most desirable in art (selec- • The first essays of the art were skiagrams, tion) never appears to have operated far. simple outlines of a shade, similar to those When a specific form of character was which have been introduced to vulgar use by adopted, there it remained, and was repeated the students and parasites of physiognomy, unchanged for generations. Little action was under the name of Silhouettes; without any given to figures, and no attempts at all made at other addition of character or feature but what expression. Pliny reports, that the statues the profile of the object, thus delineated, could executed by the Egyptians in his time differed afford. m no respect whatever from those male by them . The next step was the monogram, outlines 1000 years befory. Of their paintings a few of figures without light or shade, but with some remain to the present era, but the date of these addition of the parts within the outline, and relies is by no means evident. Two of them from that to the monochrom, or paintings of a (seen at Thebes and described by Bruce) are single color on a plane or tablet, primed with referred by him to the time of Sesostris (about white, and then covered with what they called 700 years B. C'.), who is said to have restored punic wax, first amalgamated with a tough and embellished that city; but this is mere Iesinous pigment, generally of a red, sometimes conjecture. lle remarks of these paintings, dark brown, or black color. In, or rather that they might be compared with good sign- through, this thin inky ground, the outlines were paintings of his day.
traced with a firm but pliant style, which they We cannot here detail the reasons and the called cestrum; if the traced line happened to be coincidence of fortunate circunstances which incorrect or wrong, it was gently effaced with the raised the Greeks to be the arbiters of form. finger or with a sponge, and easily replaced by a • The standard they erected,' says Fuseli, “ the fresh one. When the whole design was settled, canon they framed, fell not from heaven: but as and no farther alteration intended, it was suffered
] they fancied themselves of divine origin, and to dry, was covered, to make it permanent, with religion was the first mover of their art, it fol- a brown encaustic varnish, the lights were worklowed that they should endeavour to invest their ed over again, and rendered more brilliant with authors with the most perfect form ; and, as man à point still more delicate, according to the possesses that exclusively, they were led to a gradual advance from mere outlines to some complete and intellectual study of his elements indications, and at last to masses of light and and constitution ; this, with their climate, which shade, and from those to the superinduction of allowed that form to grow, and to show itself to different colors, or the invention of the polythe greatest advantage; with their civil and chrom, which, by the addition of the pencil 10 political institutions, which established and en- the style, raised the mezzotinto or stained drawcouraged exercises and manners best calculated ing to a legitimate picture, and at length proto develope its powers; and above all, that sim- duced that vaunted harmony, the magic scale of plicity of their end, that uniformity of pursuit, Grecian color. which in all its derivations retraced the great If this conjecture, for it is not more, on the principle from which it sprang, and, like a cen- process of linear painting, formed on the evitral samen, drew it out into one immense con- dence and comparison of passages always unnectel web of congenial imitation; these, I say, connected, and frequently contradictory, be are the reasons why the Greeks carried the art founded in fact, the rapturous astonishment at 10 a heighit which no subsequent time or race the supposed momentaneous production of the has been able to rival or even to approach. Herculanean dancers, and the figures on the Great as these advantages were, it is not to be earthen vases of the ancients, will cease; or supposed that nature deviated from her vradual rather, we shall no longer suffer ourselves to be progress in the development of human faculties, deluded by palpable impossibility of execution: in favor of the Greeks. (reek art had lier in- on a ground of levigated lime, or on potter's fancy, but the graces rocked her cradle, and ware, no velocity or certainty attainable by love taught her to speak. If ever legend de- human hands can conduct a full pencil with that served our behef, the amorous tale of the Corin- degree of evenness equal from beginning to end thian maid, who traced the shade of her de- with which we see those figures executed, or, if purting lover by the secret lamp, appeals to our it could, would ever be able to fix the line on sympathy to grant it; and leads us at the same the glassy surface without its flowing: 10 make time to some observations on the first mechani- the appearances we see possible, we must have cal essays of painting, and ihat linear method recourse to the linear process that has been dewhich, though passed nearly unnoticed by scribed, and transfer our admiration to the perWinckelman, seems to have continued as the severance, the correctness of principle, the ele. basis of execution, even when the instrument gance of taste that conducted the artist's hand, for which it was chiefly adapted had long been without presuming to arm it with contradictory Jaid aside.
powers: the figures he drew, and we admire, • The etymology of the word used by the are not the magic produce of a winged pencil, Greeks to express painting being the same with they are the result of gradual improvement, exthat which they employ for writing, makes the quisitely finished monochroms. Similarity of tool, materials, method, almost llow long the pencil continued only "") assist, when it began to engross, and when it at nies never penetrated. But there have been last entirely supplanted the cestrum, cannot, in discovered, adds he, a great number of Campathe perplexity of accidental report, be ascer- nian vases covered with painting. The design tained. Apollodorus, in the ninety-third olym- of the greatest part of these vases, says he, is piad, and Zeuxis in the ninety-fourth, are said such, that the figures might occupy a distinto have used it with freedom and with power. guished place in the works of Raphael. Those The battle of the Lapithæ and the Centaurs, vases, when we consider that this kind of work which, according to Pausanias, Parrhasius paint- admits of no correction, and that the stroke ed on the shield of the Minerva of Phidias, to be which forms the outline must remain as it is chased by Mys, could be nothing but a mono- originally traced, are wonderful proofs of the chrom, and was probably designed with the perfection of the art among the ancients. But cestrum, as an instrument of greater accuracy. the count de Caylus is persuaded that the CamApelles and Protogenes, nearly a century, after- panian vases are of Greek origin. wards, drew their contested lines with the The name of Phidias is as familiar to every pencil; and that alone, as delicacy and evanes- man of education as his own. That of Panænus, cent subtlety were the characteristics of those his brother, is known only to the few who trace lines, may give an idea of their mechanic ex- back to their starting-post the early and obscure cellence. And yet in their time the diagraphic footsteps of the muse of painting. The perprocess, which is the very same with the linear formances of Phidias, particularly those in the one we have described, made a part of liberal temple of Minerva, called the Parthenon, reeducation. And Pausias of Sicyon, the con- main even to the present day a source of admiratemporary of Apelles, and perhaps the greatest tion, of wonder, and envy. Those of Panænus master of composition amongst the ancients, exhibited his art still in its infancy, and have when employed to repair the decayed pictures been for many revolving ages buried in the of Polygnotus at Thespiæ, was adjudged by stream of oblivion.-To this man, however, general opinion to have egregiously failed in the Greece appears to have been indebted for an attempt, because he had substituted the pencil anxious zeal, at least, to advance the art he pracfor the cestrum, and entered a contest for su- tised to a more equal station with sculpture; periority with weapons not his own.
and in his time there were prizes established Here it might seem in its place to say some- both at Delphos and Corinth, for its encouragething on the encaustic method used by the an- ment, whereat he himself contended, but was cients; were it not a subject by ambiguity of excelled by Timogras of Chalcis. expression and conjectural dispute so involved The first great name of that epoch of the prein obscurity that a true account of its process paratory period, when facts appear to overbalance must be despaired of: the most probable idea conjecture, is that of Polygnotus of Thasos, who we can form of it is, that it bore some resemb- painted the Pæcile at Athens, and the Lesche, lance to our oil-painting, and that the name was or public hall, at Delphi. Of these works, but adopted to depote the use of materials, inflam- chiefly of the two large pictures at Delphi, which mable or prepared by fire, the supposed durabi- represented scenes subsequent to the eversion of lity of which, whether applied hot or cold, Troy, and Ulysses consulting the spirit of Tiresias authorised the terms įveravoe and inussit.' See in Hades, Pausanias gives a minute and circumour article ExCAUSTIC PAINTING.
stantial detail; by which we are led to surmise The ancient inhabitants of Etruria were that what is now called composition was totally among the first who connected the arts with the wanting in them as a whole; for he begins his study of nature. In some of their monuments, description at one end of the picture, and finishes which still remain, there is to be observed a it at the opposite extremity-a senseless method, first style, which shows the art in its infancy; if we suppose that a central group, or a principal and a second which, like the works of the Flo figure to which the rest were in a certain degree rentine artists, shows more of greatness and subordinate, attracted the eye; it appears as exaggeration in the character than precision or plain that they had no perspective, the series of beauty. Pliny says that painting was carried figures on the second or middle ground being to great perfection in Italy before the foundation described as placed above those in the foreof Rome; but it appears that even in his time ground, and the figures in the distance above
the the painters of Etruria were held in great repu- whole: the honest method, too, which the painter ration. The only Etrurian paintings which chose of annexing to many of his figures their remain have been found in the tombs of the names in writing, savors much of the infancy of Tarquins. They consist of long painted friezes, painting. This circumstance, however, weshould and pilasters adorned with huge figures, which be cautious in imputing either to ignorance or occupied the whole space from the base to the imbecility, since it might rest on the firm base of cornice. These paintinys are executed on a permanent principles. The genius of Polygnotus ground of thick mortar, and many of them are was, more than that of any other artist before or in a state of high preservation.
after, a public genius, his works monumental Winckelman is of opinion that the Greek works, and these very pictures the votive offercolonies established at Naples and Nola had at ings of the Gnidians. Polygnotus was, in fact, a very early period cultivated the imitative arts
, a man endowed with uncommon ability, and cerand taught them to the Campanians established tainly advanced his art very far in point of ex. in that country. He considers as works purely pression and action in his figures, and in ideal Campanian certain medals
of Capua and Teanum, coloring. Of the truth of this observation, his cities of Campania into which the Greek colo- figure of the demon Eurynomus, in one of the