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pictures abovementioned, namely, l'lysses con- to destroy firmness, solidity, or weight; nor sulting the shade of Tiresias in Hades, affords strength and weight agility; elegance did not sufficient proof. His color,' says Pausanias, degenerate to effeminacy, or grandeur swell to is between black and azure, like that of the hugeness; such were his principles of style : his fries which infest meat; he shows his teeth, and expression extended them to the mind, if we sits upon the skin of the vulture.' Lucian and may judge from the two subjects mentioned by Pliny both speak in high commendation of this Pliny, in which he seems to have personihed the artist ; the former, in particular, invoking his and characters of devotion and impiety; that in the to finish his perfect woman, exclaims :-- Polyg- adoring figure of a priest, perhaps of Chryses, notus shall open and spread her eyebrows, and expanding his gratitude at the shrine of the god give her that fine, glowing, decent blush, which whose arrows avenged his wrongs and restored beautifies so irresistibly his Cassandra. lle also his daughter; and this, in the figure of Ajax shall give her a flowing, unconstrained attire, wrecked, and from the sea-swept rock hurling which, with all its delicate wavings, shall partly defiance unto the murky sky. As neither of these adhere to her body and parily flutter in the subjects can present themselves to a painter's wind.'
mind without a contrast of the most awful and Polygnotus, says Aristotle, improves the the most terrific tones of color, magic of light model. His invention reached the conception and shade, and unlimited command over the of undescribed being in the demon Eurynomus; tools of art, we may with Pliny and with Plufilled the chasin of description in Theseus and tarch consider Apollodorus as the first assertor Pirithous, in Ariadne and Phædra; and im- of the pencil's honors, as the first colorist of his proved its terrors in the spectre of Tityus; age, and the man who opened the gates of art whilst color to assist it became in his hand an which the Heracleot Zeuxis entered. From the organ of expression ; such was the prophetic essential style of Polygnotus, and the specific glow which still crimsoned the cheeks of his discrimination of Apollodorus, Zeuxis, by comCassandra in the time of Lucian. The improve- parison of what belonged to the genius and what ments in painting which Pliny ascribes to him, to the class, framed at last that ideal form, which, of having dressed the heads of his females in in his opinion, constituted the supreme degree variegated veils and bandeaus, and robed them of human beauty, or, in other words, embodied in lucid drapery ; of having gently opened the possibility, by uniting the various but homogelips, given a glimpse of the teetli, and lessened neous powers scattered among many, in one obthe former monotony of face; such improvements ject, to one end. Such a system, if it originated were surely the most trifling part of a power to in genius, was the considerate result of taste rewhich the age of Apelles and that of Quintilian fined by the unremitting perseverance with which paid equal homage: nor can it add much to our he observed, consulted, compared, and selected, esteem for him, to be told by Pliny that there the congenial but scattered forms of nature. existed, in the portico of Pompey, a picture of Quintilian remarks of Zeuxis that he conhis with the figure of a warrior in an attitude so sidered the poetic unity of character adopted by ambiguous as to make it a question whether he Homer, in the descriptions of his heroes, as his were ascending or descending. Such a figure model; giving to each individual he painted the could only be the offspring of mental or technic peculiar distinction of a class. It is said, and imbecility, even if it resembled the celebrated ihe anecdote bears on the remark, that, previously one of a Diomede carrying off the palladium to commencing a picture of Juno for her temple with one, and holding a sword in the other hand, at Agrigentum, he requested to see all the most on the intaglio inscribed with the name of Dios- beautiful maidens of the city naked, and from corides.
them selected tive whose shape he most admired; With this simplicity of manner and materials purposing to exhibit the most perfect combinathe art seems to have proceeded from Polygnotus, iion of female forms, by selecting and adopting Aglaophon, Phidias, Pananus, Colotes, and the most beautiful parts of each. Of the coloring Evenor, the father of Parrhasius, during a period employed by Zeuxis, little is known with cerof more or less disputed olympiads, till the ap- tainty; but it may doubtless be inferred with pearance of Apollodorus the Athenian, who ap- some fairness that it rivalled the excellencies of plied the essential principles of Polygnotus to his design; and, from his alleged method of the delineation of the species, by investigating painting monochroms on a black ground, adding the leading forms that discriminate the various the lights in white, we may deduce that he unclasses of human qualities and passions. The derstood the extension of light and shade to acuteness of his taste led him to discover that as all men were connected by one general form, sc Timanthes, Eupompus, Androcides, and Parthey were separated each by some predominant rhasius the Ephesian, all tourished during the power, which fixed character, and bound them to sme era with Zeuxis. The latter, however, is a class: that, in proportion as this specific powe the only one who may be said to have rivalled partook of individual peculiarities, the farther it that eminent artist; and indeed it is hard to tell was removed from a share in that harmonious which of the two lore the palm, or most selfsystem which constitutes nature, and consists ir sufficiently claimed it. The story related by a due balance of all its parts: thence he drew Pliny of their contest is not decisive on the his line of imitation, and personified the central former point, since those pictures had little to form of the class to which his object belonged, do with the real excellencies of either artist, exand to which the rest of its qualities administered cept in the one quality of coloring. Zeuxis without being absorbed : agility was not suffered pointed grapes; and, on exhibiting his picture,
the birds came with the greatest avidity to pluck on roses, his own on flesh: emasculate softness
, adhered to by the succeeding periods, lies color, the object of the artists. The leading
Pliny is the synonyme of unrivalled and unat- rising from the sea, already mentioned, which,
The works of Apelles, so far as it is pos- seemed to hear, such his sick man's half extinsible to comprehend their nature, exhibit neither guished eye and laboring breast, such the sister the deepest pathos of expression, the widest dying for her brother, and, above all, the halfsphere of comprehension, nor the most acute slain mother shuddering lest the eager babe discrimination of character: his great prerogative should suck the blood from her palsied nipple. consisted, perhaps, more in the unison than in This picture was probably at Thebes, when the extent of his powers: he knew better what Alexander sacked that town; what his feelings his capabilities could achieve, and what lay be- were when he saw it we may guess from his yond them, than any other artist. Grace of con- sending it to Pella. Its expression, poised beception, and refinement of taste, were bis ele- tween the anguish of maternal affection and the ments, and went hand in hand with grace of pangs of death, gives to commiseration an image execution, and completeness in finish, irresistible which neither the infant piteously caressing his when found united. The Venus of Apelles, nr, slain mother in the group of Epigonus, nor the as it may rather be called, the personification of absorbed feature of the Niobe, nor the struggle the birthday of Love, was esteemed as the most of the Laocoon, excite. Timanthes had marked splendid achievement of art; the outline of the the limits that discriminate terror from the excess goddess baffled every attempt at improvement, of horror; Aristides drew the line that separates whilst imitation shrunk from the purity, the it from disgust. His subject is one of those that force, the brilliancy, the evanescent gradations touch the ambiguous line of a squeamish sense. of her tints. The pictures produced by this con- - Taste and smell, as sources of tragic emotion, summate artist appear to have been numerous, and, in consequence of their power, commandand the reader will find, in Pliny, lib. xxxv. cap. ing gesture, seem scarcely admissible in arı or 10, a pretty extensive list. A brief enumeration on the theatre, because their extremes are more of some of them will serve to convey a just idea nearly allied to disgust, and loathsome or risible of the class of subjects generally chosen by him. ideas, than to terror. The prophetic rance of
The portraits painted by him both of Alex- Cassandra, who scents the prepared murder of ander the Great and his father Philip were Agamemnon at the threshold of the ominous numerous; some of them single, some accom- hall; the desperate moan of Macbeth's queen panied by other figures. Alexander launching on seeing the visionary spot still unetfaced infect thunder, in the temple of Diana at Ephesus, has her hand-are images snatched from the lap of been greatly extolled for its effect and the bold- terror-but soon would cease to be so were the ness of its relief, the hand which was raised artist or the actress to enforce the dreadful hint appearing 10 come forward, and the lightning to with indiscreet expression or gesture. This, be out of the picture.' In another portrait of completely understood by Aristides, was as comthe same prince he was represented in a triumphal pletely missed by his imitators, Raffaelle in the chariot, and near him the figure of war, with Morbetto, and l’oussin in his Plague of the his hands tied behind his back.
Philistines. In the group of Aristides our symThis, and another Alexander, accompanied by pathy is immediately interested by the mother, Castor and Pollux, and a figure of Victory, were still alive though mortally wounded, helpless, presented by Augustus to the forum.
beautiful, and forgetting herself in the anguish Many other portraits are alluded to: namely, for her child, whose situation still suffers hope Antiochus, king of Syria ; Antigonus ; Archelaus, to mingle with our fears: he is only approaching with his wife and daughter; Abron, an effemi- the nipple of the mother. nate debauchee; Clatus, on horseback armed Raffaelle the mother dead of the plague, herself (except his head), with an attendant delivering an object of apathy, becomes one of disgust, by his helmet to him; and Megabysus, a priest of the action of the man, who bending over her, at the temple of Diana at Ephesus, sacriticing, in his utmost reach of arm, with one hand removes his pontifical vestments. In fanciful subjects the child from the breast, whilst the other, applied we find :-Diana attending a sacrifice, surround- to his nostrils, bars the effluvia of death. ed by her nymphs ; Neoptolemus, son of Achil- feelings alienated from the mother, come too les, on horseback, contending with Persians; late even for the child, who by his langour already Hercules, with his back towards the observer, betrays the mortal symptoms of the poison he and his head turned round so as to show his imbibed at the parent corpse. It is curious to face; and lastly his renowned picture of Venus observe the permutation of ideas which takes
In the group of
place, as imitation is removed from the sources painting. He painted the temple of Safety; of nature : Poussin, not content with adopting and his works remained till that temple was the group of Raffaelle, once more repeats the burnt, in the reign of Claudius. The example loathsome attitude in the same scene; he forgot, of Fabius, surnamed Pictor from his profession, in his eagerness to render the idea of contagion did not excite his fellow citizens to imitation. still more intuitive, that he was averting our A century and a half elapsed before the tragic feelings with ideas of disgust.'
poet Pacuvius, nephew of Ennius, painted the At the same era flourished Protogenes of temple of Hercules in the forum boarium. The Rhodes, towards whom the generous conduct of glory which he had acquired by his dramatic Apelles deserves particular attention. Protogenes works shed some lustre on the art which he had painted a picture of Jalysus, which so de- exercised; but did not confer on it that respect lighted Apelles that he sailed to Rhodes on pur- which could recommend it to general practice. pose to visit his accomplished contemporary. The paintings of Fabius were the recreations of There, finding him in poverty and obscurity, he is his youth; those of Pacuvius the amusements reported to have bought several of the performances of his old age; but painting is a difficult art, of Protogenes with the avowed intention of which requires a man's whole time and attention selling them as his own, and thus succeeded in to be solely devoted to it. exciting the notice of the people of Rhodes There were in fact no eminent painters at towards the abilities of their fellow citizen, who Rome till the time of the emperors; but, as the thence rose from his hitherto humble situation to national spirit was changed, the profession of fame and fortune. The well known friendly the fine arts acquired more respectability. The contest of Apelles and Protogenes respecting Romans, during the time of the republic, were the lines has been described elsewhere, and animated with the spirit of liberty and the destands as a fact on undeniable testimony. The sire for conquest. When these two passions tablet whereon they were drawn, having been were weakened, the love of the arts obtained taken to Rome, was there seen by Pliny himself, among them. As a proof of this, Nero himself who speaks of it as having the appearance of a gloried in being an artist. A Colossian picture large blank surface, the extreme delicacy of the of 120 feet was painted at Rome by his comlines rendering them invisible except on close mand, which was afterwards destroyed by lightinspection. They were drawn with different ning. The name of the painter is not recorded. colors--one upon, or rather within the other. but this is the only painting on cloth mentioned Judging from Pliny's account it might be ima- by ancient authors. gined that all the beauty lay in the extreme The paintings of the ancient artists were either delicacy of the points which had been used, and moveable, or on the ceilings or compartments of of the hands which had applied them; but it buildings. According to Pliny, the most emiis reasonable to suppose that the first direction nent were those who painted moveable pictures. of the line might have some principle of beauty The latter were either on fir wood, larch, boxfor its guide, by which, as well as by the neatness wood, or canvas, sometimes on marble. When of its execution, Protogenes was immediately they employed wood, they laid on first a white moved to the declaration, that none but Apelles ground. Among the antiquities of the Hercucould have drawn it.
laneum are four paintings on white marble. lo comparing the performances of modern Their immoveable paintings on walls were painters with the character of those the names and either in fresco, or on dry stucco in distemper. description of which ancient authors have handed Indeed all the ancient paintings may be reduced down to us, it will appear pretty clearly that to, 1st, fresco painting ; 2dly, water color, or the Greek artists surpassed the moderns in sen- distemper painting on a dry ground ; and, 3dly, timent, in invention or imagination, in expres- encaustic painting. The ancient fresco paintings sion, in position of figures, in proportion, and appear to have been always on a white stucco contour. With regard to color, although they ground, the colors inlaid very deep, and the are remarkable for vividness, the case is by no drawing much more bold and free than any means so evident. Pliny allows them the use similar performance of modern art. The outof but four, and yet at other times makes allu- lines of the ancient paintings on fresco were sions which palpably imply their means of that probably done at once, as appears from the kind to be far more extensive. The use of oils depth of the incision, and the boldness and has however given to moderns a decided advan- freedom of the design, equal to the care and tage in this particular.
spirit of a penciled outline. In A. R. 259, and A. A. C. 494, Appius In general the ancients painted on a dry Claudius consecrated a number of shields in the ground, even in their buildings, as appears from temple of Bellona, which contained in basso the Herculanean antiquities, most of which are relievo the portraits of his family. This exam- executed in this manner. At Rome and Naples ple was followed ; and in process of time it the first (deepest) coat is of true Puzzolana, of was common among the Romans to place those the same nature with the terras now used in jinages in private houses. The execution in mortar, required to keep out wet, about one finger basso relievo is a proof that they had an idea of thick: the next of ground marble or alabaster, and painting, at least with one color. As long as the sometimes of pure lime or stucco, in thickness Romans employed artists of other nations, they about one-third of the former. Upon this they had little desire to cultivate the arts; but about appear to have laid a coat of black, and then the year of Rome 450, and 303 years before another of red paint; on which last the subject Christ, one of the Fabii employed himself in itself was executed. Such seems to have been
their method of painting on walls; but in their them. It will not fail, however, to strike the moveable pictures, and in the performance of artist that every thing stated by Pliny to have their first artists, and where the effects of shade been known by the ancient artists is resolvable and light were necessary, they doubtless used into that which is requisite for the due execution white. The colors employed they seemed to of a single figure on a plain ground, and in the have mixed up with size, of which they pre- most simple style of execution. In the best of ferred that made by boiling the ears and genitals the paintings found at Herculaneum there is of bulls. This appears to have made the exhibited an unusually skilful management of colors so durable and adhesive, that the ancient chiaro-scuro in the reduction of tone on parts, paintings lately found bear washing with a soft both of the flesh and drapery, but it is inconclucloth and water; and sometimes even diluted sive on the general point at issue. aquafortis is employed to clean their paintings With respect to their knowledge of perspecon fresco. Pliny says, that glue, dissolved in tive similar uncertainty appears to exist. litruvinegar and then dried, is not again soluble. vius, indeed, reports it to have been practised
The ancient colors, we have said, were vivid : by Agatharcus (a contemporary of Eschylus and it is obvious also that they were remarkably en- Polygnotus) in the theatre at Athens; and to during, from the fact of the Greek paintings have been shortly after reduced to principles, having existed unin ured, and become objects and treated as a science by Anaxagoras and Deot admiration to the Romans several ages afier mocritus. The deductions, however, are made they were executed. They were in the habit of from premises of a similarly inconclusive nature employing a sort of varnish called atramentum, to those enumerated in our observations on chiwhich served to secure their paintings from the aro-scuro. intluence of the atmospheric air.
Lastly, we may remark that no mention, at Whether the art of composition, at least in the all events none of consequence, is made of a scientific way now practiced, was ever imder- ground of relief on the ancient writers on paintstood by them, or whether they possessed any ing. Landscape also appears to have been knowledge whatever of the laws of chiaro-scuro, wholly disregarded. There are attempts at is wrapped up in doubt and mystery which it is background made in several of the paintings of next to impossible any opportunity will occur Herculaneum, but undeserving of any commendof unravelling. The accounts of these perform- ation ; and the most beautiful of those producances by ancient writers do not seem to have tjons of ancient art which have hitherto been sprung from any practical acquaintance with the displayed to the eyes of the moderns are of rules of the art, and hence they are, as will be figures relieved off plain grounds, or rather amalreadily imagined, very vague and unsatisfactory gamated into them. In none of the criticisms to the painter. According to the light which is or observations of ancient authors is a secondary thus afforded us we are led to conclude that the object ever mentioned as being in the distance. chief ain of the Greek artists was to impress on We shall not dwell on the degree of cultivathe mind of the spectator in the most energetic tion bestowed on the art of painting by the way the effect of one particular image; we do, ancient Romans, but pass on to enumerate the it is true, occasionally encounter descriptions several colors stated by Pliny to have been known of pictures containing many figures, but in to them. See lib. XXXV., caps. 6 and 7. general the subject is contined to the introduc- WHTES:-- Melinum. A native white earth tion of two or three. Nothing is said by these from the island of Melos, used by Apelles before writers of what we term background, and little white lead prepared with vinegar was invented. on the contrasts of light and shade, &c. That Pura tonium. An Egyptian white earth used they had some knowledge of this kind, however, in distemper, and similar, probably, to the white is apparent from an observation of Plutarch, now called Cremnitz white, from Hungary. namely, that'painters heighten the brilliancy of Pliny complains that para tonium was often light colors by opposing them to dark ones, or adulterated with Cimolian earth, which was used to shades;' and from another of Pliny, who, by the fullers at Rome. speaking of painters in the monochromatic style, Eretria. An ashy white. It is so named adds : :–In process of time the art assumed new from a town of Eubea, now Trocco. powers, and discovered light and shadow, by Cerussa. White lead. gradating which the colors are alternately kept Anulare. Gypsum. Creta. Chalk. down or heightened. Afterward splendor was YELLOWS.-Sil. Ochre of four kinds; named added, which was different from light, and Atticum, Lucidum, Syricum, and Marmorosum. which, being a medium between light and shade, Auripigmentum, or Arsenicum. Orpiment. was denominated tonon; while the union of Corussie usta. Masticot, first discovered by colors, and transition from one to another, they the tire at the Piræus. called harmogen ;' lib. XXXV. c. 5.
Rens.- Mlinium. Red lead, both natural and find that the great requisites for the science of artificial. The best native minium was found in chiaro-scuro, viz. contrast, tone, and harmony, a quicksilver mine near Ephesus; and, in enwere comprehended by them; that the various deavouring to extract gold' from it, Callias the degrees of light and shade, distinctly and in com- Athenian discovered vermilion. bination, were duly felt; and that the value of Vermilion. The same as now used middle or half tint was perceived and attended Sinopis. A red earth. The best was found
Led away by these facts, M. du Bos and near Lemnos, and was so valuable as to be sold others have concluded that chiaro-scuro was
It approached near, in color, 10 scientifically comprehended and practised by