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Rubrica. A red earth.
and without beauty. In Italy, where the first Cinnabur. Native Indian name for dragon's attempts were made, they were employed chiefly
on subjects connected with religious feelings, Sandaracha. A red orpiment.
such as the mysteries of the passion, &c.; and Sandyr. By some thought to be vegetable their labors were principally in the adornment of red, and obtained somewhat after the manner of ecclesiastical buildings. Painting, however, did our lakes, viz. absorbing the coloring matter of not long continue in the imperfect condition in a decoction of the vegetable matter in chalk which it was left by those who first cultivated it
Purpurissum. A lake made from the ingre- among the moderns. It was to be expected that dient used in dyeing purple, being absorbed in their successors would endeavour io surpass tripoli.
them by joining some degree of theory to the Syricum. A mixture of sinopis and sandyx. barbarous practice they had adopted. Among
Armenium, or Azure, also called Ceruleum. the first points of art discovered after its restoraVerd'azur, or blue vitriol. Pliny calls it a sand; tion was the principle of perspective, a knowand says there were three kinds, viz. the Egyp- ledge of which made the artists capable of tian, the Scythian, and the Cyprian.
expressing what is denominated foreshortening, Indicum. Indigo.
by means of which a greater degree of truth and GREENS.—Chrysocolla. Malachite, or moun- effect was afforded to their performances. Cimatain green.
bue, Giotto, Masaccio, Mantegna, and Luca SigAppianum. Another of the same nature. norelli, successively upheld the dawning glories
BLACKS.—Atramentum. A common name for of revived art. The latter, in particular, appears all black colors. Pliny speaks of one kind as to have been the first who contemplated objects oozing from the earth ; and it may possibly have with a discriminating eye; perceived what was been some kind of bitumen : of another as being accidental, what essential; balanced light and made from smoke of resin and pitch. Burnt shade, and decided the motion of his figures. lees of wine, or husks of grapes, produced a He foreshortened with equal boldness and intelthird, used by Polygnotus and Mycon, under the ligence; and thence it is, probably, that Vasari name of truginon ; and a fourth was invented fancies to have discovered, in the Last Judgment and used by Apelles, by burning ivory. That, of Michael Angelo, traces of imitation from the being made thin by some process, was probably Lunetta, painted by Luca in the church of the the atramentum or varnish, which he is said to Madonna, at Orvieto; but the powers which anihave laid over the surface of his pictures. What mated him there, and before at Arezzo, are no this process was is unknown: perhaps, as the longer visible in the Gothic medley with which mode of painting with wax by heat was practised, he filled two compartments in the chapel of it might have been some modification of that ma- Sextus IV. at Rome. terial. Of the above coloring substances, Apelles Two years after the death of Masaccio, namely, and other ancient artists employed, if we are to in 1445, was born Leonardo da Vinci, whose give credit to Pliny, only four. Here, however, genius broke forth with a splendor which disbe seems to have placed himself between the tanced former excellence : made up of all the honis of a dilemma: since we are compelled to elements that constitute the essence of genius, question either his correctness as to their limita- favored by education and circumstances, all ear, tion of colors, or the abundant encomiums which all eye, all grasp; painter, poet, sculptor, anatohe bestows on their works. Four perfect colors, mist, architect, engineer, chymist, machinist, muit is true, with all their modifications and combi- sician, man of science, and sometimes empiric, nations, may be regarded as adequate to every he laid hold of every beauty in the enchanted purpose the art of coloring might require. But circle, but, without exclusive attachment to one, the celebrated historian has forbidden us to specu- dismissed in her turn each. Fitter to scatter late on the possibility of this perfection, by naming hints than to teach by example, he wasted life, the substances; and since the present practice of insatiate in experiment. To a capacity which at art, although possessed of substances far more once penetrated the principle and real aim of the powerful than those enumerated above, denies art, he joined an inequality of fancy that at one the knowledge of any four pigments equal to the moment lent him wings for the pursuit of beauty, production of a really fine piece of coloring, we and the next flung him on the ground to crawl are, as before observed, compelled to suspend after deformity: we owe him chiaro-scuro with our judgment on the subject.
all its magic, we owe him caricature with all its
incongruities. His notions of the most elaborate SECT. II.- Of Modern PAINTING.
finish, and his want of perseverance, were at The art of painting was revived in Europe least equal ;-want of perseverance alone could about the end of the thirteenth, or beginning of make him abandon his cartoon destined for the the fourteenth, century. It might have been great council chamber at Florence, of which the practised in an humble and obscure manner celebrated contest of horsemen was but one somewhat earlier; but it was not until a still group; for to him who could organise that comlater period that it made any thing like progress. position, Michael Angelo himself ought rather to The human mind, having been plunged into pro- have been an object of emulation than of fear : found ignorance, was destitute of every principle and, that he was able to organise it, we may be of sound philosophy which enables it to deter- certain from the remaining sketch in the Etruria mine on the object of the arts; and consequently Pittrice lately published, but still more from the the painters contented themselves with works admirable print of it by Edelinck, after a drawadapted to the general taste, without proportion ing of Rubens, who was Leonardo's great ad
mirer, and has done much to impress us with whom his tuition weaned from the meanness of the beauties of his Last Supper, in the Refectory Pietro Perugino, and prepared for the mighty of the Dominicans at Milan, which he abandoned style of Michel Angiolo Buonarrotti. likewise without finishing the head of Christ, er- Sublimity of conception, grandeur of form, hausted by a wild chase after models for the and breadth of manner, are the elements of heads and hands of the apostles: had he been Michel Angiolo's style. By these principles he: able to conceive the centre, the radii must have selected or rejected the objects of imitation. As followed of course.' Towards the beginning of painter, as sculptor, as architect, he attempted, the century in which Leonardo da Vinci was and above any other man succeeded, to unite born, the use of oil was adopted as a vehicle for magnificence of plan, and endless variety of painting, and afforded the means of most exten- subordinate parts, with the utmost simplicity sive improvements, particularly in color and ef- and breadth. His line is uniformly grand: fect. The methods to which the former execu- character and beauty were admitted only as far tion of the art had been restricted (namely, as they could be made subservient to grandeur. distemper, in colors mixed with size and water, The child, the female, meanness, deformity, were and afterwards fresco) were of a limited nature, by him indiscriminately stamped with grandeur. especially the latter, in which, no means being A beggar rose from his hand the patriarch of given to change or retouch the colors without poverty; the hump of his dwarf is impressed manifest detriment to the work, the artist was with dignity; his women are moulds of generhampered in his plan of conduct and manage- tion; his infanis icem with the man; his men are meni of design. The invention of oil-painting a race of giants. This is the terribil via’ hinted remedied this disadvantage; and, as it allowed at by Agostino Caracci, though perhaps as little endless variety in effects as well as disposition understood by the Bolognese as by the blindest of colors, together with complete harmony of his Tuscan adorers, with Vasari at their head. throughout the whole, the fancy of the artist was to give the appearance of perfect ease to the now permitted to take its full swing, and to most perplexing difliculty was the exclusive produce enchantments which successive ages power of Michel Angiolo. He is the inventor
Sistine chapel, which exhibits the origin, the The circumstance of varnishing over pictures progress, and the final dispensations of theocracy. which had been painted in water colors is thought, lle has personified motion in the groups of the and perhaps justly, to have been that which led cartoon of Pisa; embodied sentiment on the to this important discovery. John Van Eyck, monuments of St. Lorenzo; unravelled the feawho flourished at Brussels in 1410, is the artist tures of meditation in the prophets and sybils of to whom the first exercise of painting with the chapel of Sextus; and in the Last Judgment, colors ground and mixed with oil has been at- with every attitude that varies the human body, tributed. At all events, if he was not the first traced the master-trait of every passion that who actually applied it to the purposes of his sways the human heart. Though, as sculptor, art, it was he who first made effectual use of it. he expressed the character of flesh more perIn any other case, his application of the system fectly than all who went before or came after would not, to use the words of Vanmander, him, yet he never submitted to copy an indihave made as much noise in the world as the vidual, Julio the second only excepted, and in discovery of gunpowder by Bertoldo Schwartz him he represented the reigning passion rather had done nearly a century before.' According to
than the man.
In painting he contented himself this same writer, the art of painting had been with a negative color; and, as the painter of carried into Flanders, about the time of Giotto, mankind, rejected all meretricious ornament. by some Flemings, who went to Italy for the The fabric of St. Peter, scattered into an infinity purpose of receiving instruction in it; and he of jarring parts by Bramante and his successors, goes on to describe it as having been practised he concentrated ; suspended the cupola, and 10
with gum and eggs, at its first commencement, the most complex gave the air of the most simby Cimabue.' The Germans, likewise, acquired ple of edifices. Such, take him all in all, was the art about the same time; but its most succes- M. Angiolo, the salt of art: sometimes he no ful progress and achievements were confined to doubt had his moments of dereliction, deviated the classic countries of Italy.
into manner, or perplexed the grandeur of his * Bartolomeo della Porta, or di S. Marco, the forms with fuile and ostentatious anatomy: he last master of this period, first gave gradation to met with armies of copyists, and it has been his color, form and masses to drapery, and a grave fate to have been censured for their folly. dignity, till then unknown, to execution. If he The inspiration of Michel Angiolo was folwas not endowed with the versat lity and com- lowed by the milder genius of Raffuelle Sanzio, prehension of Leonardo, bis principles were less the father of dramatic painting, the painter of mixed with base matter, and less apt to mislead humanity; less elevated, less vigorous, but more him. As a member of a religious order, he con- insinuating, more pressing on our hearts, the fined himself to subjects and characters of piety; warm master of our sympathies. What effect of but the few nudities which he allowed himself human connexion, what feature of the mind, :0 exhibit show sufficient intelligence and still from the gentlest emotion to the most fervid more style : he foreshortened with truth and burst of passion, has been left unobserved, has boldness; and, whenever the figure admitted of not received a characteristic stamp from that it, made his drapery the vehicle of the limb it examiner of man? M. Angiolo came to nature, invests. He was the true master of Raffaelle, nature came to Raffaelle-he transmitted her
keatures like a lucid glass unstained, unmodified. portrait painting, of resemblance with form, We stand with awe before M. Angiolo, and character with dignity, and costume with subortremble at the height to which he elevates us— dination. we embrace Raffaelle, and follow him wherever Another charm was yet wanting to complete be leads us. Energy, with propriety of character the round of art-harmony: it appeared with and modest grace, poise his line, and determine Antonio Læti, called Correggio, whose works it his correctness. Perfect human beauty he has attended like an enchanted spirit. The harmony not represented ; no face of Raffaelle's is per- and the grace of Correggio are proverbial : the fectly beautiful; no figure of his, in the abstract
, medium which by breadth of gradation unites possesses the proportions that could raise it to a two opposite principles—the coalition of light standard of imitation : form to him was only a and darkness by imperceptible transition—is the tehicle of character or pathos, and to those he element of his style. This inspires his figures adapted it in a mode and with a truth which with grace, to this their grace is subordinate: leaves all attempts at emendation hopeless. His the most appropriate, the most elegant attitudes utention connects the utmost stretch of possi- were adopted, rejected, perhaps sacrificed to the bility with the most plausible degree of proba- most awkward ones, in compliance with this imbility, in a manner that equally surprises our perious principle : parts vanished, were absorbed, fancy, persuades our judgment, and affects our or emerged in obedience to it. This unison of heart. His composition always hastens to the a whole predominates over all that remains of most necessary point as its centre, and from that him, from the vastness of his cupolas to the disseminates, to that leads back, as rays, all smallest of his oil pictures. The harmony of secondary ones. Group, form, and contrast, are Correggio, though assisted by exquisite hues, was subordinate to the event, and common-place ever entirely independent of color: his great organ excluded. His expression, in strict unison with, was chiaro-scuro in its most extensive sense ; and decided by, character, whether calm, ani- compared with the expanse in which he floats, mated, agitated, convulsed, or absorbed by in- the effects of Lionardo da Vinci are little more spiring passion, unmixed and pure, never con- than the dying ray of evening, and the concentradicts its cause, equally remote from tameness trated flash of Giorgione discordant abruptness. and grimace: the moment of his choice never The bland central light of a globe, imperceptibly suffers the action to stagnate or to expire; it is gliding through lucid demitints into rich reflected the moment of transition, the crisis big with the shades, composes the spell of Correggio, and past and pregnant with the future.—If, separately affects us with the soft emotions of a delicious taken, the line of Raffaelle has been excelled in dream.' correctness, elegance, and energy; his color far The patronage which the art had enjoyed in surpassed in tone, and truth, and harmony; his Italy, from the commencement of its restoration, masses in roundness, and his chiaro-scuro in ef- kept pace with its progress, and was at length fect-considered as instruments of pathos, they perfected by Julius II. and Leo X. at Rome, have never been equalled; and in composition, and by the truly illustrious family of the Medici invention, expression, and the power of telling a at Florence. Cosmo di Medici, at the same story, he has never been approached.
time that his care and thoughts were directed to • Whilst the superior principles of the art the state affairs of the latter province, still found were receiving the homage of Tuscany and Rome, time and means to watch over the development the inferior but more alluring charm of color of the fine arts. His grandson Lorenzo (surbegan to spread its fascination at Venice, from named the Magnificent), who became his succesthe pallet of Giorgione da Castel Franco, and sor A. D. 1464, carried these elegant tastes to a irresistibly entranced every eye that approached still greater extent, and increased, among other the magic of Titiano Vecelli of Cadore. To no praiseworthy actions, that mass of ancient relics colorist before or after him did nature unveil which the industrious search prescribed by his herself with that dignified familiarity in which predecessor had collected, and which adorned she appeared to Titiano. His skill, universally the Medici palace. Desirous of stimulating his and equally fit for all her exhibitions, rendered countrymen to a succesful rivalry with these inher simplest to her most compound appearances valuable treasures, Lorenzo threw open his with equal purity and truth. He penetrated gardens, wherein they had been deposited, as a the essence and the general principle of the sub- school for study, and honored both his own disstances before him, and on these established his crimination and the consummate ability of the teory of color. He invented that breadth of artist by placing Michel Angiolo at the head of bcal tint which no imitation has attained ; and it. By the influence of this potentate, princiirst expressed the negative nature of shade: his pally, the council hall of the Florentine republic are the charms of glazing, and the mystery of re- (which had been shortly before rebuilt), was flexes, by which he detached, rounded, connected, adorned with paintings by Michel Angiolo and or enriched his objects. His harmony is less in- Lionardo da Vinci, each being allotted one side debied to the force of light and shade, or the of the hall for the exercise of his talents. This artifices of contrast, than to a due balance of may be considered as the first instance of any color, equally remote from monotony and spots. moment of public civil employment being given His backgrounds seem to be dictated by nature. to the painters of Italy; their chief exertions Landscape, whether it be considered as the tran- having been previously restricted to the decorascript of a spot, or the rich combination of con- tion of religious edifices. genial objects, or as the scene of a phenomenon, The internal discords which about this period dales its origin from him: he is the father of began to engross the attention of the Florentines VOL. XVI.
prevented them from continuing to patronise the manner. Polypheme groping at the mouth of his arts as they had done; and, added to this, Julius cave for Ulysses, and folus granting him favor. II., who then filled the papal chair, aware of the able winds, are striking instances of both : than splendor and glory attached to a state by the the Cyclops, Michel Angiolo himself never consuccessful cultivation of the tine aris, summoned ceived a form of savage energy with attitude to Rome both Raffaelle and Michel Angiolo, and limbs more in unison; whilst ihe god of who, under his auspices, began those inimitable winds is degraded to a scanty and ludicrous works in the Vatican which every judicious ar- semblance of Thersites, and llysses with his list or amateur both thinks and speaks of with companions travestied by the semibarbarous enthusiasm. Leo X., his successor, was son of look and costume of the age of Constantine or Lorenzo di Medici, and thus possessed a double Attila; the manner of Michel Angiolo is the stimulus, both from the example of his father style of Pelerrino Tibaldi; from him Golzius, and his predecessor, to encourare and preside llewskirk, and Spranzer, borrowed the compenover art. We use but weak words when we say dium of the Tuscan's peculiarities. With this this stimulus was not disregarded. It served to mighty talent, however, Michel Angiolo seems direct the efforts of painting towards the service not to have been acquainted : but by that unacand splendor of the church over which he countable weakness incident to the greatest swayed, of his rank as a secular sovereign, and powers, and the severe remembrancer of their of himself as one of the Medici. Thus was the vanity, he became the superintendent and assisprincipal seat of arts transferred from Flo- tant tutor of the Venetian Sebastiano, and of rence to Rome; which gradually became, in Daniel Ricciarelli, of Volterra; the first of consequence of its many combined advantages, whom, with an exquisite eye for individual, had a complete university of art, and the resort of no sense for ideal color, whilst the other rendered all such as were ambitious to excel therein ; and great diligence and much anatomical erudition thus may be said to have terminated in the useless, by meagreness of line and sterility of reiin of Leo S. the second grand epoch of the ideas: how far Michel Angiolo succeeded in
initiating either in his principles, the far famed • The resemblance which marked the two first pictures of the Resuscitation of Lazarus, by the periods of ancient and modern art vanishes first (once in the cathedral of Narbonne, and altogether as we extend our view to the consi- now one of the chief ornaments of the British deration of the third, or that of refinement, and National Gallery), and the fresco of the Descent the origin of schools. The pre-eminence of an- from the Cross (in the church of La Trinità del cient art, as we have observed, was less the Monte), at Rome, by the second, sufficiently result of superior powers, than of simplicity of evince: pictures which combine the most hereaim and uniformity of pursuit. The lielladic rogeneous principles. The group of Lazarus in and the Ionian schools appear to have concurred Sebastiano del Piombo's, and that of tắe women, in directing their instruction 10 the grand prin- with the figure of Christ, in Daniel Ricciarelli's, ciples of form and expression : this was the not only breathe the sublime conception that instamen which they drew out into one immense spired, but the master hand that shaped them : connected web. The talents that succeeded offsprings of Michel Anziolo himself, models of genius applied and directed their industry and expression, style, and breadth, they casi on all poliste to decorate the established system, the the rest an air of inferiority, and only serve to linements of taste, grace sentiment, color, prove the incontruity of partnership bxtween adorned beauty, grandeur, and expression. The unequal powers; this inferiority, however, is Tuscan, the Roman, the Venetian, and the Lom- respectable when compared with the depravabard schools, whether from incapacity, want of tions of Michel Angiolo's style by the remainder education, of adequate or dignified encourage'- of the Tuscan school, especially those of Giorgio ment, meanness of conception, or all these lasari, the most superficial artist, and the most together, separatell, and in a short time substi- abandoned mannerist of his time, but the most tuted the medium for the end. Michel Angiolo acute observer of men, and the most desterous lived 10 see the electric shock which his design tarterer of princes. He overwhelmed the palaces and style bad given to art, propagated by the of the Medici and of the popes, the convents Tuscan and Venetian schools, as the ostentations and churches of Italy, with a deluge of medivehicle of puy concerts and emblematic quib- ocrity, commended by rapidity and shamel. s bles, or the palliative of empty pomp and de- bravura' of hand : be alone did more work than crated luxuriance of color. He had been copied all the artists of Tuscany torether, and to him but was not imitated by Andrea l'annuchi, sur- may be truly applied, what he had the insolence named del Sarto, who in his series of pictures on say of Tintorerto, that he turned the art into ihe life of John the Baptist, in preference a boy's toys' acepted the meagre style of Albert Dürer. The Giulio Romano was the most eininent of the irtist who appears 10 bave penciriied deepest pupils of Raffaelle; but though, like his illusto his mind wan Pelegrino Tibaldi ot Bolona; trious master, impressed witli the stupendous Culebrated as the painter of the frescoes in the views and style of Buonarotti, he bad lis no Academie lustitution of the city, and as the itra means "qual force of judgmeni, or delicacy of chitect of the Escurial under Philip 11. The taste, to guide him in this application of the compositions, groups, and single titres of the qualities. It is not so much from his turored Institute pahubiti singular mure of citr more works in the Vatican that we are to judge of time dinary viror and pneula imbecilits of concep
best achievements of Romano as froin the strand tion, of chameter and caricature of style and conceptons, ihe pathwave or weiblime alle coris,
and the luxurious reveries which constitute the Lombardy's color, the terrible manner of Michel principal charm of the palace del T, near Angiolo, the just symmetry of Raffaelle, Titiano's Mantua : had the artist united purer taste with truth of nature, and the sovereign purity of Corloftiness of imagination, the magnitude of these reggio's style: add to these the decorum and soperformances would perhaps have distanced all lidity of Tibaldi, the learned invention of Pricompetition : but, as it is, they have been maticcio, and a little of Parmegiano's grace; likened to a mighty stream, sometimes flowing but to save so much study, such weary labor, in a full and limpid vein, but oftener turbid with apply your imitation to the works which our rubbish. Besides this celebrated artist, Parme- dear Nicolo has left us here.' This tone of adgiano, Tintoretto, Polydori, and Caravaggi, were vice has, it must be confessed, very much the amongst the most skilful of those who continued character of a good receipt for making blacking ; to uphold the practise of art with ability. No and it is the more curious that it should be so, inartist ever painted his own mind so powerfully asmuch as the object proposed by these celebrated as did Michel Angiolo Amerigi, surnamed Il relatives, although not effectually attained, yet was Caravaggi. To none did nature ever set limits sufficiently so to arrest for awhile the backward with a more decided hand. Darkness gave him progress of the art. Ludovico, indeed, instead light; into his melancholy cell light stole only of blindly following the dictates of any master with a pale reluctant ray, or broke on it as flashes or masters, was the decided pupil of nature: by in a stormy night. The most vulgar forms he the simplicity and purity of his taste and exereconımended by ideal light and shade, and a cution not only surpassing his kinsmen, An tremendous breadth of manner.'
bale and Agostino, but in a considerable degree Titian and Correggio had, in point of the restoring the art once more to its first and greatest adoption of their respective principles, fates principles. Annibale, it is true, disputed the widely different. That of the former being less point vigorously by his energetic execution and pure in itself, and less decided in its object of academic acquirement; but the work on which imitation, than either Angiolo's or Raffaelle's, his fame chiefly reposes (the gallery of the Farsuffered comparatively less from the various ap- nese palace at Rome), proves, that if superior plications of it by his followers. It had besides to both of his kinsmen in those accomplishments, for its support the irresistible fascinations of he was inferior to either in taste, sentiment, or color, which speak to every spectator, and hence discrimination. was successfully pursued for a considerable time. Sir Joshua Reynolds, who saw the works of But the principle of Correggio was not calcu- Ludovico Caracci at Bologna, holds him out, in lated for this species of longevity. It vanished his Discourses, as the best model for what is with its author. His expansive breadth of light; more specifically denominated style in painting. His inexpressible grace (so much talked of, yet • Ludovico Caracci,' says he (“I mean in his best so liule understood); his perfect harmony and works), appears to me to approach the nearest to depth of tone have never been otherwise than perfection. His unaffected breadth of light and partially imitated. Parmegiano may be consi- shadow, the simplicity of coloring, which, holddered to have imbibed his style the most fully. ing its proper rank, does not draw aside the least Thuis admirable artist, was, like Raffaelle and Gior- part of the attention from the subject, and the gione, abstracted from this world in early man- solemn effect of that twilight which seeins difhood, and perhaps before the complete capabili- fused over his pictures appears to me to corties of his mind had been developed.
respond with grave and dignified subjects better Such was the condition of the art when, tow- than the more artificial brilliancy of sunshine ards the end of the sixteenth century, the Ca- which enlightens the pictures of Titian. The racci (Ludovico, Agostino, and Annibale), found- school formed by the Caracci for the improveed at Bologna that Eclectic School, the aim of ment of their art was entitled L'Academi degli which was, by selecting the bea'ities, correcting Desiderosi, but is better recognised as the Acathe faults, supplying the defects, and avoiding demy of the Caracci, and gave rise to many arthe extremes of the different styles then practised, tists of high name and merited celebrity. to establish a perfect system. The plan was these individuals soon threw aside, at least as laid down by Agostino Caracci in the following completely as they could, the heterogeneous sonnet :
principle on which it was founded, each followChi farsi un buon Pittor cerca, e desia,
ing the dictates of his own uncontrolled imagiIl disegno di Roma habbia alla mano.
nation, and differing from his fellow students as La mossa coll' ombrar Veneziano,
well in manner as in objects of imitation. The E il degno colorir di Lombardia.
greatest of these names is that of Guido Rheni, Di Michel Angiol la terribil via,
whose grace, although exquisite, was yet artiIl vero natural di Tiziano,
ficial; his female forms, more especially, may be Del Correggio lo stil puro, e sovrano,
considered as abstracts of antique beauty, atE di un Rafel la giusia simetria.
tended by languishing attitudes, and dressed in Del Tibaldi il decoro, e il fonda mento,
Domenichino comes next, Del dotto Primaticcio l'inventare,
who, unusually obedient to the prescription of E un po di gratia del Parmigianino.
his master, strove to combine with the expression Ma senza tanti studi, e tanto steato,
of Raffaelle the energy of Annibale Caracci, and Si ponga l'opre solo ad imitare,
the color of Ludovico. Schidone, Lanfranco, Che qui lasciocci il nostro Niccolino.
Guercino, each studied in the school of the Ca"Take,' says Agostino,' the design of Rome, racci; but the indefinite nature of its system Venetian motion and shade, the dignified tone of soon wrought its downfall.