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Trom this period is to be dated the rapid dles the effect is evident, the labor is concealed. Thus cline of the ari in Italy. Da Cortona and Gior- Rubens is more dazzling, and Titian more hardana both possessed great powers, but abused monious. In this respect, the first excites the them by yielding implicitly to the tasteless sug- attention, the second fives it. The carnations of ventions of their employers. Nicholas Poussin, Titian resemble the blush of nature ; those of a Frenchman, but crafted on the Roman stock, Rubens are brilliant and polished like satin, and placed himself in the gap, and endeavoured to sometimes even his tints are so strong and sesten the torrent of corrupted taste. Ile reverted parate, as to have the effect of spots. “Rufor his models to the pure source of Grecian bens,' says Sir Joshua Reynolds, is a remarkart: indeed, such was his attachment to the an- able instance of the same mind being seen in all cients, that he has been said to have copied their the various parts of the art. The whole is so relies rather than imitated their spirit. The much of a piece, that one can scarce be brought costume, the mythology, the rites of antiquity, to believe but that, if any one of them had been were his elements; his scenery, his landscape, more correct and perfect, his works would not are pure classic ground. The wildness of Sal- be so complete as they appear. If we should vator Rosa opposes a striking contrast to the allow a greater purity and correctness of drawclassic regularity of Poussin. Terrific and grand ing, his want of simplicity in composition, coin his conceptions of inanimate nature, he was re- loring, and drapery would appear more gross. duced to attempts of hiding, by boldness of hand, He was truly the father of Flemish art, so rehis inability of exhibiting her impassioned, or in markable for brilliancy of coloring, for exactthe dignity of character. With Poussin and ness of drawing, and the magic of their chiaroSalvator closes all record worth notice of the his
To these may be added profound tory of the art in Italy.
arrangement, though not exercised on the most The first name which claims our attention, in beantiful forms; a composition not destitute of noticing the progress of painting in Germany, is grandeur, a certain air of nobleness in the thal of Albert Durer. This man's talents were figures, strong and natural expression; in short. various, liis compositions the result of derp to speak generally, a species of art neither study, his thonghts ingenious, his colors brilliant. copied from the ancients, nor from the Roman On the other hand he has been blamed for stiff- or Lombard schools, and indeed unknown to any ness and aridity in his outlines, for the absence other part of the world ; and which, during the of taste or grandeur in his expression, for igno. course of the seventeenth century, furnished rance of costume, of acrial perspective, and of those countries wherein it arose with innumeragradation of colors. Lucas of Leyden was ble works of the greatest perfection in their Durer's most successful rival, unless we except kind. Holbein, who, if he did not equal him in com- Rembrandt was a genius of the first order, if position, unquestionably surpassed him, and that we except what relates to form, and in him the greatly, in portrait.
choice of low figures is the more offensive, as The history of the art in the neighbouring his compositions frequently required the very countries of Flunders and Holland is not dis- opposite. As his father was a miller near Leytinct from that of Germany until the appearance den, bis education must altogether have deof those two meteors of art Peter l'aul Rubens pended on the exertion of great talents, and the and Rembrandt l'an Rhyn. The former of these study of nature. He studied the crotesque figure extraordinary men produced an immense num- of a Dutch peasant, or the servant of an inn, ber of works. He excelled alike in historical with as much application as the greatest masters painting, in portrait and landscape, in fruit, of Italy would have studied the Apollo BelviHowers, and animals. lle both invented and dere or the lenus de Medici. In spite, how. executed with the utmost facility; and, to show ever, of the most portentous deformity, and the extent of his powers, frequently made a great without dwelling on the spell of his chiaro-scuro, number of sketches of the same subject alto- such were his powers of nature, such the grangether different, and without allowing any time deur, pathos, or simplicity of his composition, to elapse between them. His figures appear to from the most elevated or extensive arrangebe the exact counterpart of his conceptions, and ment to the meanest or most homely, that the their creation nothing more than a simple act of best cultivated eye, the purest sensibility, and the will. He had great knowledre of anatomy, the most refined iaste, are equally fascinated by but was often hurried away by the impetuosity them. Like Shakspeare he combined transcenof his imagination, and his ardor for execution. dant excellence with many even unpardonable He preferred splendor 10 beauty of form, and faults, and reconciled us to them.
· He posoccasionally sacrificed correctness of design to sessed the complete empire of light and shade, the magic of color. In short, the qualities of and of all the tints which toat between them. Rubens, generally speaking, indicate a mind full le tinged his pencil, with equal success, in the of fire and vigor rather than accuracy or pro- cool of dawn, in the noontide ray, in the livid found thought.
fiash, in evanescent twilight, and rendered darkIt appears evident, from the works of Rubens, ness visible. Though made to bend a stedfast that his method of painting was to lay the colors eye on the bolder phenomena of nature, lie in their place one at the side of another, and knew how to follow her into her calmest abodes, mix them afterwards by a slight touch of the gave interest to insipidity or baldness, and pencil. Titian mingled his tints as they are in plucked a fower in every desert.' Remnature, in such a manner as to render it impos- brandt's manner of painting (says M. Descamps) sible to discover where they began or terminated; is a kind of magic. No artisť knew better the effects of different colors mingled together, nor by Chas. le Brun, would entiile him to the highest could better distinguish those which did not agree rank in history, had the characters been less manfrom those which did. He placed every tone in nered; had he not exchanged the Argyraspids and its place with so much exactness and harmony, the Macedonian phalanx for the compact lethat he needed not to mix them, and so destroy gionaries of the Trajan pillar; had he distinwhat may be termed the flower and freshness of guished Greeks from barbarians rather by nathe colors. He made the first draft of his pic- tional feature and form than by accoutrement tures with great precision, and with a mixture of and armour. The seven works of charity by colors altogether particular. He proceeded on Seb. Bourdon teem with surprising, pathetic, and his first sketch with vigorous application, and always novel images ; and in the plague of David, sometimes loaded his lights with so great a by Pierre Mignard, our sympathy is roused by quantity of color that he seemed to model rather energies of terror and combinations of woe, than to paint. His workshop was occasionally which escaped Poussin and Raffaelle himself. made dark, and he received, through a hole, the The obstinacy of national pride, perhaps more light, which fell as he chose to direct it. On par- than the neglect of government or the frown of ticular occasions, he placed behind his model a superstition, confined the labors of the Spanish piece of cloth of the same color with the ground school, from its obscure origin at Sevilla to its he wanted, and this piece of cloth, receiving the brightest period, within the narrow limits of insame ray which enlightened the head, marked dividual imitation. But the degrees of perfection the difference in a sensible manner, and allowed attained by Diego Velasquez, Joseph Ribera, the painter the power of augmenting it accord- and Murillo, in pursuing the same object bý ing to his principles.'
means as different as successful, impresses us It is difficult to determine the progress of with deep respect for the variety of their powers. painting in France. Miniature painting, and That the great style ever received the homage of painting on glass, were early cultivated in that Spanish genius, appears not; neither Alfonso country; and in these two kinds the Italians Beruguette nor Pelegrino Tibaldi left followers : had often recourse to the French artists. The but that the eyes and the taste, fed by the subart, for some time encouraged by Francis I., fell stance of Spagnuoletto and Murillo, should into a state of languor from which it did not re- without reluctance have submitted to the gay vocover till the reign of Louis XIII. Jaques latility of Lucca Giordano, and the ostentatious Blanchard, who has been called the French Ti- flimsiness of Sebastian Conca, would be matter tian, flourished about this period ; but, as he of surprise, did we not see the same principles died young, and without educating any pupils successfully pursued in the plafonds of Antonio to perpetuate his manner, he cannot be regarded Raphael Mengs, the painter of philosophy, as as the master of any school. We have already he is styled by his biographer D’Azara. The spoken of Nicholas Poussin, in our review of cartoons of the frescoes painted for the royal Italian art, to which he more properly belonged. palace at Madrid, representing the apotheosis of But the seeds of mediocrity which the Caracci Trajan and the temple of Renown, exhibit less had attempted to scatter over Italy found a more the style of Raffaelle in the nuptials of Cupid congenial soil, and reared an abundant harvest, and Psyche in the Farnesina, than the gorgeous in France : 'to mix up a compound from some- but empty bustle of Pietro da Cortona. thing of every excellence in the catalogue of art We conclude this sketch of the history of was the principle of their theory, and their aim painting by a brief notice of its progress in our in execution. It is in France where Michel An- own country. But little is known respecting the giolo's right to the title of a painter was first existence of painting in England previously to questioned. The fierceness of his line, as they the reign of Henry VIII., who patronised the call it, the purity of the antique, and the cha- talents of Holbein and Torregiano, and invited racteristic forms of Raffaelle are only the road to Titian to visit his court. It was but a short pethe academic vigor, the librated style of Anni- riod before that these islands had begun to culbale Caracci, and from that they appeal to tivate the elegant arts of life, and to shake off the the model; in composition they consult more influence of rude and ignorant manners.
The the artifice of grouping, contrast, and richness, choice of subjects, however, prescribed by Henry than the subject or propriety; their expression and his courtiers to those eminent men who then is dictated by the theatre. From the uniformity resided in England, was unquestionably to be of this process, not to allow that the school of lamented, and suffers extremely from a contrast France offers respectable exceptions would be with what was done by his rival, Francis I., the unjust ; without recurring again to the name of French king, who employed and enriched AnNicholas Poussin, the works of Eustache le drea del Sarto, Rustici, Rosso, Primaticcio, CelSueur, Charles le Brun, Sebastien Bourdon, and lini, and Niccolo, not to aggregate a mass of sometimes Pierre Mignard, contain original painted and chisseled treasures for the mere grabeauties and rich materials. Le Sueur's series tification of his own vanity, but to scatter the of pictures in the Chartreux exhi! it the features seeds of real taste throughout France; while, on of contemplative piety, in a purity of style and the other hand, Torregiano and Holbein under a placid breadth of manner that moves the heart. Henry, as well as Frederigo Zucchero under His dignified martyrdom of St. Laurence, and Elizabeth, were condemned to Gothic work and the burning of the magic books at Ephesus, breathe portrait painting. The Reformation, however the spirit of Raffaelle. The powerful comprehen- great the satisfaction with which the English sion of a whole, only equalled by the fire which people justly regard it, was, without doubt, pervades every part of the battles of Alexander, highly injurious to the cultivation of the prin
ciples of art. The stern spirit of the early re- guished artist, the rival, and in many instances formers led them not only into a total disregard, the successful rival, of l'andyck, was succeeded but into an absolute condemnation, of every by Sir Godfrey kneller, who, with undoubted thing ornamental or superfluous; and the arts of natural abilities, suffered the love of gain, when painting and sculpture, more particularly, owing those abilities had lifted him into notice, to pertheir principal splendor and success to the mu- vert his taste and deaden his ambition. nificent patronage of the mother church, fell In historical painting no British artist had apunder the peculiar and powerful ban of her re- peared to rival the performances of foreign tivolted daughter. If, on the contrary, at this cellence until Sir James Thornhill, born in 1677, juncture, when the national spirit was remo- arose to dispute the honors of the palette with delled, and when that stupendous change laid La Guerre, whom many among our nobility had open almost all that was rand in intellect or employed to decorate their halls and staircases. spirited in action, the fine arts had participated Sir James Thornhill received a commission from in the vigorous upspringing, and had received the state to decorate St. Paul's cathedral and the encouragement instead of the reprobation of Greenwich Hall, in which performances he was those lofty-minded theologians, it is more than assisted by a German artist of the name of Anprobable that England would at this day have dre. It will not, however, be imagined that had to boast, in addition to her brilliant and re- much value was set on the talents of these gencognised claims on the score of literature and tlemen, when we state that Sir James's engagescience, the glory of exhibiting a national and ment was £2 per square yard! Thornhill's merits, superior style of historical painting. But, as it indeed, as an historical painter, cannot be said was, the injunction of Ilenry against images to demand any very great commendation; still (which had been made the instruments of idola- he was the father of English art in that particutrous delusions in churches), and still more the lar, and for a long time had no successful imirigid edicts of Edward VI. and Elizabeth against tator. . In the commencement of the reign of statues and pictures in general, while they sud- George I. (says Sir llorace Walpole) the arts of denly checked the career of historical and reli- England were sunk almost to the lowest ebb.' gious painting, seem to have set a mark of dis- Portraiture, it is true, had been successfully grace on the arts themselves, and to have left practised by Dobson, Riley, Cooper, Greenhill
, them, for a considerable length of time, il prey Jervas, and Richardson, but by none with any to indifference and scorn.
remarkable eminence. Charles I., it is true, strove to introduce a It was not, however, to continue always thus; feeling for the art; and, whilst Rubens sojourned and the time at length arrived when the English amongst us in the character of an ambassador artists appeared not only desirous but capable of from the court of Madrid, employed him to raising the character of their country in this paint the ceiling of his newly erected banquet- respect, at least, to a level with that of any other ing room (now the chapel) at Whitehall. lle nation of Europe. The principal difficulty in also, by countenancing and patronising that the outset of this event was to rescue the art prince of portrait painters, l'andyck, as well as from the degrading influence of a vicious taste, other foreigners of talent, conferred on his coun- to retrace the steps of our predecessors (or ratry a treasure for which we trust she is at length ther to burst the bandages in which they had grateful. Charles collected a very considerable enthralled us), and resort at once to the original gallery of pictures, and, at the instance of Ru- principle of imitation; which, when pure and ,bens, bought the invaluable cartoons of Raffaelle, select, is the only sound basis of the art. The now the chief and envied ornament of Hampton first step towards this reformation was the estaCourt: he likewise, at a cost of £20,000, pur-blishment of a school for drawing from the living chased the cabinet of the duke of Mantua, and figure. This had been begun by Sir James commissioned an artist to copy for him the works Thornhill, in most inexplicable conjunction with of Titian in Spain. But the exertions of Charles Sir Godfrey Kneller, who, one would imagine, were frustrated and intercepted by his unhappy from his latter works, had left all consideration destiny; and the whole of his artistical collection of the value of such a thing far behind. Thus, was sold and dispersed by the parliament of however, he assisted in laying the foundation of 1643, which issued a mandate that all pictures a remedy for the evil which he, more than any which had the representation of the Saviour or other man, had occasioned. This school Sir the l'irgin Mary in them should be burnt.' As James continued at his own house in the Piazza if to complete this unfortunate distribution, so for some years. This death, in 1734, obliged the prejudicial to the interests of the art in England, artists to procure another situation, which was a large part of this maguificent collection, which not effected without some difficulty; for the had been on the Restoration replaced in the pit- people were so unprepared to regard the study lace of Whitehall, was uiterly destroyed by the from the naked figure as necessary to artists, fire which consumed that erlitice.
that their meetings were even suspected to be Charles II., with the cartoons of Raffaelle in held for immoral purposes. Another school was his possession, and with the splendid pictorial at length formed by Michael Moser, a native of ornaments of Whitehall before hievos, permitted Schaffhausen, and a chaner by profession, and the absurditics of Verrio, and the dull mimicries six other artists, principally foreigners, the naof Geuro to render unsightly the walls of his nurement resting withi Mover. After a while palace, whilst the venuine talent of Sir Peter they were visited los Hogarth and others, and a Lely unos de luded in painting the Commons on borger body was formed in consequence, who Ipheniti ili voltiririin 10:17
!!loma Peior Court, St. Wartin's Lane, in the year 1739. Having acquired produced the fruits of a better taste in the some property by combined exhibitions of their art generally; and, accordingly, it was not long works they solicited a charter of incorporation, before the matchless talent of Hogarth beamed and, the scheme being sanctioned by his late forth in unapproachable splendor to gild the onmajesty, their charter was granted in 1765. But, ward progress of the muse of painting, and dissensions arising in the body, a secession of to herald the appearance of a kindred genius in many of its principal members took place, and the person of Sir Joshua Reynolds. the result was the establishment of the Royal Hogarth traced out a departinent in painting Academy in 1768, under the more immediate which was at once novel and exciting-and he patronage of the king; Sir Joshua Reynolds filled it: being nominated its first president.--- Introduc- Within that circle none durst walk but he ! Lion to Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters.
The general taste of the country was, in fact, His pictures are pregnant with meaning. Each awakened and purified with respect to art, and, one tells you a whole history. Ile had the on the success of Hogarth, Reynolds, and Wil- faculty to grasp all the minutiæ of the scene son, several societies were formed throughout the which he placed before you-nothing was sufkingdom for the avowed purpose of patronising fered to escape. and cultivating it.
It is the fashion,' says Mr. Charles Lamb, Richardson, whose tracts ought to be known with those who cry up the great historical to every student and amateur of painting, died school in this country, to exclude Hogarth from in 1745, at the advanced age of eighty. He was that school, as an artist of an inferior and vulgar a bad painter, but his treatises on the art are full class. Those persons seem to me to confound of enthusiasm, and of judicious observations on the painting of subjects in common or vulgar the theory of the art. Of one of these Sir life with the being a vulgar artist. The quanJoshua Reynolds declared, that it had confirmed tity of thought which Hogarth crowds into every him in his love of the art, and elevated his ideas picture would alone unvulgarise every subject of its professors. Richardson contended stre- which he might choose. Let us take the lowest ruously for the propriety of painting portraits of his subjects, the print called Gin Lane. Here in the costume of their time; thus striking at is plenty of poverty and low stuff to disgust the absurd system of flowing robes which had upon a superficial view: and accordingly a cold been adopted by Kneller. This suggestion of spectator feels himself immediately disgusted Richardson's, dictated by common sense, pro- and repelled. I have seen many turn away duced the happiest effects. The nonsensical from it, not being able to bear it. The same draperies which had invested the represented persons would perhaps have looked with great persons of the gentlemen, together with the un- complacency upon Poussin's celebrated picture gTaceful silk robe which they contrived to throw of the Plague at Athens. Disease and death negligently over the shoulders of the ladies, were and bewildering terror, in Athenian garments, laid aside; and the succeeding portrait painters, are endurable, and come, as the delicate critics headed by a son-in-law of Richardson (Hudson, express it, within the ‘limits of pleasurable senand a Frenchman of the name of Van Loo bro-sation. But the scenes of their own St. Giles's, ther of Carle Van Loo), began to dress their sit- delineated by their own countryman, are too ters in all the formality of the day ; Hudson being shocking to think of. Yet if we could abstract assisted by a Fleming of the name of Van Alken, our minds from the fascinating colors of the picin the representation of the silks and laces. Nor ture, and forget the coarse execution (in some did the reformation stop here : it extended into respects) of the print, intended as it was to be a the region of historical painting : and Hayman, cheap plate, accessible to the poorer sort of the successor of Sir James Thornhill, perceived people, for whose instruction it was done, I the propriety of retaining the costume properly think we could have no hesitation in conferring appertaining to those figures introduced into his the palm of superior genius upon Hogarth, compaintings; no longer, by an unmeaning affecta- paring this work of his with Poussin's picture. tion, changing them into Grecian heroes or Ro- There is more of imagination in it--that power man centurions. This period might be denomi- which draws all things to one-which makes nated the infancy of English art; and it is not a things animate and inanimate, beings with their little curious, that at the time when painting attributes, subjects and their accessories, take was verging towards a state of hopeless decline one color, and serve to one effect. Every thing all over the continent of Europe, it should have in the print, to use a vulgar expression, tells. revived, and that to no small purpose, in these Every part is full of strange images of death.' islands, the inhabitants of which had been fre- It is perfectly amazing and astounding to look at. quently taunted by foreigners as unable to exe- Not only the two prominent figures, the woman cute a fine painting.
and the half-dead man, which are as terrible as We shall not dwell on its incipient stato any thing which Michel Angiolo ever drew, but of improvement; indeed, the commendations every thing else in the print contributes to bestowed on the painters alluded to above regard bewilder and stupify—the very houses, as I heard the principle of imitation rather than the thing a friend of mine express it, tumbling all about imitated, since nothing could possibly be more in various directions, seem drunk-seem absountasteful or repulsive than the stiff, starch, and lutely reeling from the effect of that diabolical unsightly uniform (both male and female) of spirit of phrenzy which goes forth over the whole those days. But the principle of attention to composition. To show the poetical and almost actual representation once established, it soon prophetical conception in the artist, one little circumstance may serve. Not content with the Mr. Coleridge, from whom I have borrowed dying and dead tigures, which he has strewed in this observation, speaking of a scene which took profusion over the proper scene of the action, place at Ratzeburg, 'never drew a more ludihe shows you what (of a kindred nature) is pass- crous distortion, both of attitude and physioging beyond it. Close by the shell, in which, nomy, than this effect occasioned; nor was there by direction of the parish beadle, a man is wanting beside it one of those beautiful female depositing his wife, is an old wall, which, par- faces which the same llogarth, in whom the taking of the universal decay around it, is tum- satirist never extinguished that love of beauty bling to pieces. Through a gap in this wall are which belonged to him as a poet, so often and seen three figures, which appear to make a part so gladly introduces as the central figure in in some funeral procession which is passing by a crowd of humorous deformities; which figure on the other side of the wall, out of the sphere (such is the power of true genius) neither acts of the composition. This extending of the nor is meant to act as a contrast, but diffuses interest beyond the bounds of the subject could through all, and over each of the group, a spirit only have been conceived by a great genius. of reconciliation and human kindness; and even The faces of Hogarth have not a mere moment- when the attention is no longer consciously ary interest, as in caricatures, or those grotesque directed to the cause of this feeling, still blends physiognomies which we sometimes catch a its tenderness with our laughter : and thus preglance of in the street, and, struck with their vents the instructive merriment at the whims of whimsicality, wish for a pencil and the power to nature, or the foibles or humors of our fellowsketch them down—and forget them again as men, from degenerating into the heart-poison of rapidly; but they are permanent abiding ideas. contempt or hatred.' To the beautiful females Not the sports of nature, but her necessary eter- in Hogarth, which Mr. C. has pointed out, nal classes. We feel that we cannot part with might be added the frequent introduction of any of them, lest a link should be broken. It is children (which llogartlı seems to have taken a worthy of observation, that he has seldom drawn particular delight in) into his pieces. They a mean or insignificant countenance. If there have a singular effect in giving tranquillity and are any of that description, they are in his Strol- a portion of their own innocence to the subject. ling Players, a print which has been cried up by The baby riding in its mother's lap in the March lord Orford as the richest of his productions; to l'inchley (its careless innocent face placed and it may be, for what I know, in the mere directly behind the intriguing time-furrowed lumber, the properties, and dead furniture of the countenance of the treason-plouting French scene; but in living character and expression it priest) perfectly sobers the whole of that tumulis (for Flogarth) lamentably poor and wanting; tuous scene. The boy mourner winding ир
his it is, perhaps, the only one of his performances top with so much unpretending insensibility at which we have a right to feel disgusted. in the plate of the Harlot's Funeral (the only Hogarth's mind was eminently reflective; and, thing in that assembly that is not a bypocrite) as it has been well observed of Shakspeare, that quiets and soothes the mind that has been he has transfused his own poetical character into disturbed at the sight of so much depraved man the persons of his drama (they are all more and woman kind.' or less poets), Hogarth has impressed a thinking Sir Joshua Reynolds was the first president character upon the persons of his canvas. This of the Royal Academy; and on his retum from remark must not be taken universally. The Rome, at a previous part of his life, carried the exquisite idiotism of the little gentleman in the art (at least as far as regards portrait-painting) bag and sword beating his drum in the print of to its very highest point of perfection. The life, the Enraged Musician, would of itself rise mp the grace, the truth of his portraits have, for against so sweeping an assertion. But I think a long series of years, demanded and received the it will be found to be true of the generality tribute of universal admiration. His best speciof his countenances. The knife-grinder and mens are perhaps inferior to no pictures of the Jew flute-player in the plate just mentioned. same kind in existence, and in some points may may serve as instances, instead of a thousand. be said to exceed the performances of any They have intense thinking faces, though the preceding artist. He not only appears to have purpose to which they are subservient by no always aspired to attain the highest excellence of means required it; but indeed it seems as if it coloring, but in very many instances he did was painful to Hogarth to contemplate mere attain it; there being no one particular in which, vacancy or insignificance. This reflection of the generally speaking, he left his contemporaries so artist's own intellect from the faces of his cha- far behind him as in the richness and mellowracters is one reason why the works of llogarth, ness of his tints, when his colors were successso much more than those of any other artist, are ful and permanent. objects of meditation. Our intellectual natures Though the landscapes Sir Joshua has given love the mirror which gives them back their own in the background of many of his portraits are likenesses. The mental eye will not bend long eminently beautiful, he seldom exercised his with delight upon vacancy.
hand in regular landscape-painting; but in the "Another line of eternal separation between historical department he took a wider range ; Hogarth and the common painters of droll and, by his successful exertions in that higher or burlesque subjects, with whom he is often branch of his art, be not only enriched various confounded, is the sense of beauty, which in the cabinets at home, but extended the fame of the most unpromising subjects seems never wholly English school to foreign countries. to have deserted him. • Hogarth himself,' says And here it may not be amiss to observe