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ing and fine about the notion in the first place; Crayons, in which colors, either simple or and in the next they are tempted to it by that compound, are ground in water, mixed with gum, slothful feeling too natural 10 us all. They are and made into small rolls of a hard paste, territied at the prospect of the toil required to which are then used on paper or parchment. obtain exactness; not considering that the lives Miniature, consisting of colors prepared with of all those painters who attained eminence fur- water or gum, and laid on vellum or ivory. A nish instances and reconimendations of unceas- smaller kind of portrait. ing industry and application. When these great Enamel, performed on copper or gold, with master: imagined a subject, they first executeid mineral colors dried by fire. This method is a variety of sketches ; afterwards a finished likewise extremely durable. See Esamil. drawing of the whole; after that a more correct Encaustic, executed by the inixture of war drawing of every separate part :-they then with the varnish and colors. See EscaUSTIC. painted the picture, and concluded the whole by Water colors, more properly denominated retouching it from the life. At the same time a limning. This is performed with colors mixed student is not always advancing because he is with water, gum, size, or paste, on silk, paper, employed; he must exert his strength in those and sundry other materials. parts of the art where the real dishculties lie; in Besides these various methods we may add those parts which distinguish it as a liberal art, the painting in distemper; namely, with coand not in such as may be resolved into the lors mixed with size, white of eggs, or any thin merely ornamental.
glutinous substance, and used on paper, linen, It is, secondly, a matter of considerable im- silk, board, or wall. There are also painting on portance, that those drawings on which the young GLASS (which word see), and clydonic painting, artist first exercises his ability, should be of the consisting of a mixed use of oil-colors and water. very best kind; that the profiles, the hands, the The various pigments at present feet, &c., given him to copy be of the first mas- fitted for the general purposes of oil painting, ters, in order that both his eye and his hand may are :-Cremnitz white, white lead of different become early acquainted with the most exqui- sorts; a fine yellow, recently discovered from site proportions and the most charming shapes. chromate of iron; king's yellow or orpiment;
Thirdly, It would be desirable that the student patent yellow, Naples' yellow, ochres, Dutch should copy some of the fine heads to be met pink, terra di Sienna, yellow lake, red lead, verwith on Greek and Roman medals: he will milion, red ochre, Indian red, Venetian red, hence become acquainted (if we may be allowed lakes of various kinds, brown pink, Vandyck's the phrase) with the personages whom he may brown, umber, burnt and unburnt; terra di in course of time transplant into his pictures; Sienna, burnt; Prussian and Antwerp blue, uland, above all, improve himself in the important tra marine, ivory black, blue black, asphaltum. art of copying from relief. Hence, also, he will These may be reckoned the chief colors for the become initiated into the doctrine of light and palette; there are, however, several others, shade, and the nature of that chiaro-scuro by which are employed for particular purposes, such which the different forms of things may, justly as verdigris, dc. speaking, be said to be distinguished.
The oils best adapted to the ends of painting The chief divisions of the art of painting are are poppy, nut, and linseed oils; and in this into historical (comprising mystical and allegori- climate a preparation of the latter, by boiling it cal), grotesque, portrait, fancy, animals, fruits with some siccative, is in common use. See and flowers, battles, landscapes, sea views, still Oil. life, and architecture.
We will subjoin two or three observations, Grotesque paintings are to be found in the ce- made by a quaint old writer on art (Richardson), lebrated loggia of the l'atican palace at Rome, with respect to the method of distinguishing a painted from the designs of Ratfaelle, and on genuine picture of one of the old masters from the ceiling of the portico of the capitol, carved a copy:-• There are some pictures and drawe from those of Michel Angiolo.
ings which are seen to be originals, though the The other departments are sufficiently ex- hand and manner of thinking are neither of them plained by their respective names: it may be as known; and that by the spirit and freedom of well
, however, to observe, that the term still life them; which someilmes appears to such a de refers to all inanimate objects, and chiefly to gree as to assure us it is impossible they should household furniture, instruments of use, &c. be copies. But we cannot say, on the contrary, Sect. II.-MODES AND MATERIALS OF PAINT
when we see a tame, beavy handling, that it is
there bave been many bad originals, and some The different methods of painting at present good masters have fallen into a feebleness of practised are
hand, especially in their old age. Oil painting, which is preferable to any other counterfeit hands can rarely do it so well as to mole
, since it allows a complete gradation of deceive a good connoisseur ; the handling, the tints, in the most enduring of all materials, ex- coloring, the drawing the airs of heads, some, cept those of mosaic.
nay, all of these discover the author; more or Fresco is performed. with colors diluted in less easily, however, as the manner of the mas: water, and laid on a wall newly plastered, with ter happens to be: what is highly finished, for which they incorporate, becoming often as dura- example, is more easily imitated than what is ble as the stucco itself. See the folloning sel- loose and free. Copies made by a master after
his own work are discoverable by being well ac
quainted with what that master did when he fol- attention of every person of sensibility and taste. lowed nature; these shall have a spirit, a freedom, Fresco has a freshness, splendor, and vigor, not a naturalness which even he cannot put into what to be found in oil or water colors. he copies from his own work. To conclude, A known principle in all painting is, that the there is one qualification absolutely necessary to coloring is more perfect in proportion as it aphim that would know hands, and distinguish co- proaches to the lights and shades in nature. As pies from originals; as it also is to any one who colors applied to any subject can never reach would judge well of the goodness of a picture this degree of perfection, the illusion whieh or drawing; or indeed of any thing else what- painters produce consists in the comparison and soever; and that is—he must know how, and opposition of the tones of colors among themaccustom himself, to take in, retain, and managę,
selves. clear and distinct ideas.'
If the wbite of the finest and purest oil appears
heavy and gray, compared with great lights in Sect. III._OF PAINTING IN Fresco.
natural whites, it follows, that, in order to copy Of all kinds of painting, fresco is the most them with fidelity, the tones which follow the durable, the most speedily executed, and the first white must be degraded in an exact propormost proper to adorn great buildings. It ap- tion. Thus it is necessary that the shades of a pears, that most of the fragments of ancient paint- picture be considerably deeper than those of the ing handed down to us by the Romans are in model ; especially, if, from the greatest lights to fresco. Norden, quoted by Winckelman, speaks the browns, one hath proportionably followed of the ruins of Egyptian palaces and temples, in the distance which is found between the colors which are Colossian paintings on walls eighty on the pallet and the tones of the object copied, feet high. The description which those authors Now, if the white of fresco be infinitely more have given of these paintings, of the prepared bright than that of oil, the same effect will be ground, and of the manner in which the colors obtained in a brown top. On the other side have been employed, &c., shows plainly that if constantly happens that the brown tones of they have been thus executed. The stability of fresco are much more vigorous than those of fresco is den.onstrated, therefore, by the exist- water colors, and equal even to the browns of oil ence of these fragments of the highest antiquity, itself, it is certain that it possesses a splendor There are no other kinds of painting which could and vigor more extensive than any other kind of equally have resisted the injuries of the weather, painting. Thus, in the hands of an artist who is the excessive aridity of certain elements, the well acquainted with the colors fit for fresco, it is moisture of subterraneous situations, and the de- more susceptible of the general effect, and more structions by barbarians.
capable than any other kind of giving projection In making paintings in fresco, the choice of and the semblance of life to the figures. place, when they are without doors, is of the If we enquire why painting in fresco is now greatest importance. In countries where there seldom or never practised, we may ascribe it to is little or no frost, an exposure to the north is the great talents required to execute it.
* Many the most favorable; and in cold climates a of our painters,' says Vasari, 'excel in oil and western exposure should be made choice of, be- water colors, and yet fail in fresco; because cause the first rays of the rising sun have a very of all kinds this requires the greatest strength pernicious effect after frost.
of genius, boldness in the strokes, and resoluThe choice of materials is the next thing of tion.' If in an age abounding in great masters importance. To make it durable, the ground is it was difficult to excel in this kind, it must be the object of chief attention; and, to make this much more so in ours; but we should not reperfect, the mortar used by the ancients, now quire the characters of sublimity and style to unknown, would be necessary. It is easy to which men were accustomed in the time of Vaperceive that a minute detail of forms, an exten- sari. sive mixture and gradation of tints, and the me- We should execute in fresco as we do in oils; nt of a delicate and gentle touch, can make no for Italy herself along with Michel Angiolo, and part of the excellencies of this kind of painting. Zuicharo, had Cortonni Giardano and FrancisIt cannot bear a close examination like a picture chini as middling fresco-painters. And in France, in oil. There is always something dry and Lafosse, Bon Bologne, and Perur, performed serough which displeases. An artist who would veral works in fresco, which might be imitated fatter himself with success in a fresco placed by the painters of our times. But the real near the eye would be grossly deceived; a com- causes for abandoning this art proceed from the mod spectator would find it coarse and badly want of knowledge and taste in the persons who finished.
employ the artists, and from the manners of the Fresco is chiefly employed in palaces, tem- age. As a pleasant or licentious conceit, unfiples, and public edifices. In these vast places nished coloring, and bold effects of shade, are no kind of painting can be preferred to it; large, the chief objects of consideration, a very smooth vivid in its strokes, and constantly fresh, it en- painting, enlivened by gentle touches, completeriches the architecture, animates it, and gives iy gratifies the person who pays the price; and relief to the eye from the repetition of the same therefore the philosophical principles of the art, forms, and the monotony of color, in a place which require study, are not cultivated. where colored marbles and bronzes are not em- The mechanical process of this useful and ployed. A fine fresco gives the greatest effect to beautiful kind of painting is as follows: before á lofty building, which serves as a frame and painting it is necessary to apply two layers. If support to this enchanting art, which fixes the ihe wall on which you are to paint is of brick. the layer is easily applied; but if it is of free- There are others which require to be used with stone closely united, it is necessary to make ex- great precaution, such as enamel blue, cinnabar, cavations in the stone, and to drive into them and white marble dust. When enamel blue is nails or pegs of wood in order to hold the first used, it requires to be applied instantaneously, layer. The first layer is made of good lime and and when the lime is very moist, otherwise it a cement of pounded brick, or, which is still does not incorporate with the plaster; and, if one better, river sand; this latter forms a layer more retouch with this color, it inust be done an uneven, and better fitted to retain the second hour or more after the first application, to increase smooth and polished layer applied to its surface. its lustre. With regard to the white marble dust, There should be experiments to discover a layer it is apt to turn black if it be not mixed up with still more compact, and more independent of the
a proper quantity of white lime. variations of the air; such, for example, as Cinnabar, which has a splendor almost supecovers the aqueducts and ancient reservoirs con- rior to all other colors, loses it almost entirely structed by the Romans in the neighbourhood of when mixed with lime. At the same time it may Naples.
be employed in places not exposed to the air
, Before applying the second layer, or what you with a little degree of care in the preparation. are to paint, it is necessary that the first be per- Reduce a quantity of the purest cinnabar to powfectly dry; for there issues from the lime, when der, put it into an earthen vessel, and pour limeit is moist, a smell both disagreeable and perni- water on it for two or three times. By this cious to the artist. When the first layer is per- process the cinnabar receives some impression of fectly dry, it is wet with water in proportion to lime-water, which makes it capable of being its dryness, that the second layer may the more employed in fresco-painting. easily incorporate with it. The second layer is One of the best colors, and the one most used composed of lime, slaked, and long exposed in in fresco for the gradation of tints, and for giving the air, and of river sand, of an equal grain, and the requisite tone, is white of lime. This white moderately fine. It requires an active and in- is prepared by mixing lime slaked long before telligent mason to apply this layer, as the surface with good water. The lime deposits a sediment must be altogether equal. The operation is per- at the bottom of the vessel ; when the water is formed with a trowel; and the operator requires poured off, this sediment is the white of lime. to have a small piece of wood to take away the Another kind of white might be used, the eflarge grains of sand, which, remaining, might fects of which would be known by experience, render the surface uneven. To give a fine po- namely, the white of egg-shells. To prepare this lish to this layer, one ought to take a sheet of white, one must take a great quantity of shells of paper, apply it to the wall, and pass and repasseggs, which must be pounded and boiled in wathe trowel over the paper. By these means the ter along with a quantity of quick lime; after little inequalities which hurt the exactness of the this, they are put into a strainer, and washed restroke, and which produce false appearances at peatedly with fountain water. The shells are a distance, are entirely smoothed." The artist again pounded until the water employed for that must not lay more than the painter can finish in purpose becomes pure and limpid; and, when a day, as this kind of painting must be executed they are in this manner reduced to powder, this on a fresh ground.
powder is grinded in water, and formed into The layer being thus prepared, the painter small pieces, and dried in the sun. begins his operation; but as painting in fresco All the different kinds of ochres make excelmust be executed rapidly, and as there is no time lent colors for fresco, and take different shades, to retouch any of the strokes, the painter takes being previously burned in iron chests. With care to provide himself with large cartoons, on regard to the Naples yellow, it is dangerous to which he has drawn, with exactness, and in their use it where the painting is much exposed to the full size, the figures which he is to paint, which air. The blacks of charcoal, of peach stones, and leaves him nothing to do but to copy them on of vine twigs, are good ; but that extracted from the wall.
The cartoons are composed of several sheets Roman vitriol gathered at the furnaces, and of large paper pasted one on another, neither too called burnt vitriol, ground afterwards in spirit of thick nor too slender, The painter traces the wine, resists the air extremely well when emtracks of the figures on the plaster by passing a ployed in lime. There is also a red extracted steel point over the tracks in the cartoons, or in from this preparation somewhat like that propricking them. Having thus attained an exact duced from lac. This color is very proper
for and speedy drawing, it now remains to execute preparing the layers to be colored with cinnabar; the painting. But it is essential, when one and the draperies painted with these two colors wishes to tinish any small work of this kind, in will vie in splendor with those painted with fine the first place, to be informed of the proper co
lac in oil. lors, and of those which cannot be used.
The ultramarine is the most faithful color; and In general, the colors extracted from earths, it not only never changes, but it communicates and those which have passed through the tire, are this precious quality to those colors with which the only ones which can be employed in this kind it is mixed. of painting. The colors are white, made of The manner of employing these colors is to lime, the white of egg-shells, ultramarine, the grind them in water, and to begin by arranging black of charcoal, yellow ochre, burnt vitriol, red them into the principal tints to be employed ; earth, green of Verona, Venetian black, and burnt these are afterwards put into pots ; and it is neochre,
cessary to use many pallets raised at the edges,
bones is of no value.
to form the intermediate shades, and to have un- paint, which he may trace by the preceding meder one's eye all the shades required. As all the thod. tints, except burnt ochre, violet, red, and blacks The student will find the sitting posture, with of all kinds, are apt to become clear, the painter the box of crayons in his lap, the most convenimust have beside him some pieces of brick or ent in which to paint. The part of the picture new uile very dry. A dash of the colors is ap- he is painting should be rather below his face, plied to one of these with the pencil, before else the arm will be fatigued. Let the windows using them; and, as tile instantaneously imbibes of the room be darkened, at least to the height the water, one perceives what the shade will be of six feet from the ground; and the subject after the fresco is dry.
to be painted should be placed so that the light
may fall with every advantage on the face. Sect. IV.–Of PaintinG WITH CRAYONS.
The features being correctly drawn with chalks, The student must provide himself with strong take a crayon of pure carmine, and carefully blue paper, the thicker the better, if the grain is draw the nostril and edge of the nose next the not too coarse. The knots should be levelled shadow; then, with the faintest carmine teint, lay with a penknife or razor, otherwise they will in the highest light upon the nose and forehead, prove exceedingly troublesome. The paper must which must be executed broad. Then proceed be pasted very smooth on a linen cloth, previ- gradually with the second teint, and the succeedously strained on a deal frame, the size accord- ing ones, till he arrives at the shadows, which ing to the artist's pleasure; on this the picture is must be enriched with much lake, carmine, and to be executed; but it is most eligible not to deep green. The several pearly teints discernipaste the paper on till the whole subject is first ble in fine complexions must be imitated with dead-colored. The method of doing this is by blue rerditer and white, which answers to the laying the paper, with the dead-color on its face, ultramarine teints used in oils. But, if the parts upon a smooth board, when, by a brush, the of the face where these teints appear are in shaback side of the paper must be covered with dow, the crayons composed of black and white paste; the frame with the strained cloth must must be substituted in their place. then be laid on the pasted side of the paper ; Let the student be careful when he begins the after which, turn the painted 'side uppermost, eyes, to draw them with a crayon inclined to the and lay a piece of clean paper upon it, to pre-' carmine teint, of whatever color the irises are; vent smearing it: this being done, it may be he must lay them in brilliant, and at first not stroked gently over with the hand'; by which loaded with color, but executed lightly. The means all the air between the cloth and the paper student must let the light of the eye incline very
much to the blue cast, avoiding a staring white When the painters want to make a very correct appearance, but preserving a broad shadow thrown picture, they generally use tiffany or black gauze, on its upper part by the eye-lash. strained tight on a frame, which they lay flat on The student should begin the lips with pure the subject to be imitated, and with a piece of carmine and lake, and in the shadow use some chalk, trace all the outlines on the tiffany. They carmine and black ; the strong vermilion teints then lay the canvas to be painted on, Aat upon should be laid on afterwards. He must form the the floor, placing the tiffany with the chalked corner of the mouth with carmine, brown ochre, tines upon it, and with a bandkerchief brush the and greens, variously intermixed. If the hair is whole over; this presents the exact outlines of dark, he should preserve much of the lake and the picture on the canvas. The crayon-painter deep carmine teints therein. may also use this method when the subject of his After he has dead-colored the head, he is to imitation is in oils; but, in copying a crayon pic- sweeten the whole together, by rubbing it' over ture, he must have recourse to the following me- with his finger, beginning at the strongest light thod, on account of the glass.
upon the forehead, passing his finger very lightly, The picture being placed on the easel, let the and uniting it with the next teint, which he outlines be drawn on the glass with a small ca- must continue till the whole is sweetened togemel's hair pencil, dipped in lake, ground thin ther, often wiping bis finger on a towel, to prewith oils, with great exactness. After this, take vent the colors being sullied. When the head is a sheet of paper of the same size, and place it on brought to some degree of forwardness, let the the glass, stroking over all the lines with the back ground be laid in, which must be done by hand, by which means the color will adhere to covering it as thin as possible, and rubbing it the paper, which must be pierced with pin-holes into the paper with a leathern stump. Near the pretty close to each other. The paper intended face the paper should be almost free from color. to be used for the painting must next be laid up- The ground, being painted thin next the hair, on a table, and the pierced paper placed upon it; affords an opportunity of painting the edges then, with some fine pounded charcoal tied up in of the hair over in a light and free manner in a piece of lawn, rub over the pierced lines, which finishing. will give an exact outline; but great care must The above method, properly executed, probe taken not to brush this off till the whole is duces the appearance of a painting composed of drawn over with sketching chalk, which is a com- three colors, viz. carmine, black, and white, which position made of whiting and tobacco-pipe clay, is the best preparation a painter can make for the rolled like the crayons, and pointed at each end. producing a fine crayon picture. The next step When a student paints from the life, it is proper is, to complete the back ground and the hair ; to make a correct drawing of the outlines on ano thence proceed to the forehead, finishing downther paper, the size of the picture he is going to ward. VOL. XVI.
will be forced out.
In painting over the forehead the last time, on the chest. The most necessary part to be berin the bighest light with the most fait ver- expressed is a strong marking just above the nahon teint, in the same place where the faint place where the collar bones unite; and, if the Carne was first lail, keeping it broad in the head is much thrown over the shoulders, some
In the next shade, the student notice should be taken of the large muscle that must work in some light blue teints, composed rises from thind the ear, and is inserted into the of verditer and white, intermixing with them pit between the collar bones. All inferior mussome of the deeper vermilion teints, insensibly cles should be avoided. In coloring the neck, melting them into one another. Some brilliant let the student preserve the stem of a pearly hue, yellows may also be used, and, towards the roots and the light not so strong as on the chest. If of the hair, strong verditer teints, intermixed with any part of the breast appears, its transparency green, will be of singular service. Cooling must also be expressed by pearly teints; but the crayons, composed of black and white, should upper part of the chest should be colored with succeed these, and melt into the hair. Beneath beautiful vermilions delicately blended with the the eyes, the sweet pearly teints are to be pre- other. served, composed of verditer and white, and Dark blue, purple, black, pink, and all kinds under the nose, and on the temples, the same of red draperies also should be firse tinged with may be used ; beneath the lips, teints of this kind carmine, which will render the colors much also are proper, mixing thein with the light more brilliant than any other method ; over this greens and some vermilion. In finishing the should be laid on the paper the middle teint, excheeks, let the pure lake clear them from any cept the dark masses of shadow, which should dust contracted from the other crayons; then be laid on at first as deep as possible; these, with the lake may be intermixed the bright ver- sweetened with the finger, will exhibit a mastermilion; and, last of all, a few touches of the ly breadth, which the lesser folds, when added, orange-colored crayon, but with caution. ought by no means to destroy. With the light
The eye is the most difficult feature to execute and dark teints, the smaller part, are next to be in crayons, as every part must be expressed with made with freedom, executing as much with the the uimost nicely, io appear finished; at the crayon, and as little with the finger as possible ; same time that the painter must préserve its in each fold touching the last stroke with the breadth and solidity while he is particularising crayon, which stroke the finger must never louch. the parts. To accomplish this, the student should In the case of reflections, the simple touch of the use liis crayon in sweetening as much, and his crayon will be too harsh, therefore fingering will finger as little as possible. When he wants a be necessary afterwards, as reflected lights are point to touch a small part with, he may break always more gentle than those which are direct. off
' a little of his crayon against the box, which With respect to reflections in general they must will produce a corner fit to work with in the mi- always partahe of the same color as the object mutest parts. When the eye-balls are sufficient- reflecting, but in the case of single figures, it ly prepared, the shining speck must be made may be useful to make some particular observawith a pure white crayon, which should be first tions. In a blue drapery, let the reflections be broken to a point, and then laid on firm ; but, as of a greenish east; in green draperies, make them it is possible they may be defective in neatness, of a yellow teint; in yellow, of an orange ; in they should be corrected with a pin, taking off orange, reflect a reddish cast; in all reds, somethe redundant parts, by which means they may thing of their own nature, but inclined to the be formed as neat as can be required.
yellow : black should have a reddish reflection ; The difficulty, with respect to the nose, is to the reflection of a reddish teint will also present preserve the lines properly determined, and at purples to the best advantage. Of whatever cothe same time so artfully blended into the cheek lor ibe drapery is, the retlection on the face must as to express its projection, and yet no real line partake thereof, otherwise the picture, like paintto be perceptible upon a close examination; in ings on glass, will have but a gaudy effect. Lisome circumstances it should be quite blended nen, lace, fur, &c., should be couched spiritedly with the cheek, which appears behind it, and with the crayon, fingering very little except the determined entirely with a slight touch of red latter; and the last touches even of this, like all chalk. The shadow caused by the nose is ge- other parts, should be executed by the crayon, nerally the darkest in the whole face. Carmine without sweetening with the finger and brown ochre, carmine and black, and such The methods above recommended have been brilliant crayons, compose it best.
practised by the most celebrated crayon-painters, The student having prepared the lips with the whose works have been held in public estimastrongest lake and carinine, &c., must with these tion; but the knowledge of, and ability to execolors make them completely correct; and, when cute each separate part with brilliancy and truth, finishing, introduce the strong vermilions, but will be found very insufficient to constituie a with caution. This, if properly touched, will complete painter, unless he unite them with each give the lips an appearance equal if not supe- other by correctness of drawing, propriety of light rior to those execuied in oils, notwithstanding and shadow, and barıony of coloring. To acthe seeming superiority the latter has, by means complish this, the student should carefully avoid of glazing, of which the other is entirely desti- finishing one part, till he has properly consider
ed the connexion it is to have with the rest. When the student paints the neck, he should MURALS.— The perfection of the crayons avoid expressing the muscles too strong in the consists, in a great measure, in their softness; for stem; nor should the bones appear too evident it is impossibie to execute a brilliant picture with