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them if they are otherwise ; on which account of wine; let it diy, and then pulverise it, which great care should be observed in the preparing is easily done if the lake is good: then take the them, to prevent their being hard. In all compo- other half, and grind it with spirits, after which sitions fake white and white lead should be wholly mix it with the pulverised lake, and lay it out lejected, because the slightest touch with either directly in crayons on the chalk. This color of these will unavoidably turn black. They are will not bear rolling. The simple color being subject to change ; but, whenever this happens, thus prepared, proceed with the compound it is entirely owing to an injudicious use of the crayons as directed before, and in the same deabove mentioned whites, which will stand only grees of gradation as the carmine teints. in oils. To obviate the bad effect of such 3. Vermilion. The best is inclined to the carcrayons use common whiting, prepared as fol- mine teint. Nothing is required to prepare 'his lows :

color more than to mix it on the stone with soft Take a large vessel of water, put the whiting water or spirits, after which it may be rolled into into it, and mix them well : let this stand about crayons. Various teints are produced by a mixhalf a minute, then pour off the top into another ture of the simple color with whiting. vessel, and throw the gritty sediment away; let II. BLUES. ' 1. Prussian blue is apt to bind, what is prepared rest about a minute, and then and is rendered soft with more difficulty than pour it off as before, which will purify the whit- carmine and lake. The same method of prepa

When this is done let the whiting settle, ration is to be followed with this as directed with pour the water from it, after which lay it on the respect to lake. 2. Blue verditer is naturally chalk to dry, and keep it for use, either for gritty, and therefore should be washed well. Its white crayons, or for preparing teints with other particles are so coarse as to require to be united colors, for with this all other teints may be safely by slaked plaster of Paris about the size of a pea. prepared. All colors of a heavy or griity nature, This blue is extremely brilliant, and will be of especially blue verditer, must be purified by great use in heightening draperies, &c. The washing after this method.

teints must be formed with whiting, as above The student must have a large flexible pallet- directed. knife, a large stone and muller to levigate the III. GREENS. In Switzerland they have a colors, two or three large pieces of chalk to ab- method of making greens superior to ours. We sorb the moisture from the colors after they are usually take yellow ochre, grind it with spirits, levigated, a piece of flat glass to prevent the mix it with the powder of Prussian blue, then moisture from being absorbed too much, till the temper it with a knife, and lay the crayons on colors are rolled into form, and vessels for water the chalk, without rolling them. Instead of spirits, &c., as necessity and convenience shall this some use king's yellow mixed with Prussian direct.

blue, and others brown ochre and Prussian blue. I. Reds. Good carmine is inclined to the The crayons made of the two last may be rolled. vermilion teint, and good lake to the carmine IV, Yellows. 1. King's yellow is the most teint. The carmine crayons are thus prepared ::- useful and the most briliant, levigated with

1. Carmine. As their texture is inclinable to spirits of wine. Yellow ochre, and Naples yelhardness, instead of grinding and rolling them low, ground with spirits, make useful crayons. take a sufficient quantity of carmine, lay it upon 2. Orange is produced with king's yellow and the grinding stone, mix it with a levigating knise vermilion ground together with spirits, and the with spirit of wine till it becomes smooth and teints formed as in other cases, but no great even. The chalk-stone being ready, lay the color quantity of them is required. upon it to absorb the spirit, but be careful that V. BROWNS. 1. Cullen's earth is a fine dark it is laid on in a proper shape for painting. If brown. After six or eight of the simple crayons it is levigated too thin the crayons will be too are prepared, several rich compound teints may fat; and if too thick it will occasion a waste of be produced from it, by a mixture with carmine color by their adhering to the pallet-knife. The in various degrees. Roman or brown ochre is an next step is to compose the different teints by a excellent color, either simple or compounded mixture with whiting; the proportion consists of with carmine. Whiting tinged with either of twenty gradations to one. Take some of the these proves very serviceable in painting. 2. simple color, and levigate it with spirit of wine, Umber may be treated in the same manner, adding about one part of washed whiting to only it is necessary to levigate it with spirit of three parts of carmine, of which, when properly wine. incorporated, make two parcels. The next gra- VI. Purples. Prussian blue ground with dation should be composed of equal quantities spirits, and mixed with pulverised lake, will of carmine and whiting, of which four crayons produce a good purple. Carmine, thus mixed may be made. The third composition should with Prussian blue, will produce a purple somehave one-fourth carmine and three-fourths whit- thing different from the former. ing; of this make six crayons, which will be a VII. BLACK. 1. Lamp-black is the only good proportion with the rest. The last teint black that can be used with safety, as all others should be made of whiting very faintly tinged are subject to mildew; but, as good lamp-black with carmine, of which make about eight crayons is very scarce, the student should make it himself; which will complete the above mentioned pro- the process is as follows :-Provide a tin cone, portion.

fix it over a lamp at such a height that the flame 2. Lake is a color very apt to be hard; to may just reach the cone for the soot to gather prevent which take about half the quantity of within it. When a sufficient quantity is collected lake intended, and grind it very fine with spirit take it out, and burn all the grease from it in a crucible. It must then be ground with spirits, so that an experienced painter, who is desirous and laid on the chalk to absorb the moisture. 1. that his work should retain its color, prefers purVarious gray teints may be formed froin this by chasing his lead at the works, where he is sure a mixture of whiting. 2. Vermilion mixed with of having it pure. Lead improves by keeping, carmine is a composition of great use. 3. Car- and all the best whites are performed by it when mine and black is another good compound, and it is at least two or three years old.

The Notvarious gradations should be made. 4. Vermilion tingham ceruse is most esteemed for house work and black is also a very useful compound. 5. when it is required to be finished in what is Prussian blue and black is another good com- technically called Hatting or dead white. pound, and will be found of singular service in Litharge is employed by painters to render painting draperies.

their colors more drying, and is composed of the The different compositions of colors must be ashes of lead, or a kind of dusky powder that cut into a proper magnitude, after they are pre- tirst appears in its oxidation. When in this state pared, to be rolled into pastils, for use. Each it is called by the chemisis a subcarbonate of crayon should be formed in the left hand with lead, and is afterwards saturated with linseed the ball of the right, first formed cylindrically, oil to render it more drying. and then tapered at each end. If the composi- Linseed oil is obtained by pressure from the tion is too dry, dip the finger in water; if too seed of fax; it is afterwards filtered to clear it wet, the composition inust be laid upon the of any of the feculæ of the seed, and then sufchalk again to absorb more of the moisture. The fered to remain in tubs to precipitate and clarify. crayons should be rolled as quick as possible; The more colorless the oil is the better, and this and when finished must be laid upon the chalk is greatly promoted by keeping, as linseed oil again to absorb all remaining moisture. will, by being kept a year or two, deposit all its

coloring particles, and be as transparent as water: Sect. V.-OF House PAINTING.

the best painting is made with oil in this state. Painting, as applied to buildings, comprises In Holland they whiten their linseed oil by a in the first place the coloring over all the several very simple process, which is said by them 10 kinds of wood, iron-work, &c., employed therein answer every purpose to be derived from its age. with mineral colors, rendered Auid by saturation They take an earthen pot well glazed, into which with oils, oil of turpentine, &r. A pigment so they put one-third of fine white sand and oneprepared is spread over them with a brush, and third of water with the linseed oil they wish to by the repetition of several coats they together whiten ; and after having covered the vessel with operate to their protection, and at the same time glass they expose it to the sun, taking care to give a variety and neatness to the general ap- stir it at least once a day. When the oil has bepearance of a house. This kind of painting will come very white it is left at rest during two days, be divided in this section under its several heads after which it is taken away for use. as it is practised in London, and will embrace Of drying oils. The substances most usually the working in common colors, also graining of employed to produce them are the oxide of lead its several kinds, ornamental painting, inscrip- called litharge, plaster, and umber. The prolion writing, &c. &c. All the prismatic colors cess consists in taking of these several materials are occasionally called into use by the painter, in the proportions as follow, viz. to one pound and he varies these to suit the taste of his em- of oil add half an ounce of litharge with as much ployer into almost every gradation of teint. But ceruse, umber, and plaster. The oil is boiled the ground-work of all house-painting is formed on these four drugs over a gentle fire, taking care by a paint prepared from lead, known in the to skim it from time to time; this matter so arts as ceruse, or white-lead. This is manufac- skinmed off is called by the house-painter tured for use at places called the White-lead smudge, or dryer; it is of a lead color, and is Works, and is performed in the following man- used by him in his outside work, and sometimes ner, viz. by rolling leaden plates spirally up, so mixed in the dark colors to render them more as to leave the space of about an inch between susceptible of fixing and drying. As soon as each coil, and afterwards placing them vertically this scum begins to rarify and become red, the in earthen pots, at the bottom of which is some fire is stopped, and the oil being left at rest gragood vinegar. The pots are then to be covered, dually settles and clarifies. Linseed oil so preand exposed for a length of time to a gentle heat pared is vended at the color shops under the in a sand bath, or by bedding them in hot dung. name of boiled oil. All the best house-painting The vapor of the vinegar, assisted by the ten- is done with it. dency of the lead to combine with the oxygen Mr. Vanherman has lately laid before the which is present, corrodes the lead, and converts Society of Arts a method of rendering tish-oil the external portion of it into a white substance applicable to painting ; and it appears to make which comes off in flakes when the lead is un- a good and cheap vehicle for colors exposed to coiled. The plates are thus treated repeatedly the weather, though it dries but slowly. To until they are corroded through, and completely thirty-two gallons of vinegar he adds twelve reduced to an oxide ; this is called ceruse or pounds of litharge and twelve pounds of sulwhite lead. It is afterwards bleached, ground, phate of zinc, shaking the mixture well twice a and saturated with linseed oil. It is then put day for a week. The mixture is then put into a into tubs resembling butter firkins, each con- tun of fish-oil, with which it is well shaken and taining about 3 cwt.; in such tubs it is dis- mixed, and the next day the clearer part, about pensed at the color shops. But at such places seven-eighths of the whole, is poured off

. Twelve it is frequently adulterated with powdered chalk, gallons of linseed oil, and two of oil of turpen

tine are then added to the clear part, and this

Ultramarine, being well shaken together is left to settle for two

Ditto, ashes, or three days, when it will be fit to grind white


Blue lead and all fine colors in : these, bowever, are

Verditer, to be thinned for use with linseed oil and oil of

Indigo, turpentine. For cheap paints exposed to the

Smalt. weather, whiting and road dirt finely sifted are

King's-yellow, to be mixed with lime water to the consistence

Naples ditto, of mortar. To this composition may be added

Yellow-oclare, almost any pigment ground with the sediment of

Dutch-pink, the prepared oil, in the proportion of one part to

English ditto, two of the lime water already used, and the Yellow Light pink, whole is to be thinned for use, by adding to

Gamboge, every eight pounds a quart of linseed oil and as

Masticot, much of a mixture of the prepared oil with lime

Common orpiment, water. The proportions of the mixture are not

Gall-stone, mentioned. If two ounces of litharge be added

( Terra di Sienna. to a gallon of linseed oil and well shaken every

Verdigris, day for a fortnight, and the clearer part mixed

Crystals of ditto, with half a pint of oil of turpentine be exposed Green

Prussian green, to the sun for two or tbree days in shallow pans,

Terra verte, Mr. Vanherman says it will be as white as nut

Sap-green. oil.' If half a pound of frankincense be dissolv- Orange Orange-lake. ed in a quart of oil of turpentine and added to a S True Indian red, gallon of this bleached oil, and white lead ground Purple. Archil, in oil of turpentine be thinned for use with the

Logwood wash. mixture, he asserts that it will be quite dry and

Brown-pink, void of smell in four hours.

Bistre, Oil of turpentine, or, as it is called, turps, is


Brown-ochre, in general use among us in house-painting, and

Umbre, is the ingredient by which the flatting, as it is

Cologne earth, termed, is performed. All the larch and fir trees

Asphaltum. furnish a resin known by the general name of tur

White-flake, pentine. Commerce distinguishes several qualities

White-lead, according to its degree of goodness. The larch tree

Calcined hartshorn, furnishes what is called Venice turpentine ; it is White. Pearl white, obtained by being made to flow from the trunk

Troy, white, of the tree through holes made with an auger in

Eggshell white, which small pipes are fixed, that conduct the

Flowers of bismuth. juice into buckets placed to receive it. This

Lamp-black, turpentine has a yellowish and limpid color, a Black. Ivory ditto, strong aromatic smell, and bitter taste. In Ca

Blue ditto. nada the peasants collect it from the fir tree by perforating the sacs which contain it under the These embrace almost the whole of the colors bark, with the point of a horn which is filled with employed by the house-painter, and which by this juice. It is afterwards distilled, in which it experience he is enabled to mix in proportions liberates an oil more or less volatile, according to effect almost every tint. to the degree of heat employed. When the Vermilion is a bright scarlet pigment, and is operation is done by a bath, a white, limpid, and formed of common sulphur and quicksilver preodoriferous oil is obtained, which is called essence pared for use by a chemical process. The best of turpentine. The residue from this distillation vermilion comes from China, where it is said the forms the boiled turpentine of commerce. This secret of making it is alone known. The Dutch is sold at the color shops in the same way in pretend to have obtained it, and much of the which oil is, viz. by the gallon. This as well as vermilion at the shops is of their manufacture. the oil considerably improves by age.

It is so dear that the painters have recourse to Of the colors. The colors used by painters every expedient to avoid using it: hence it is may be classed as follows:

that the true Chinese pigment of this color is Vermilion,

seldom seen. Native cinnabar,

Cinnabar is a similar pigment, differing only Red-lead,

Color red, from vermilion by a more crimson coloring. Scarlet-ochre,

tending to Red-lead, or minium, is lead calcined till it Common Indian red, orange. acquire a proper degree of color by exposing it Spanish brown,

with a large surface to the fire. Red Terra di Sienna, burnt,

Scarlet-ochre is an earth with a base of green Carmine,

vitriol, and is separated from the acid of the Lake,

Colorcrim- vitriol by calcination.

son tending Common Indian red is of a hue verging to Red-ochre,

to purple. scarlet, and is imported from the East Indies. Venetian-red

Venetian-red is a native ochre rather inclining

to scarlet ; this is the pigment which is selected berries. It is not well adapted to work in oil for the graining, as it is called by the house- by reason of its color soon flying off. painters, of doors, &c., in imitation of maho- English and light pink are merely a sighter gany,

and coarser kind of Dutch pink. Spanish-brown is a native earth, found in the Gamboxe is a guir brought from the East state and of the color in which it is used.

Indies; it is dissolved in water to a milky Terra di Sienna is a native ochre, and is consistence, and is then of a bright yellow color. brought from Italy in that state in which it is Masticui, as a pigment, is Hakie-white, or generally found. It is yellow originally, and in white-lead gently calcined, by which it is this state it is often mide use of, and is accord- changed to a yellow, winch varies in tint acingly placed among the yellow colors. It changes cording to the de: -ree of the calcination. to an orange red by calcination, though not of a Orpiment is a fossil body of a yellow color, vi»ry bria!it tint, for which property it is sought composed of arsenic and sulphur, with a mixture to produce a pigment of that color.

frequently of lead, and sometimes other metals. Cermine is a bright crinson color, and is Gall-stone is a concretion of earthy matter formed of the tinzin substance of cochineal formed in the gall bladder of beasts. li is but with nitric acid. It is not well calculated to mix lille used. up with oil, as its color changes rapidly by ex- Verdigris is an oxide of copper formed by a posure to the air and light,

vegetable acid; it is used in most kinds of paintLake is a white earthy body, as cuttle fish- ing where green is required. bone, the basis of alum or chalk tinged with Crystals of verdigris is the salt produced by some vegetable dye, such as is obtained from the solution of copper or common verdigris in cochined or Brasil wood, taken up by an alkali vine ur. and precipitated on the earth by the addition of Prussian green is a composition similar to blue an acid.

of the same name. Rose-pink is a lake like the former, except Terra verte is a native earth; it is of a bluish that the earth or basis of the pigment is princi- green color, resembling the tint called sea-green. pally chalk, and the tingin substance is extracted Sap-green is the concreted juice of the buckfrom Brasil or Campeachy wood.

thorn berry. Red-ochre is a native earth, but that which is Orange-lake is the tinging part of annatto, prein coir mon use is colored red by calcination, cipitated together with the earth of alum. being yellow wben dug out of the earth, and the True Indian red is a native ochrous earth of a same with the yellow ochre commonly used. purple color, but so scarce as seldom to be met This latter substance is chiefly brought from Ox- with at the color shops. fordshire, where it is found in great abundance. Archil is a purple tincture prepared from a

Ultramarine is a preparation of calcined kind of moss. lapis lazuli, which is, when perfect, of a brilliant Logwood is brought from America, and affords blue color, of an extremely beautiful and trans- a strong purple tmcture. parent effect in oil, and will retain this property Brown-pink is the ringing part of some vegewith whatever vehicle or pigment it may be table of an orange color precipitated upon the mixed. It is excessively dear, and is frequently earth of alum. sold at the color shops in an adulterated state. Bistre is a brown transparent color of a yellow

('ltramarine ashes are the residuum or re- ish tint. mains of the calcined lapis-lazuli.

Brown-ochre is a warm brown or foul orange Prussian blue is a brilliant pigment; it is the color. fixed sulphur of animal or vegetable coal chemi- Cologne cartli is a fossil substance of a dark cally combined with the earth of alum).

blackish-brown color, a little inclining towards Verditer is the mixture of chalk with the pre- purple. cipitated copper, which is formed by adding the Asphaltum is sometimes employed by the due proportion of chalk to the solution of cop- painters to answer the end of brown pink. per made by the retiners in precipitating the White Aake is a ceruse prepared by the acid of silver from the nitric acid in the operation called grape. partio , in which they have occasion to dissolve Troy white is simply chalk, neutralised by it in order to its purification.

the addition of water in which alum has been Indigo is a tingin, matter extracted from cer- dissolved. tain plants which are found in both the Indies, Lamp-black is the soot of oil collected as it is and from whence the indigos of commerce are formed by bumping. imported.

Ivory-black is the coat of ivory or bone formSmalt is glass colored with zafer, and after- ed by giving to them a great heat, all access of wards ground to a powder.

the air being excluded. kings-yellow is a pure orpiment, or arsenic Blue-black is the coal of some kind of wood colored with sulphur.

burnt in a close heat where the air can have no Naples-yellow is a warm yellow pigment rather inclining to orange.

Such are the several colors employed by Yellow-ochre is a mineral eartlı, which is painters; they are all to be found in the color found in many places, but of different degrees shops both in a crude and prepared state. Prer of purity.

paring the colors consists in the first place of Dutch-pink is a pigment formed of chalk, grinding them on slabs of porphyry till the parcolored with the tinging particles of French iicles are reduced 10 the finest imaginable state ;


this is done by saturating them with oil or water, produce a paint of the color he wishes. All those according as the color ground is to be used with colors which are derived from vegetable bodies either of them.

have, at first being spread, a more brilliant effect House-painting is known in the trade by the than those of mineral ones; but no vegetable conumber of coats of paint applied, and the paint- lor will long stand the combined effect of air and 'ng is divided into work in oil and what is tech- light; while the mineral colors, so exposed, renically called Aatting. This latter description of main unchanged. This defect in the vegetable work differs from the former only in the color colors is owing to that spontaneous oxidation or being mixed up with turpentine instead of oil. carbonization which is effected by the oxygen of Good painting is known by the fullness and so- the atmosphere on all vegetable matter which sidity of its appearance without any marks of the it can operate upon freely. To make this phebrush ; whereas cheap painters care little about nomenon more obvious, the air occasions a slow this. To give a fresh appearance, and get their combustion or burning to take place, which diswork out of hand, and be paid, is their only con- sipates the lighter or hydrogenous particle of cocern.

lor, and turns to a state of charcoal those which In the division of house-painting, as under- remain combined in the paint; hence all paintstood between the surveyors and workmen, the ing made with colors obtained from vegetable chief terms are as follows:

bodies soon appear black and discolored. Clearcole and finish signifies that the work is Graining is understood among painters to be to be done in the cheapest way, and the process the imitating of the several different species of of doing which consists in first dusting and clean- scarce woods, such as are used for the best artiing what is to be painted, and stopping and fill- cles of furniture, viz. satin-wood, rose-wood, kinging up all cracks and defects with putty. After wood mahogany, &c. &c. Imitations of this nature, which the whole is painted over with a paint when well performed, are calculated to give a prepared of whiting and size, which forms the zest to painting : at Paris every species of woodground for the finish, as it is termed. This work used in their houses, as a part of the buildfinish consists of a coat of oil color prepared with ing, is done in this manner. The dead-white lead. Where the work is not very dirty this kind so much in vogue amongst us is not practised of painting will answer every purpose, but it is there. To grain satin-wood a ground is previby no means adapted for outside work.

ously laid, composed of Naples yellow and Bringing forward, a term used by painters, ceruse, diluted with oil of turpentine ; this is applies to such new wood or other work as spread very evenly over the work to be grained, may have been added to old wood-work; or in and is then left a day or two to get fixed and cases in which the old wood-work has been re- dry. The painter then prepares his pallet-board paired, and in consequence partly replaned, the with small quantities of the same yellow and priming and painting such parts to form a ground ochre, with a little brown, having some boiled for the color, so as that it shall appear alike oil and oil of turpentine mixed together, to sawhen finished, is the process intended by this term. turate the colors to be used in the operation.

Stopping is no more than that the painter is to He is also provided with several different sized well fill up all the defects in the work he may camels' hair pencils, and also with one or more have to paint, with putty.

flat hogs' hair brushes. When he has mixed the Twice in oil is simply that the work has been colors he spreads it over a pannel, or any other twice painted over.

small part of the work, first, to see the effect of Thrice in oil, and flat, signifies that the work the tints, and, if it suit what he is about to perhas been done twice over in oil colors and once form, he perseveres by doing a pannel at a time; in color mixed or prepared in turpentine. and, in the instance of doors and other framing,

Three times and flat may be similarly explain- the pannels are done first, and the margins round ed, that is, three coats of oil color and one of them afterwards. The fat hogs' hair brushes, turpentine. This latter description of painting by being dipped in the mixture of oil and turis generally that which is required to new wood- pentine, and drawn down the newly-laid color, work.

occasions the shades and grainings in it: this The painter's tools are few in number, and effect takes place in the color from the brush they are found for the journeymen by the mas- supplying an excess of saturation to the color it ters

. They consist of a tool, or pound brush as touches; and to produce the mottled appearit is called, which is composed of hogs' hair; ance, the camels' hair pencils are applied; and, this they use as a duster, until the ends of the when it is all finished, it is left to fix and dry, hair of which it is composed are worn away, and after which it is covered by a coat or two of good become soft; it is then used in the color, being oil-varnish. The other fancy woods are perbetter adapted to spread it evenly by such pre- formed in a similar manner, the painter varying vious wear. The other brushes vary in size, as the colors to produce them only. Some of our the mouldings and work to be painted do; the painters are so expert at this kind of imitation, smallest are to paint over the bars of sashes, or and also in that of marbles, as to prevent their draw out lines which are intended to be left of a easy detection, except by the touch. Such kinds different tint from the general tone of the other of painting are well calculated to last a great work.

many years hy being occasionally re-varnished la mixing up the colors for oil-painting, white- only. It is not greatly dearer than good work lead forms the base of all ingredients; this the in the common way, but it will last ten times as color-preparer modifies and changes by adding long, without appearing to lose any of its fresh colored substances to it, till it is tinged so as to


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