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PAPER, INCOMBUSTIBLE. An incombustible who uses the print. It is easy to conclude that paper is made of the lapis asbestos, or linum vi- there must be as many separate prints as there are vum, which will bear burning without being in- colors to be printed. But, where there are more jured. Dr. Bruckman, professor at Brunswick, than one, great care must be taken after the first published a natural history of the asbestine, or to let the print fall exactly in the same part of incombustible paper; and printed four copies of the paper as that which went before, otherwise his book thereon. Vide Bibl. Germ. tom. xiv. the figure of the design would be brought into p. 190.

irregularity and confusion. In common paper The manner of making this paper is described of low price it is usual, therefore, to print only by Mr. Lloyd (Phil. Trans. No. 166, p. 824), the outlines, and lay on the rest of the colors by from an essay made by himself. He pounded a stenciling, which both saves the expense of cutquantity of the asbestos in a stone mortar, till it ting more prints, and can be practised by combecame a downy substance; then sifted it in a mon workmen, not requiring the great care and fine searce, and by this means purged it indiffer- dexterity necessary to the using several prints. ently well of its terrene parts; because the earth In the finer paper, where several colors are or stones he could not pick out of it before, orlaid on with the prints, the principal color is beat the pounding, being reduced to a powder, gun with : and the rest taken successively; the came through a searce, the linum remaining. print for the outline being laid on last. In cases This done, he brought it to the paper-mill: and, where the pencil is to be used, the outline is neputting it in water, in a vessel just big enough to vertheless to be made before the colors are laid make a sheet with such a quantity, he stirred it on by the pencil, if such outline is to be made pretty much, and desired the workmen to pro- at all; because that is the guide to the persons ceed with it in the usual method, with their who lay on the color; and confines them to a writing-paper mould; only to stir it about al- correctness. In paper printed with designs in ways before they put their mould in; consider- chiaro-scuro, such as the imitation of stuccoing it as a far more ponderous substance than work, and bas relievos, the order of printing what they used; and that consequently, if not must be, to lay on the ground color first; afterimmediately taken up after it was agitated, it wards the shades; and lastly the lights; and the would subside. The paper made of it proved same rule of succession inust be observed where but coarse, and was very apt to tear ; but this the colors are penciled.- Handmaid to the Arts, was the first trial, and the workmen did not vol. ii. p. 445, &c. doubt, but in case it were pounded in one of their 2. The manner of stencilling the colors is this. mortars for twenty hours, it would make good The figure, which all the parts of any particular cowriting-paper. See ASBESTOS.

lor make in the design to be painted, is to be cut out PAPER-1A Ngings, in the arts, are of various in apiece of thin leather or oil-cloth, which pieces kinds, and are used for the covering of ceilings, of leather or oil-cloth are called stencils; and being walls, stair-cases, &c., and represent stucco- flat on the sheets of paper to be printed, spread work, velvet, damask, brocades. chintzes, or such on a table or floor, are to be rubbed over with the silks and stuffs as are employed for hanging rooms: color properly tempered by means of a large hence their name. The principal difference in brush. The color passing over the whole is conthe manufacture lies in the grounds. The com- sequently spread on those parts of the paper mon grounds are laid in water, and made by where the cloth or leather is cut away, and gives mixing whitening with the common glovers' the same effect as if laid on by a print. This size, and laying it on the paper with a proper nevertheless is only practicable in parts where brush in the most even manner. This is all that there are only detached masses or spots of colors ; is required where the ground is to be left white; for where there are small continued lines, or and the paper being then hung on a proper parts that run one into another, it is difficult to frame till it be dry is fit to be painted. When preserve the connexion or continuity of the parts colored grounds are required, the same method of the cloth, or to keep the smaller corners must be pursued, and the ground of whiting first close down to the paper; and, therefore, in such laid, except in pale colors, such as straw-colors cases, prints are preferable. Stencilling is indeed or pink, where a second coating may sometimes a cheaper method of accomplishing the work be spared, by mixing some strong color with the than printing ; but, without such extraordinary whitening

attention and trouble as render it equally difficult, There are three methods by which paper- it is far less beautiful and exact in the effect. hangings are painted; the first. by printing on For the outlines of the spots of color want that the colors ; the second, by using the stencil; and sharpness and regularity that are given by prints, the third, by laying them on with a pencil, as in besides the frequent extralineations or deviations other kinds of painting.

from the just figure, which happen by the original 1. When the colors are laid on by printing, misplacing of the stencils, or the shifting of the the impression is made by wooden prints, cut in place of them during the operation. such a manner that the figure to be expressed is 3. Pencilling is only used in the case of nicer made to project from the surface; and this being work, such as the better imitations of the Indian charged with the colors tempered with their pro- paper. It is performed in the same manner as per vehicle, by letting it gently down on a other painting in water or varnish. It is sometimes block on which the color is previously spread, used only to fill the outlines already formed by conveys it from thence to the ground of the paper printing, where the price of the color, or the exon which it is made to fall by means of its actness of the manner in which it is required to weight, and the effort of the arm of the person be laid on, render the stencilling or printing it

manner.

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loss proper ; at other times it is used for forming off by a soft camel's-hair brush; and the proper or delineating some parts of the design, where a flock will be found to adhere in a very strong spirit of freedom and variety, not to be had in

The method of preparing the fock is printed outlines, is desire to be hard in the by cutting woollen rays or pieces of cloth with work.

the hand, by means of a large bill or choppingThe paper designed for receivina fiock is first knife, or by means of a machine worked by prepared with a varnish-ground with some pro- horse-mill. per color, or by that of the paper itself. It is There is a kind of counterfui: flock-paper, whiuh frequently practised to print sone mosaic or other when well managed bras very much the same effect small running tisure in colors on the ground, be- to the eye as the real, though done with less exfore the flock be laid on; and it may be done pense.

The manner of mahing this sort is, by with any pigment of the color desired, tempered laving a ground of varnish on the paper; and, with varnish, and laid on by a print cut corres- having afterwards printed the desiun of the pondently to that end.

flock in varnish, in the same manner as for The method of laying on the flock is this. A the true, instead of the Hock some pizment wooden print being cut, as is above described, or dry color of the same hue with the flock refor laying on the color in such manner that the quired by the design, but somewhat of a darker part of the design which is intended for the flock shade, being well powdered, is strewed on the may project beyond the rest of the surface, the printed varnish, and produces nearly the same varnish is put on a block covered with the lea- appearance. ther or oil-cloth, and the print is to be used also Paper-hangings are sometimes spangled with in the same manner, to lay the varnish on all that kind of iale called isingliass, which, being rethe parts where the Hock is to be fixed. The duced in a gross taky powder, has a great reshept thus prepared by the varnished impression semblance to thin silver scales or powder. It is is then to be removed to another block or tables, laid on by strewing over the varnish, which forms and to be strewed over with tlock, which is afiiera the ground, before it begins to dry. When it is wards to be gently compressed by a board or laid on in a figure, for the representation of emsome other fat body, to make the varnishi take broidery, the figure must be printed in varnishi, the better bold of it, and then the sheet is to be and the tale strewed upon it, and treated like hung on a frame till the varnish be perfectly dry; flock. Smalt may also be used in the saint at w ich uimethic supertuous flock is to be brushed manner as tíock or spangles

PAPER-M AKI N G. Parer-Making. The origin of this most In the Roman writers we find various kinds useful art, like that of printing, to which it has of Egyptian paper described, as, i. Those deproved so important an auxiliary, is involved in nominated from the purposes to which they were obscurity. The uncients, we are perhaps too applied. Such were (1.) The hierativa, the ready to suppose, had comparatively little occa- most ancient kind, and appropriated to religious sion for paper : important MSS. Have always services: this was afterwards called Augusta, been committed to more durable substances; after the emperor of that name, and sometimes civilisation must become permanent in a country Lavinia, in compliment to his wife, who is said before the frequent interchange of mind by to have suggested improvements in bleaching it. writing is extensively practised, particularly on This paper seems to have been made of about subjects of temporary importance; and it is in eleven inches in breadth. (2.) The emporica, or the temporary writings, and the books of the emporetica, a small and coarse paper used by cristing generation, rather than those which are shopkeepers: we perhaps should rank here (3.) banded down to posterity, that the great con- The amphitheatrica, from its being used or made sumption of paper takes place. Yet, in the an-. in the amphitheatre; but it appears, according 10 nals of that country in which we find the carliest Guilandinus, to have been known long before traces of the arts, we read much of paper; which, any bulding of this kind was erected; and he accordmg to larro, va tiri made at llevandria, names it Irthribilica, froin Arthribus a city of in E«ypt, from the risk papyrii. Pliny cie-cribes the Delta.-ii. Various papers were called after its root as of the thickness of a man's arm, the place in which they were manufactured, as, en cubiis long; from this area creat number (1.) The Suiticul, from the city Sais; (2.) The of uran, ular sulks, six or esta cubits lieli, Taniotica, or Tuiticu, from a place now uneach thuck enough to be elvis spannedl; its krown. Most of the inland towns and cities of leaves are long like those of the bull-ruan); its Egyptare said to have bid manufactories of this flowers staminiens ran cold in clusters at the ex- kind: and I opiscus states that the tyrant Tirmus, tromics of the talk; ils soients Huly and who rebelled in Egype, declared he would mainknotty like therapy of roles22. ita lonie and tain an army only with paper and glue, 'papyro smell akin to those of tive et palling in which et lutine,' which Casanbon understands as non Limans his clowns at tro portano Som spoken of the produce and revenue of paper. Prilir 、 Tu were i lindja! ins bere vi. Other pipers were cutled, as in modern i, prosta ?! la Llei hetne main, armenin, uman, itfire the name of celebrated inakirs: as,

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wrought at Alexandria, and finished at Rome. written on, on both sides, which the ordinary (2.) Claudiu, first made by order of the empe- Egyptian paper would not bear. ror Claudius, and reputed the best of all the A paper made of cotton seems to have been kinds made in his time.

working its way into Europe from the east as The general mode of manufacturing the papy- early as the tenth century. There are MSS. rus was to begin by lopping off the head and written on it in fact of this date in the French root of the plant; the remaining stem was then king's library: and in the twelfth century cotton slit lengthwise into two equal parts, and from MSS. became more frequent than those on skins. each of these they stripped the thin scaly coats This paper is that called charta bombyca. or pellicles, of which it was composed, with a Some anomalous kinds of ancient paper may needle or the point of a knife. The innermost be here alluded to, and close this part of our of those pellicles were looked on as the best, sketch. According to the Memoirs de Trev. and those nearest the rind or bark the worst; (Sept. 1711), there are two papal bulls of the they were kept apart accordingly, for different dates 891 and 895 (issued by the Anti-popes, and inferior sorts of paper. Pliny calls these Romanus, and Formosus), which are written on pellicles by the twelve different names of philura, an unknown material of this description, two ramentum, scheda, cutis, plagula, corium, tænia, ells long and one broad: they consist of two subtegmen, flatumen, pagina, tabula, and papyrus. leaves or pellicles glued together transversely,

The pellicles being thus detached, and, accord- and are still legible in most places. The coning to the count de Caylus, dried in the sun, jectures of the French literati in regard to them were stretched on a table, and two or more laid are very various. Some consider them to be over each other transversely, so as that their made of the leaves of the alga, or sea-wreck; fibres crossed in right angles. The Claudian others of the leaves of a rush, called la boga, paper, named above, consisted of three of these found in the marshes of Rousillon; others of pellicles or layers. They were then glued to- papyrus; others of bark; and others of cotton. gether with tħe slime of the Nile, or a flour There is also a MS. of this description in the paste; afterwards pressed to get rid of the abbey of St. Germains. water; and Aatted and smoothed by being beaten The oriental and other papers made direct from with mallets. Sometimes a polish was added vegetable substances, seem next to require our by means of a hemisphere of glass, ivory, or attention : though all the published details of the bone. The Romans seem to have used a size mode of manufacturing them are vague and unor gum, whereby they could enlarge or diminish satisfactory. There are many palm trees of the final volume of the paper, and they excelled India and America to which botanists have given in the bleaching and polishing of it.

the name papyraceous, because the natives have Varro, who in common with many writers written with bodkins either on the leaves or the assigns the origin of the manufacture of papyrus bark. Such is the American palm, called tal by to Alexandria, seems to have overlooked several the Indians; and the guajaraba of New Spain. important facts which prove it to have been Every palm the bark of which is smooth, and known to the Greeks before the conquest of the leaves large and thick, may be used for this Egypt by Alexander. Thus Anacreon Alcæus, purpose. Plato the comedian, Aristomenus, Plato the But the art of making paper from vegetables philosopher, Aristotle, and Æschylus, used the reduced to stuff was known in China long terms BeBios and Bußdov: and Herodotus, before it was practised in Europe; and the ChiHomer, and Hesiod, expressly mention the pa- nese have carried it to a degree of perfection pyrus. Pliny cites a passage from an ancient hitherto unparalleled in the western world. Roman annalist which speaks of paper books Every province of their empire has its pecufound in king Numa's tomb, who was buried liar paper. That of Se-tchuen is made of hemp above three centuries before Alexander. At the or of linen rags, as in Europe; that of Fo-kien period of Alexander's conquests it seems, hown of the bamboo; that of the northern provinces, ever, to have become far more generally known; of the interior bark of the mulberry; that of the and, so late as two centuries after, we find stems province of Kiang-nan of the skin found in the and barks of trees frequently used for writing webs of the silk-worm ; other provinces use the upon through the scarcity of paper. In the cotton plant extensively, others the bark of the reign of Tiberius there was such a scarcity of elm, and wheat or rice straw; finally, in the this article that its use in contracts was dispensed province of Hu-quang, the tre-chu, or ko-chu, with by public authority. In about the twelfth furnishes the materials with which they make century its manufacture seems to have been en- paper. tirely discontinued.

The method of fabricating paper with the bark Montfaucon and others speak of an ancient of different trees is nearly the same with that Egyptian bark paper, which they distinguish which is followed in the bamboo, of which alone from that made of the papyrus as thicker and we shall speak. The second skin of the bamboo more brittle, as well as more apt to part asunder, generally, but sometimes the whole substance, is so that in some instances the bottom layer has reduced to pulp by steeping, boiling, and the been found to remain, and that on which the mortar, and then beat together with the glutinous writing was made has peeled off. Matthei, juice of a plant named ko-teng, till it becomes a however, thinks little of this distinction, and thick and viscous liquor. The workmen plunge contends that the only use of the tilia or linden their forms into this liquor; take out what is was for making the boards or tablets used for sufficient for a sheet of paper, which immediately diptycha or pocket-books; and sometimes to be becomes firm and shining, and is detached from

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the form by turning down the sheet on the heap which serves, in time, to lift them up and take of paper already made, without the interposition them off singly. of pieces of woollen cloth, as in Europe. The At the beginning of the summer, when the Chinese paper must be dipped in a solution of oreni root is scarce, the paper-makers make use alum before it can take either ink or colors. of a creeping shrub called sane kadsura, the

In Japan they manufacture paper from the leaves of which yield a mucilage in great plenty, bark of trees of a prodigious strength. There is though not altogether so good for this purpose. a kind of it fit for bed-hangings and wearing ap- They also use the juncus sativus, which is cultiparel; resembling so much stuffs of wool and vated in Japan with great care. silk, that it is often taken for them. The follow- The Siamese make a paper of the bark of the ing is hempfer's catalogue of trees used in Japan pleok-kloi tree, of which they have a black and for the manufactory of paper :-1. The true a white kind : it is folded up in books, in the paper-tree, called in the Japanese language manner of fans, and will bear to be written on kaadsi, kempfer characterises thus : papyrus on both sides with a stylus which they make of fructu mori celse, sive morus sativa foliis urtica clay. mortuæ cortice papifero. 2. The false paper- The Cingalese also, according to Dr. Davy, tree, called by the Japanese katsi kadsire; by write very neatly and expeditiously with a kempfer papyrus procumbens lactescens, folió sharp-pointed style on the immense leaf of the longo, lanceata cortice chartaceo. 3. The plant talipot-palm : coloring their characters, when which the Japanese call oreni is named by scratched by an ink made of lamp-black and Kempfer alva radice viscosa, flore ephemero gum.' Their numerous books are all formed magno punico. 4. The fourth tree used for of these leaves, cut into suitable pieces, and paper is the futo-kadsura, named by Kempfer confined by boards: occasionally, but rarely,' frutex viscosus procumbens folio telephii vulgaris he adds, 'these books are made of thin copperæmulo fructu racemoso.

plates. All the nations on the other side of the When the bark they use has been cleansed and Ganges seem to make use of the bark of trees sorted, they boil it in clear lie; keeping it from and shrubs for these purposes ; the other Asiatic the time it begins to boil perpetually stirred nations on this side the Ganges, the black inhawith a strong reed, and pouring from time to bitants of the most southern parts of India time so much fresh lie in as is necessary to con- excepted, make their paper of old cotton rags dense the evaporation, and to supply what has and stuff, and their method differs little from been lost by it; this boiling continued till the ours in Europe, except that it is more simple, matter is so tender that being but slightly and the instruments less refined. Yet it is very touched with the finger it will dissolve and remarkable that what is called India paper (used separate into fibres. The lie is made of wood in taking off our finest copper-plate impressions) ashes, in the following manner : two pieces of cannot be manufactured in England. wood are laid across over a tub and covered We come now to the modern art of paperwith straw, on which they lay wet ashes, and making in Europe; or the important and admithen pour boiling water upon it, which, as it runs rable process by which our worn-out clothes and through the straw into the tub underneath, is linen are converted into an economical but most imbued with the saline particles of the ashes. efficient, convenient, and often elegant substance,

After boiling follows the washing of the bark, to receive the labors of the pen and the operawhich is generally performed in a river, and re- tions of the press. Who first suggested this quires great judgment and attention. The bark appropriation of linen rags it seems at this period is put into a sort of sieve, which will let the hopeless to attempt to discover; certainly he water run through, and stirred continually till it bestowed on mankind a service barely exceeded comes to be diluted into a delicate pulp. For by that of the invention of printing. Various the finer sort of paper the washing is repeated, dates have been assigned for its origin. Ray and and the bark put into a piece of linen, instead of Milnes (in his Hortus Philosophicus) date it a sieve, as the particles become very fine; and about the year 1470, when it first appeared in the harder pieces or knots are now picked out.

part of the world, says the former, at GuernNow the bark is put upon a thick, smooth, sey; two persons, named Anthony and Michael, wooden table, in order to its being beaten with having brought it to Basil, from Galicia in Spain. sticks of the kusnoki wood, which is commonly It would seem most probable indeed that, like done by two or three people, until it is so thin much of our other knowledge, this travelled from as to resemble a pulp of soaked paper; and, the east, soon after the taking of Constantinople. being thus prepared, it is put into a narrow tub, Rabelais, who died in 1553, mentions hempen with the fat slimy infusion of rice, and the infu- cloth as having been known about 100 years besion of the oreni root, which likewise is very fore his time: yet Mabellon and others find slimy and mucilaginous. These ingredients be- paper MSS. dated, they say, so far back as the ing put together are stirred with a thin clean middle of the fourteenth century; and Dr. Prireed, till they are thoroughly mixed and wrought deaux affirms that he has seen a registration into a uniform liquid substance, of good con- of some acts of John Cranden, prior of Ely, sistence, and out of this tub the leaves are taken made on paper, which bears date in the fouroff' one by one, on proper patterns made of bul- teenth year of Edward II., i.e. Anno Domini rushes. These to cry them are laid up in bcaps, 1320. He however considers that this manufacupon a table covered with a double mat, and a ture was brought to us from the east, through small piece of reed is put between every leaf,

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In our own times we have seen, in the inven- The general furniture of the rag-house is a tion of the new machinery applied to paper- number of chests or boxes divided into five or making, the most important addition that has more separate cases for the different sorts of been made to the art; and such an one as nearly rags; and in some cases having a large knife fixed equals in importance the original suggestion of on the top: each woman has a piece of pastemaking it from rags. At such a period we must board hung from her girdle and extended on her indulge a smile at the standing definition of knees, upon which, with the assistance of the * linen, or European paper' in the most extensive knife, she unrips seams and stitches, and scrapes of our modern Encyclopedias, as 'chiefly made off all filth. Whatever can be used, after being of linen rags beaten to a pulp with great ham- well shaken, is distributed according to the de mers, and the soil carried off by a continual sup- gree of fineness, and the women throw the rest ply of fresh water, conveyed among the pulp in at their feet. The more exact manufacturers little troughs, till it be rendered perfectly white.' have six cases, i. e. for the superfine, the fine, The fact is hammers have been entirely discon- the seams and stitches of the fine; the middling, tinued in this country for these forty years, and the seams and stitches of the middling; and the long before the invention of the machine. coarse ; without including the very coarse parts,

The modern process may be considered as reserved for brown and other coarse papers. divided into paper-making as conducted by the Sometimes the rags are bleached in the first hand—and by the machine: the greater part of stage of the process, or immediately after they the best writing and printing papers taken toge- are sorted, and Mr. Campbell took out a patent ther being, perhaps, at length made by the latter; for a method of performing this in 1792. It is for so strong is the attachment to particular similar to the process of bleaching cotton thread. names, with regard to writing papers, that though He directs that the rags should, before they are an article every way as perfect and beautiful can put into the receiver to be bleached, contain not be manufactured by the machine, an equal quan- more than their own weight of fair water. They tity at least of that paper separately considered should first be opened by a machine, called by is made by the old method.

the cotton manufacturers a devil, or some maI. OF PAPER-MAKING BY THE HAND. chine of that nature, and they are to be distriEven this, as conducted in the more respectable buted in the receivers, in layers spread on establishments, will not fail to strike an intelli- frames, so that they will not come in contact gent stranger to the process as a surprisingly with each other, or they may be placed in the simple and beautiful art. He may be first led body of the receiver, and have stirrers or agitainto the rag-house, where a number of women tors, provided to expose every part of them to and children will be found employed in cutting the action of the bleaching gas. After the proand sorting the washed rags.

cess, which must be concluded as soon as ever Rags are sold to the paper-makers sorted into the rags are sufficiently bleached, lest the gas four or five different kinds : No. 1, sometimes should act upon and injure their quality, they called London superfine, being all linen, and re- are to be washed in water, and will be ready for served for the finest paper. No. 5 is generally the mill. the coarsest sort, and includes canvas; a sixth Many manufacturers and printers consider sort called rag-bagging' is, however, sometimes that this mode of bleaching the rags makes kept separate. • Colored rags' include cotton of them rotten ; that it injures the quality of the all colors except blue, which is kept apart for paper, which it doubtless does if carried too far; making blue paper.

and that it enables makers to pass off an article Some mills use a duster, made of wire net, of inferior staple. This is no doubt the case in in the form of a cylinder, four feet in diameter some instances; but, with all the just suspicion and five feet long. It is put in motion on pivots of bleached papers that obtains in many quarters, in connexion with some part of the general ma- bleaching may clearly be delicately and judicichinery, and enclosed in a tight box, into which ously applied; though whether in this stage or it casts off the dust. In different establishments in the state of half-stuff we will not here decide ; very different degrees of care are exercised in the and it is certainly capable of making the same sorting : some separate cloth of hemp from cloth good materials into a better paper, when well of flax; others keep hemps and seams apart; and managed. In many mills printing papers are think that the coarseness of the cloth should be bleached by muriate' of lime inserted in the washconsidered, and the degree of wear it has had at- ing engine. tended to; for, if rags which are almost new be We may now describe the paper-mill in its mixed with those that are much worn, the one principal parts. This is represented in the will not be reduced to a pulp in the mill

, whilst plates, PAPER-Making I. and II., through the other will be so attenuated as to be carried which, for the convenience of arrangement, the away by the water, to the real loss of the manufac- figures run on. Fig. 1 is a front, and fig. 2 a turer, and the deterioration of the article made; side elevation of the mill; the same letter exfor the particles carried off will be those which pressing the same part in both. A B is the would give it a smooth and velvet-like softness. great water-wheel, giving motion to the whole on Nor is this all: a pulp of uneven tenuity pro- its shaft or axis C; a crown, or face wheel, DD duces those cloudy papers in which are seen atis framed, and gives motion to the pinion G; intervals parts more or less clear, and more or this is fixed on the lower part of a vertical axis less weak, occasioned by the flakes assembled EF, which goes up into the upper room of the on the mould not being sufficiently tempered mill, and has two face wheels I and K fixed and diluted together.

upon it; these actuate two pinions L M, upou

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