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norance of it; and so passing all his days in the pardon; and not so much to restore his former, disconsolate, uneasy vicissitudes of hopes and fears, as to give him new credit and capacity. But at length go out of the world, not knowing whither nothing can restore or purify the blood when he goes.

South. Å blind man sitting in the chimney corner is par- till after attạinder, but the high and transcendent

once corrupted, if the pardon be not allowed donable enough, but sitting at the helm, he is intolerable.


power of parliament. Yet if a person attainted I have sent you the history of my mind on this receives the king's pardon, and afterwards has subject without any disguise : if it does not please a son, that son may be heir to his father; beyou, pardon it at least, for it is the truth. Cowper.

cause the father, being made a new man, might Pardon, in criminal law, is the remitting an

transmit new inheritable blood; though, had he offence committed against the king. His

been born before the pardon, he could never have power

inherited at all. See King. of pardoning was said by our Saxon ancestors to be derived à lege suæ dignitatis : and it is de

PARE, v.a. ?

parer ;

Lat. paro. Declared in parliament, by stat . 27 Hen. VIII,C. French parer les ongles," to dress the horses


Pa'ring,n. s. I duced by Skinner from the 24, that no other person has power to pardon hoofs when they are shaved by the farrier : thus or remit any treason or felonies whatsoever ; but that the king hath the whole and sole power we first said, pare your nails; and from thence thereof united and knit to the imperial crown of transferred the word to general use. To cut off this realm. In democracies there is no power of extremities; to cut away by little and little ; pardoning. The king may pardon all offences diminish. If pare be used before the thing dimerely against the crown or the public; except- minished, it is followed immediately by its acing, 1. That, to preserve the liberty of the sub-cusative; if it precedes the thing taken away, or ject, the committing any man to prison out of the agrees in the passive voice with the thing taken realm, is by the habeas corpus act, 31 Car. II. away, as a nominative, it requires a particle, as c. 2, made a præmunire, unpardonable even to away, off*: a paring is that which is pared off; the king. Nor, 2, can the king pardon where

the rind. private justice is principally concerned in the And thou shalt bring her home to thine house ; prosecution of offenders : Non potest rex gratiam and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. facere cum injuria et damno aliorum. Therefore,

Deut. xxi. 12. in appeals of all kinds (which are the suit, not

The creed of Athanasius, and that sacred hymn of the king, but of the party injured), the pro

of glory, than which nothing doth sound more heasecutor may release, but the king cannot pardon. venly in the ears of faithful men, are now reckoned Neither can he pardon a common nuisance, while

as superfluities, which we must in any case pare it remains unredressed, or so as to prevent an

away, lest we cloy God with too much service.

Hooker. abatement of it; though afterwards he may re

I am a man, whom fortune hath cruelly scratched. mit the fine: because, though the prosecution is – 'Tis too late to pare her nails now. Shakspeare. vested in the king to avoid the multiplicity of

I have not alone suits, yet (during its continuance) this offence Imployed you where high profits might come home ; savours more of the nature of a private injury. But pared my present havings to bestow to each individual in the neighbourhood, than of My bounties upon you. Id. Henry VIII. a public wrong. Neither, lastly, can the king

The lion rooved with pity, did endure, pardon an offence against a popular or penal sta- To have his princely paws all pared away; tute, after information brought; for thereby the

Shakspeare. informer hath acquired a private property in his Virginity breeds mites, much like a cheese ; and part of the penalty. There is also a restriction consumes itself to the very paring.

Id. of a peculiar nature that affects the prerogative The king began to pare a little the privilege of of pardoning, in case of parliamentary impeach- clergy, ordaining that clerks convict should be ments, viz. that the king's pardon cannot be burned in the hand.

Bacon's Henry III. pleaded to any such impeachment, so as to im- Pick out of tales the mirth, but not the sin, pede the enquiry and stop the prosecution of He pares his apple, that will cleanly feed. great and notorious offenders. În the reign of

Herbert. Charles II., when the earl of Danby pleaded the A hone and a parer, like sole of a boot, king's pardon, the commons voted, That a par- To pare away grasse, and to raise up the root. don is not pleadable in bar of an impeachment.'

Tusser. And it was enacted by the act of settlement, 12

Whoever will partake of God's secrets must first & 13 W. III. c. 2, That no pardon under the look into his own, he must pare off whatsoever is great seal of England shall be pleadable to an

amiss, and not without holiness approach to the holiest of all holies.

Taylor. impeachment by the commons in parliament.' But, after the impeachment has been solemnly

The most poetical parts, which are description heard and determined, it is not understood that and images, were to be pared away, when the body

was swoln into too large a bulk for the representathe king's royal grace is farther restrained or

tion of the stage.

Dryden. abridged : for, after the impeachment and at

In May, after rain, pare off the surface of the tainder of the six rebel lords in 1715, three of earth, and with the parings raise your hills high, and them were from time to time reprieved by the enlarge their breadth.

Mortimer. crown; and at length received the king's most Alĩ the mountains were pared off the earth, and gracious pardon. The effect of such pardon by the surface of it lay even, or in an equal convexity. the king is, to make the offender a new man; to every where with the surface of the sea. Burnet. acquit him of all corporal penalties and forfeitures The sword, as it was justly drawn by us, so can it annexed to that offence for which he obtains his scarce safely be sheathed, till the power of the great Vol. XVI.

2 P

to it.

From paren


troubler of our peace be so far pared and reduced, PARELCON, in grammar, a figure by which as that we may be under no apprehensions.

a word or syllable is added to the end of another.

Atterbury. L'AREN BOLE, in rbetoric, a figure wherein "Twere well if she would pure her nails. Pope. something relating to the subject is inserted in To his guest, tho' no way sparing,

the middle of a period. All the difference belle eat himself the rind and puring. Id. tween the parembole and the parenthesis, acPARE (Ambrose), an eminent French surrcon

cording to lossius, is, that the former relates to of the sixteenth century, born at Lavidl in Maine the subject in hand, whereas the latter is forein lle was surgeon to several kings of France. Be

PARENCIIYMATOCS, or ? iny a l'rotestant he would have been involved in

PAREXUL MOL'S, adj. I chuma. Greek the massacre of St. Bartholomew's day, bare not Charles IX. himself shiut him up in his chamber, Taneyropa, a spony or porous substance; in saying, “a man so useful 10 all the world ought physic', il part through which the blood is strained: not to perish in such a manner.'

lle died at an

relating to the parenchyma; spongy.

Ten thousand seeds of the plant hart's-tongue, advanced age, in 1590. Pare, or P'ARIA (David), D. D)., a celebrated hardly make the bulk of a pepper-corn. low the

covers and true body of each seed, the parenchumaProtestant divine", born in 1548, at Francolstein,

tons and ligneous parts of both moderately multiin Silesia. He studied at Hermsburg under the plied, afford an hundred thousand millions of formed learned Christopher Schilling; afterwards at atoms in the space of a pepper-corn. Heidelberg, under Zach. Ursin. Ile was much

Those parts, formerly reckoned parenchymatous, patronised by Albert hindler, and prince Casi- are now found to be bundles of exceedingly small mir; was admitted minister of Schleitenbach in threads.

Cheunt'. 1571; afterwards of llemsbach, in Worm, PARENCHYMA, in anatomy, is a term introduced where, in 1574, he married the sister of John by Erisistratus signifying all that substance which Stibelius; in 1577 he became minister of Oger- is contained in the interstices betwixt the bloodsheim; and in 158 t professor in the collera of vessels of the viscera, which he imagined to be Heidelburg In 1591 he was admitted D. D., extravasated and concreted blood. and in 1602 succeedel Tuscanus as professor of L'ARTNCN Vior I'Luts. Grew applies this divinity. He publishel, 1. The German Bible, term to the pith or pulp, or that inner part of a with notes, at Nelstalt

, in 1539 ; 2. A Com- fruit or plant through which the juice is supposed mentary on the Epistle 10 the Romans; 3. Se- to be distributed. veral tracts against Bellarmin and the Jesuits:

PARENT (Anthony), as Dr. Watkins calls with other polemical pieces; and died at Pareanum him, or l'nsojne, according to others, a mathein 162!.

matician, born at Paris in 1660. lle showed an Pare (Philip), son of the preceding, was born carly propensity to mathematics. At fouten at Hemsbach in 1570; studied at Neustadt and he was put under a master, who taught rheioric lleidelberg; became eminent for grammatical at Charires. Here he saw a dodecahedron upon erudition; and, under the patronage of the elector erery face of which, except the lowest, was delipalatine, visited the universities of Basil in neated a sun-dial. Struck with the curiosity of 1599, and Geneva in 1000. lle became rector these dials, he attempted drawing one himself. of Neustadt College in 1012; principal of that lle then undertook to write a Treatise upon Gnoof Hanau in 1645; published his father's life mories, and a book of Geometry. His friends and eveverical works in 16+7; several tracts on then sent for him to l'aris to study the law; but grammar; with commentaries on the Scriptures, these studies were no sooner finished than he reand other theological works.

turned to mathematics. He then took pupils; PARI (Daniel), son of Philip, was also emi- and, fortification having attracted particular nonent for classical learning, and particularly for tice, he turned his attention to it, and made two his skill in the Greek language. Hle published campaigns with the marquis of Aligre, by which many learned pieces; particularly Muszus's Hero he instructed himself in viewing fortified places; and Leander, with notes; Welliticium Atticum, of which he drew a number of plans. I de a selection from Greek Authors, &c. He was Billettes, being admitted in the Academy of Scimurdered by robbers in 1645.

ences at laris in 1699, as their mechanician, PAREJA (John), an eminent painter, born in nominated, for his disciple, Parent, who excellent the West Indies, and orginally a slave to Diego Chietly in this branch. Though his abilities Velasquez, a celebrated painter. He acquirer were acknowledged, yet his impetuosity of temthe art by studying it privately, without bis master's knowledge. Philip IV. one day visiting than assistant member for geometry. He enjoyed

per provoked opposition; and he rose no higher Velasquez's museum, discovered his merit and this promotion but a short time'; for he was gave him his liberty; yet ius attachment to l'e- taked off by the small pox the same year, 1716, lasquez was so stron, ibat he continued with him and fifty. It was author of many pieces, chiefly till his death. His portraits are equal to those on mechanics and geometry: of Velasquez. He died in 1670, aged sixty. PARENT, 11. s. Tri parent ; Lat. parens. PARETRA Frava, in the materia medic, a

PAR'FATACE, A father or mother: pakind of oblong and large root brought froin Bra

PARINTII, mi. S rintare ishirib; es traction;

I sil. It is a curetie of no mean charcter, and has condition by birth: parental, postaining 10, or done great service in nephritic cases,

In pleuri- but coming a parent. sies and quinsies it has been attended with more Il true virtues are to honour true religion as their success than almost any medicine ve know of parent, and all well ordered cominonweales to love singly

her as their chicist stay


A gentleman of noble parentage,

and mother, grandfather and grandmother, of poor of fair demeasns, youthful and nobly allied. impotent persons shall maintain them at their

Shakspeare. own charge, if of sufficient ability, according as Though men esteem thee low of parentage, the quarter sessions shall direct; and, if a parent Thy father is the eternal king.

Milton. It overthrows the careful course and parental pro- wardens and overseers of the parish shall seize

runs away and leaves his children, the churchvision of nature, whereby the young ones, newly excluded, are sustained by the dam. Browne.

his rents, goods, and chattels, and dispose of His custom was, during the warmer season of the them towards their relief. By the interpretayear, to spend an hour before evening-prayer in tions which the courts of law have made upon catechising; whereat the parents and older sort were these statutes, it is said by Blackstone that if a wont to be present.

Fell, mother or grandmother marries again, and was As a public parent of the state,

before such second marriage of sufficient ability My justice, and thy crime, requires thy fate. to keep the child, the husband should be charged

Dryden. to maintain it; for this, being a debt of hers when To his levee go,

single, should like others extend to charge the And from himself your parentage may know. Id.

husband. But at her death, the relation being In vain on the dissenbled mother's tongue

dissolved, the husband was under no further obHad cunning art, and sly persuasion hung ; And real care in vain and native love

ligation. The statute upon which the construcIn the true parent's panting breast had strove.

tion is here given is 43 Eliz. c. 2; but it has Prior.

since been determined that this statute extends We find him not only boasting of his parentage, as to relations by blood only, and not those by affian Israelite at large, but particularizing his descent nity, and that, therefore (contrary to the position from Benjamin.

Atterbury. in the commentaries), a man is not bound to These eggs hatched by the warmth of the sun into maintain the children of his wife by a former little worms, feed without any need of parental care. husband. See Rex, v. Munden, 1 Stra. 190 ;


Tubb, v. Harrison, 4 Term Rep. 118. No perYoung ladies, on whom parental controul sits heavily, give a man of intrigue room to think that for his issue, unless where the children are im

son is, however, bound to provide a maintenance they want to be parents.

Clarissa. So thou, sweet rose-bud, young and gay,

potent and unable to work either through infancy, Shalt beauteous blaze upon the day,

disease, or accident, and then is only obliged to And bless the parent's evening ray

find them necessaries, the penalty on refusals being That watched thy early morning. Burns. no more than 20s. a month. Sorrow has, since they went, subdued and tamed A late statute, the 5 Geo. IV. c. 83, provides The playful humor ; he could now endure that persons, being able but wilfully neglecting (Himself grown sober in the vale of tears), to work to support their families, whereby they And feel a parent's presence no restraint. Cowper. become chargeable to the parish, shall be deemed

'Tis the most asinine employ on earth, idle and disorderly, and be punishable by imTo hear them tell of parentage and birth, And echo conversations dull and dry,

prisonment and hard labor, not exceeding a Embellished with—He said, and so said I. Id.

month. Every person running away and leaving On cliff he hath been known to stand,

his wife or child chargeable shall also be And rave as to some bloody hand

deemed a rogue and vagabond. The wages of Fresh severed from its purent limb,

seamen and other persons in public employments Invisible to all but him,

who abscond from their families, as well as the Which beckons onward to his grave,

allowance of Greenwich pensioners, are applicaAnd lures to leap into the wave. Byron. ble for the maintenance of their children under

PARENT AND Child. The law of England the provisions of 59 Geo. III., c. 12. on this subject may be divided into the duties 2. Protection is a duty rather permitted than and authority of parents, first, as to their legiti- enjoined by any municipal laws, nature in this mate children ; 'secondly, their illegitimate respect working so strongly as to need rather a children; and, lastly, the duties of children to check than a spur. A parent may, by our laws, their parents, and their rights and incapacities. maintain and uphold his children in their law

suits without being guilty of the legal crime of Sect I.–Of the Duty of PARENTS TO THEIR maintaining quarrels. A parent may also justify

LEGITIMATE CHILDREN, AND THEIR Au- an assault and battery in defence of the persons THORITY.

of his children. A legitimate child is he that is born in lawful 3. Education. The last duty of parents to wedlock, or within a competent time afterwards. their children is that of giving them an education Pater est quem nuptiæ demonstrant is the rule suitable to their station in life: a duty pointed of the civil law, and which holds whether the out by reason, and of far the greatest importance nuptials happen before or after the birth of the of any. Our laws, though defective in this parchild. But in the English law the rule is nar- ticular, have in one instance made a provision rowed; for the puptials must be precedent to the for training the rising generation : since the poor birth, of which we shall further treat in the and laborious part of the community, when past second section.

the age of nurture, are taken out of the hands of 1. Maintenance. It is a principle of the their parents by the statutes for apprenticing English law that there is an obligation on every poor children. The rich, however, are left at man to provide for his children, and the manner their own option whether they will breed up in which this obligation shall be performed is their children to be the ornaments or disgrace of thus pointed out by various statutes. The father their family.

4. The authority or power of parents over exact to a few days. See Co. Lit. 123 n. (1 and their children is derived from the former consi- 2). And this gave occasion to a proceeding at deration, their duty : this authority being given common la:v, where a widow is suspected to them partly to enable the parent more effectually feign herself with child in order to produce a to perform his duty, and partly as a recompense supposititious heir to the estate. In this case the 'for his care and trouble in the faithful discharge heir presumptive may have a writ de ventre inof it. He may lawfully correct his child, being spiciendo to examine whether she be with child under age, in a reasonable manner; for this is or not, and if she be to keep her under proper for the benefit of his education. The consent or restraint till delivered ; but if the widow be, upon concurrence of the parent to the marriage of bis due examination, found not pregnant, the prechild under age was also directed by our ancient sumptive heir shall be admitted to the inheritlaw to be obtained, but now it is absolutely ne- ance, though liable to lose it again on the birth cessary, for without it the contract is void. A of a child within forty weeks from the death of father has no more power over his son's estate the husband; but it a man dies and his widow than as his trustee or guardian ; for though he soon after marries again, and a child is born may receive the profits during the child's mi- within such a time as that by the cours nority, yet he must account for them when he nature it might have been the child of either hun comes of age. He may indeed have the benefit band, in this case he is said to be more than of his children's labor while they live with him; ordinarily legitimate; for he may, when he arbut this is no more than he is entitled to from rives at the years of discretion, choose which of his apprentices or servants. The legal power of the fathers he pleases. Co. Lit. 8. But this a father (for a mother as such is entitled to no doctrine is qui spioned by Brooke, from which it power, but only to reverence and respect), over seems as if he thought it reasonable that the cirthe persons of his legitimate children, ceases at cumstances of the case, instead of the choice of the the age of twenty-one, for they are then enfran- issue, should determine who is the father. Suchised by arriving at years of discretion, or that pra. n. (7); and see Co. Lit. 123, latter part of point which the law has established (as some n. (1). must necessarily be established), when the empire As bastards


be born before the coverture of the father or other guardian gives place to or marriage state is begun, or after it is deterthe empire of reason. Yet till that age arrives this mined, so also children, born during wedlock, empire of the father continues even after his may in some circumstances be bastards. As if death; for he may by luis will appoint a guardian the husband be out of the kingdom of England to his children. He may also delegate part of (or, as the law somewhat loosely phrases it, extra his parental authority during his life to the tutor quatuor maria) for above nine months, so that or schoolmaster of his child, who is then in loco no access to his wife can be presumed, her issue parentis, and has such a portion of the power of during that period shall be bastards. But genethe parent committed to his charge, viz. that of rally during the coverture access of the husband, restraint and correction, as may be necessary to it is said, shall be presumed, unless the contrary answer the purposes for which he is employed. can be shown, which is such a negative as can SECT. II.-OF ILLEGITIMATE Children, AND

only be proved by showing him to be elsewhere.

Subsequent decisions, however, have relaxed this THE LIABILITY AND AUTHORITY OF

rule; and it is now held to be unnecessary that PARENTS.

proof should be adduced of the non access of 1. Who are deemed illegitimate. A bastard, the husband; the modern practice (if not the by our English law, is one that is not only be- more ancient, see 1 Salk 123, Stra. 925, 3 P. gotten but born out of lawful matrimony. The Wms. 276) being to leave it to the jury to decivil and canon laws do not allow a child to re- cide, under all the circumstances of the case, main a bastard if the parents afterwards inter- whether access may reasonably be presumed to marry. But whether they are to be considered have been had ur not. 4 Term. Rep. 25. Ibid. as legitimate from the time of the marriage of 366. In a divorce, a menså et thoro, if the wife their parents only, or whether their legitimacy breeds children they are bastards, for the law will has relation back to the time of their birth, is a presume the husband and wife conformable to point variously disputed by the civilians and the sentence of separation, unless access be canonists; the prevailing opinion seems to be proved; but, in a voluntary separation by agreethat they are to be considered as legitimate from ment, the law will suppose access, unless the the time of their birth to all purposes, but those negative be shown. So also, if there be an apin which to consider them as such would operate parent impossibility of procreation on the part to the detriment of a third person (Co. Lit. 233, of the husband, as if he be only eight years old, n. 1); and herein they differ most materially or the like, there the issue of the wife shall be from our law, which, though not so strict as lo bastard. Likewise in case of divorce in the spirequire that the child shall be begotten, yet ritual court, a vinculo matrimonii, all the issue makes it an indispensable condition to make it born during the coverture are bastards, because legitimate that it shall be born after lawful wed- such divorce is aluays upon some cause that renlock. All children, therefore, born before matri- dered the marriage unlawful and null from the mony, are bastards by our law; and so it is of beginning. all children born so long after the death of the 2. Of the liability of parents for their illegitihusband that, by the usual course of gestation, mate children. The method in which the English they could not be begotten by him. But, this law provides maintenance for them is as follows:being a matter of some uncertainty, the law is not When a woman is delivered, or declares herselt


with child, of a bastard, and will by oath, before this principle proceed all the duties of children a justice of peace, charge any person as having to their parents which are enjoined by positive goi her with child, the justice shall cause such laws. The law does not hold the tie of nature person to be apprehended, or appear at the next to be dissolved by any misbehaviour of the paquarter sessions, to dispute and try the fact. But rent, and therefore a child is equally justifiable if the woman dies, or is married before delivery, in defending the person or maintaining the cause or miscarries, or proves not to have been with or suit of a bad parent as a good one; and is child, the person shall be discharged; otherwise equally compellable, if of sufficient ability, to the sessions, or two justices out of the sessions, maintain and provide for a wicked and unnatural upon original application to them, may take progenitor as for one who has shown the greatest order for the keeping of the bestard by charging tenderness and parental duty. Dr. Brown, it the mother or the reputed father with the pay- seems, was inclined to think, contrary to the ment of money or other sustentation, for that opinion of lord Holt, that a grandchild is not purpose. And if such putative father or lewd compellable to relieve an indigent grandfather ; mother run away from the parish, the overseers, but, according to professor Christian, there by direction of two justices, may seize their seems no doubt that the court of king's bench rents, goods, and chattels, in order to bring up would determine the duty to be reciprocal, and the bastard child. Yet such is the humanity of would construe any ambiguous expression in our laws that no woman can be compulsively favor of the discharge of such a natural and questioned concerning the father of her child till moral obligation. one month after delivery, which indulgence is, 2. Our law has made no provision to prevent however, frequently a bardship upon parishes by the disinheriting of children by will: leaving giving the parents opportunity to escape, every man's property in his own disposal upon

Besides the expense of maintenance the father a principle of liberty in this as well as every is liable, by 49 Geo. III. c. 68, to the expenses other action. Heirs, however, and children are of the accouchement, with the costs of appre- favorites of our courts of justice, and cannot be hunding, and order of filiation, not exceeding disinherited by any dubious or anbiguous words, £10, and subject to the discretion of the magis- there being required the utmost certainty of the trates or quarter sessions. The order must be testator's intentions to take away the right of an made by two justices or more. By the same heir. statute, a justice may commit the father to jail 3. Of the rights and incapacities of bastards.for three months, to hard labor, if he refuse to The rights of a bastard are few, being only such pay without sufficient cause. An appeal against as he can acquire ; for he can inherit nothing, the order of filiation must be made to the next being looked upon as the son of nobody, and sessions, and ten days previous notice given to sometimes called filius nullius, sometimes filius the justices and overseers. If the father agree populi. Yet he may gain a surname by reputo indemnify the parish, the security given is tation, though he has none by inheritance. All vested in the overseers, who may sue as such. other children have their primary settlement in The parish however is only entitled to indemnify their father's parish, but a bastard in the parish for actual expense; and if a sum be paid, in where born, for he has no father. Ilowever in gross, as a discharge for the liability, and the cases of fraud, as if a woman be sent either by child should die, or cease to be a burthen before order of justices, or comes to beg as a vagrant the sum is expended, the father may recover back to a parish which she does not belong ta, and the difference'; the reason for which is that other- drops her bastard there, the bastard shall in the wise it would be the interest of the parish to first case be settled in the parish whence she was neglect the child, against which the law thus hu- illegally moved, or in the latter case in the momanely provides

ther's own parish, if the mother be apprehended 3. Of the power of the parents as to illegiti- for her vagrancy. Bastards also born in any mate children. Though the father of a legitimate licensed hospital for pregnant women are settled child is entitled to the custody of it, the mother in the parishes to which the mothers belong. is preferred to the putative father of an illegiti- 4. The incapacity of a bastard consists prinmale child; and if the putative father of a bastard cipally in this, that he cannot be heir to any one, obtain possession of it by fraud, the court will neither can be have heirs but of his own body; order it to be restored on the application of the for, being nullius filius, he is therefore of kin to mother. 5 Term Reports 278.

nobody, and has no ancestor from whom any in

heritable blood can be derived. By the common Sect. III.-OF THE DUTIES OF CHILDREN: law it is held that a bastard is incapable of holdAND THEIR RIGHTS AND INCAPACITIES.

ing any ecclesiastical benefice. 1. The duties of children to their parents arise In all other respects there is no distinctior, from a principle of natural justice and retribu- between a bastard and another man. A bastaru tion ; for to those who gave us existence we may lastly be made legitimate and capable of naturally owe subjection and obedience during inheriting by the transcendent power of an act our minority, and honor and reverence ever after. of parliament, and not otherwise, as was done They who protected the weakness of our infancy in the case of John of Gaunt's bastard children are entitled to our protection in the infirmity of by a statute of Richard II. their age; they who, by sustenance and educa · PARENTALIA, in antiquity, funeral obsetion, have enabled their offspring to prosper, quies, or the last duties paid by children to their ought in return to be supported by that offspring deceased parents. in case they stand in need of assistance. Upon PARENTIIESIS, n. s. Fr. parenthese; Gr.

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