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Society, the Linnæan Society, the Protestant Bible futus, which presents scarcely any osseous f!re's, Society, the Asiatic Society, the Society of Animal to that of the old man, in which ossification is so Magnetism, the Lyric Society of Momus, and the far advanced that cavities and sutures are almost Catholic Book Society.

entirely effaced. llere are also many skeletons There are numerous public libraries, some of of animals, for the study of comparative anatothem containing immense collections of books and my. Opposite to this gallery are specimens of manuscripts. These are open to the public and all sorts of diseases of the bones, and deformito men of letters almost the whole year, and ties in their conformation; a number of injected present inexhaustible sources of instruction preparations exhibuit the systems of the vessels, Most of them have a large saloon, we'll warmed in ihe blood, the arteries, the veins, and the lymthe winter for the accommodation of the visitors. phatic organs; here is likewise a collection of The king's library, the foundation of which goes voided stones, and stony coucretions formed in as far back as the reign of Charles L., contains various sorts of animals; also a number of nearly 600,000 printed volumes, and 30,000 monstrous productions and pieces of compariMSS. It consists of the library properly so tive anatomy, preserved in spirits of wine. A called, a cabinet of antiquities and medals, a Second room presents ihe whole apparatus of the cabinet of prints, and the gallery of MSS. It is surgery. In a third room are wax figures illusopen every day from ten to two; the vacation trative of the nervons, vascular, sanguineous, commences on the 1st of September and closes and lymphatic systems. There are also repreon the 15th of October. Monsieur's library, or sentations in wax of a great number of patholothat of the arsenal, is the second in Paris for the gical cases. Two figures, in particular, surpass number and value of the works it contains. every thing of this kind that has ever been exeThere are about 200,000 volumes and 10,000 cuted ; they exhibit the whole of the lymphatic MSS; but very few modern works. It is open system, external and internal. These masterfrom ten to two, except in the vacation from the pieces, as well as several others, were executed 15th of September to the 3d of November. The by VI. Lavoisier, a surgeon of Rouen. A fourtlı city library is open every day from twelve to room contains all the natural substances which four, except on festivals and the days of the sit- the three kingdoms of nature furnish to the matings of the medical and agricultural societies. teria medica; and a fifth is devoted to demonIt contains 42,000 volumes, among which are strations of the lectures on medical physics. many modern works. Vacation from the 1st of Besides the libraries already enumerated, there September to the 15th of October. The library are those of the chamber of peers containing of St. Genevieve, or the Pantheon, remarkalıle 10,000 volumes, of the chamber of deputies for the beauty of its architecture and decorations, 30,000, of the minister of the interior 7000, of as well as for the choice of books it contains, the observatory 2000, of the school of bridges reckons about 112,000 volumes, and 3000 MSS. and highways 4000, of the school of the mines It is open every day from ten to txo, and its van coov, the polytechnic school 24,000, of the colcation contimes from the 1st of September to lege of Louis the Great 30,000, the conservatory the 12th of November. The Hazarine library, of arts and trades 10,000, the prefecture of the at the Institute, is open every day, except from police 8000, the seminary of St. Sulpice 20,000, the 15th of August to the 15th of October, and of the ministry for foreign affairs 15,000, the on Thursdays and Sundays. It contains 93,000 king's cabinet in the gallery of the Louvre 30,000 volumes and 4000 USS. The library of the In- the museum of the Louvre 3000, the school for stitute is not public, but admission is easily pro- music and declamation 5000, the depot of charts cured on the recommendation of a member. It and plans for the navy 12,000, that of the miniscontains about 70,000 volumes. The library of ter of war 4000, the central depot of the artillery the king's garden, in the museum of natural bis- 6000, the depot for charts and plans of wirs tory, presents a rich and varied collection of 10,000, the hospital of invalids 25,000, of the works relative 10 the natural sciences, herbaries, minister of justice 3000, of the royal printing ofdesigns of plants and flowers, and paintings of fice 3000, of the court of cassation 30,000, and animals. It is open to the students on Mondays, the lower court 20,000 volumes. Wednesdays, and Saturdays, from eleven to two, The royal museum of the Louvre is the greatest and to the public from four 10 seven during the collection in Europe, and, notwithstanding the spring and autumn, and from three till dark dur- losses it has experienced, it contains many masing the antuinn and winter. The library of the terpieces of all the schools. It consists of three medical school contains about 30,000 volumes, principal divisions, the first containin the statlie's, including all the treatises on medicine and ches the second the pictures, and the third the demistry published since the time of Philip signs. The museum of antiques is on the ground Augustus, down to the most modern works of floor, that of the drawings on the first floor, and iliis description. It is open on Mondays, Wed- the paintings occupy the saloon and the grand nesdays, and Fridays, from eleven to two, and its gallery that unites the Louvre to the Thuilleries. vacation is from the 15th of lugust to the 1st of The first three divisions of this gallery are devo

tad to the productions of the French school; the The school of medicine is one of the finest second three to the German, Flemish, and Dutch, establishments

Paris; its amphitheatre, capa schools, and the last three to the Italian. An ble of holding at least 12,000 persons, is adornei exhibition of the pictures and sculptures of French with paintings by Gibelin, and has the busts of living artists takes place every two years in the Peyronie and Martiniere, the founders of the gallery of the Louvre. The museum is open to school. In a long gallery are seen skeletons of the public every Sunday from ten to four. The Loth sexes and all ages, from the skeleton of the myal museum of the Luxembourg contains


several rooms devoted to the exhibition of the stone, tiles, slates, delfware, glass, &c. &c. It principal pictures of living artists, when these is the great market for provisions, &c., for the pictures become the property of the government. consumption of Paris; and there are excellent It is open on the same days as the Louvre. The races during the first fortnight in September, for museum of Natural History consists of a bota- twenty-one departments, at which a royal plate nical garden, with hot-houses and green-houses is run for, of the value of 6000 francs or £240. of several galleries, in which the productions of This was the native place of Voltaire, Boileau, the three kingdoms are methodically arranged, Moliere, D'Alembert, J. B. Rousseau, Helvetius, menagerie of living animals, a library of natural Loubet, Segur, Arnaud, Cauchois le Maire, history, a cabinet of comparative anatomy, and Dessault, Norvins, Perceval-Grandmaison, Volan amphitheatre with laboratories for the courses keimaer, Mercier, La Harpe, Jaucourt, Pougens, of lectures.

Villemain, and Cousin, men of letters; Bernard The conservatory of arts and trades, for the re- Marivalt, Destouches, Favart, La Mothe Beau . ception of all the newly invented instruments marchais, Marsollier, and Picard, dramatic au and machines, contains a numerous collection of thors; Madame de Sevigné, Santeuil the poet, instruments, tools, models, drawings, descrip- Beranger, Kain, Talma, Mole, and Martin, celetions, and books every trade and art. It is brated actors; of Lavoisier, the great chemist, open to the public on Sundays and Thursdays beheaded at Paris during the revolution in 1793, from twelve to four o'clock. The royal manu- Gassecourt jun, the famous apothecary, the abbé factory of the Gobelins, or tapestry of the crown, l’Epée, the founder of the deaf and dumb asywas founded by Gilles Gobelin in the reign of lum; Rollin, Henault, and Le Beau, historians; Francis I.; but it is to Colbert that France partly Condamine, the traveller and astronomer ; of Le owes the perfection of this fine establishment. Maistre de Sacy and Anquetil, oriental scholars ; Nothing can be richer or more wonderful than Milling the learned antiquary ; of the celebrated the tapestry fabricated here; it will bear com- painters David, le Sueur, le Brun, Drouais, parison with the most celebrated printed linens, Vouet, and Horace-Vernet ; of Perault and Manand often surpasses them in the splendor of its sard, architects ; of Goujon, Pigale, Cartellier, colors. The pictures wrought at the manufac- and Moithe, sculptors; of the geographers tory of the Gobelins represent subjects taken D'Anville, Buache, de Lisle, Lacroix, Robert de from history and are destined to adorn the Vaugondy, Barbier du Boccage, and Mentelle; palaces of kings and princes. The royal tapestry of Arnaud, Trouchet, and Billococq, lawyers; of manufactory, called' la Savonnerie; here are Dupont de Nemours, one of the most honorable manufactured foot carpets on the same style as characters of the revolution ; of Duport-du-Fertre, at the Gobelins. The royal looking-glass manu- one of the worthiest citizens who lost his life at factory was founded in 1634, under the direc- that time; of Herault de Sechelles, a member tion of Colbert. Before that time France had of the convention, beheaded in 1793; of Lepelbeen supplied with glasses from Venice. They letier de St. Fargeau, president of the parliament, cast glasses at St. Gobain, ten feet high by from who was assassinated on the 20th of January the four to five broad, and convey them by the Oise same year; of the unfortunate Bailly, mayor of to Paris, where they are silvered and polished. the city, beheaded on the 9th of November; of

The manufactures of Paris consist of fine cardinal Richelieu ; Voyer d'Argenson and Mecloths, merino and cachemere tissues, shawls, chin, deputies; Malesherbes, the advocate of gauzes, silks, crapes, ribands, blonds, prints, Louis XVI., beheaded in 1794; of the great paper-hangings, gold and silver lace, mercery Conde; of marshal Catinat, prince Eugene, the goods, caps, hats, embroidery, modes, straw silk duke of Orleans; of Ninon d'Enclos, marshal and cotton bats, artificial flowers, saddles and Augereau, who gained the battles of the bridge harness, coaches, furniture, bronze and gilt arti- of Lodi, Arcola, &c.; of generals Canciaux, cles, polished steel, cutlery, goldsmiths' articles, Baraquay, d'Hilliers, and Montholon; of the clocks and watches, jewellery, gold and silver navigator Bougainville, the traveller Chardin, plating, metal buttons, files, tools, mathematical the printers Anisson Duperron, Pankouque, and instruments, instruments for natural philosophy Boisle; of John Châtel, the pupil of the Jesuits, and astronomy, fine ironmongery, mock pearls, the assassin of Henry IV., &c. &c. draught and chess boards, perfumery, chocolate, Paris is situated on the first meridian according liqueurs, leather gloves, pasteboard, brushes, to the French measuremeni, 20° E. of the mepencils, corks, catgut, shot, sheet-lead, printing ridian of Ferro, and 2° 15' E. of London; in types, nails, wax candles, glue, starch, oils of dif- N. lat. 48° 50'. It is 294 miles S. S. E. of Lonferent kinds, mineral acids, chemicals, salt petre, don, 678 S. S. E. of Edinburgh, 654 south-east soap, white-lead, leather, varnish, porcelain, and of Dublin, 222 south of Brussels, 342 south of crystal. There are numerous silk, woollen, and Amsterdam, 735 south-west of Berlin, 816 S.S.W. cotton dye-houses, wax bleaching-houses, sugar of Copenhagen, 1170 S.S. W. of Stockholm, and salt refineries, tan yards, curriers' shops, 1650 south-west of Petersburg, 795 west of morocco leather factories, cotton, woollen, and Dresden, 618 N.N. W. of Vienna, 378 north-west cachemere down spinning factories, gas works, of Geneva, 1146 N. N. W. of Rome, 855 nortnroyal manufactories of carpets, looking-glasses, west of Venice, 1800 W.N. W. of Constantiand tobacco. A considerable trade is carried on in nople, 1362 N. N. W. of Naples, 960 N. N. E. of all the above articles, also in corn, flour, dry ve- Madrid, 1320 north-east of Lisbon, 3900 E. N.E. getables, wines, brandies, vinegar, mineral of Washington, 13,363 E. N. E. of Acapulco, waters, butter, cheese, and provisions of all sorts; 7233 north-east of Lima, and 5556 W.N. W. of fruit, fish, grocery, colonial produce, and provi- Pekin. sions; coal, charcoal, wood, colors, marble, free

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Panis, in fabulous history, the son of Priam, enquired his birth and his age. From these king of Troy, by llecuba, also named Alexander. circumstances she discovered that he was her Ile was decreed, even before his birth, to become brother, and as such introduced him to her father the ruin of his country; and when his mother, and to her brothers. Priam acknowledged Pain the first months other pregnancy, had dram- ris as his son, and all jealouiy ceased among the id that she should bring forth a torch which brothers. Paris did not long remain inactive; would set fire to her palace, the soothsayers fore- he equipped a fleet, as if willing to redeem Hetold the calamities which were to be expected sione, bis father's sister, whom Hercules bad from the imprudence of her future so!, and carried away, and oblised to marry Telamon the which would end in the ruin of Troy: Priam, to son of tacus. This was the pretended motive prevent so great a calamity, ordered his slave of his voyage, but the causes were far different. Archelaus to destroy the ciuld as soon as he was llelen was the fairest woman of the age, and born. The slave only exposed the child on Venus had promised her to him. He therefore Mount Ida, where the shepherds of the place went to Sparta, the residence of Helen, who had found him, and educated him as their own. married Venclaus. Ile was received with great Some say a she bear suckled him. Though elu- respect; but he abused the hospitality of Menecated among shepherds and peasants, he gave very laus, and, while the husband was absent in Crete, early proofs of courage and intrepidity; and, persuaded Helen to elope with him, and to fly from his care in protecting the flocks of Hount to Asia. Priam received her without dithculty, Ida from the rapacity of wild beac!r, he was as his sister was then detained in a foreigu counpamed Alexander, a helper of men. He gained try, and, as he wished to show bimself as hostile the esteem of all the shepherds, and his manly as possible to the Greeks. This affair was soon deportment recommended bim to Enone, á productive of serious

When nymph of Ida, whom he married, and with whom Menelaus had married Helen, all her suitors had he lived with the most perfect tenderness. bound themselves by a soleinn oath to defend Their conjugal peace was, however, of no long her from every violence; and therefore he reduration. At the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, ininded them of their engagements, and called Ate, the goddess of discord, who had not been upon them to recover her. (pon this all Greece invited to partake of the entertainment, showed took up arms; Agamemnon was chosen general her displeasure, by throwing into the assembly of the combined forces, and a regular war was of the gods who were at the celebration of the begun. Paris, meanwhile, who had refused muptials, a golden apple, on which were written Helen to the petitions and embassies of the the words, Let it be given to the fairest. All the Greeks, armed himself, with his brothers and goddesses claimed it as their own; the conten- subjects, to oppose the enemy; but he fought ¿ion at first became general; but at last only with little courage, and at the very siglit of Methree, Juno, Venus, and Minerva, wished to dis- nelaus, whom he had so recently injured, his pute their respetive right to beauty. The gods, courage vanished, and be retired from the unwilling to become arbiters in an affair so de- In a combat with Menelaus, Paris must have pélicate in its nature, appointed Paris to adjudge rished, had not lenus interfered. Ile wounded, the prize. The goddesses appeared before their however, in another battle, Machaon, Euryphijudge without covering or ornamen., and each lus, and Diomedes; and, according to some, le endeavoured by promises to influence his judg- killed with an arrow the great Achilles. The

Juno promised him a kingdom; Mi- death of Paris is differently related: some say he nerva, wisdom and military glory; and Venus was mortally wounded by one of the poisoned the fairest woman in the world for his wife. arrous of Philoctetes; and that when he found (Ovid. Heroid. 17. v. 118). After he had heard limself languid by his wounds, he ordered bimtheir several claims and pronuises, Paris adjudy- self to be carried to the feet of (Enone, whom he ed the prize to l'enus, and gave her the golden had basely abandoned, and who had foretold apple. This decision drew upon the judge and him that he would solicit her assistance in his his family the resentment of the two other god- dying moments. He expired before he came desses. Soon after, Priam proposed a contest into the presence of Enone, who threw herself among his sons and other princes, and promised upon his body, and stabbed herself to the heart. 10 reward the conqueror with one of the finest According to others, Paris did not immediately bulls of Mount Ida. His emissaries were sent go to Troy when he left the Peloponnesus, 10 procure the animal, and it was found in the but he was driven on the coasts of Egypt, where possession of Paris, who reluctantly yielded it. Proteus, the king of the country, detained him. But he went to Troy and entered the lists of the lle died about 1188 B. C. See Troy. combatants. He was received with applause, Paris (Matthew), one of the best English hisand obtained the victory over his rivals, Nestor torians, from William the Conqueror to the latter the son of Nelens, ('venus son of Neptune, Po- end of the reign of Henry III. Leland, his orilites, Jlelenus, and Deiphobus, sons of Priam. gial biographer, informs us that he was a monk lie likewise obtained a superiority over llector of St. Alban's

, and that he was sent by pope

Inhimself; who, enraged to see himself conquered nocent 10 reform the monks of the convent at by an unknown stranger, pursued bim closely; Holm in Norway. Bishop Bale arus, that, on aud Paris must have fallen a victim to his rage account of his extraordinary gifts, he was much bad he not ted to the altas of Jupiter. This sa- esteemed by Henry 111., who ordered him to Cred retreat preserved his life ; ad Cassandra, write the listory of his reign. Fuiler makes him the daughter of I'riam, struck with the similarity a native of Cambridgeshure, and says, he was of the features of Paris with those of her brothers, sent by the pope to visit the monks in the dio




cese of Norwich. Paris died in the monastery The office of the church is performed by the parish of St. Alhan's in 1259. He was a man of extra- priest, at the time of his interment. Auliffe. ordinary knowledge for the thirteenth century;

Not parish clerk who calls the psalms so clear. of an excellent moral character, and, as an histo

Gay. rian, of strict integrity. His works are, 1. His

A man, after his natural death, was not capable toria ab Adamo ad Conquestim Angliæ, lib. i.

of the least parish office. Arbuthnot and Pupe. MS. cul. C. C. Cantab. c. ix. Most of this The parish allowance to poor people is very seldom book is transcribed by Matthew of Westminster

a comfortable maintenance.

Law. into the first part of his Florilegium. 2. Histo- A Parish, in law, is the precinct of a paria Major, seu rerum Anglicanarum Historia à rochial church, or a circuit of ground inhabited Gul. Conquestoris Adventu ad annum 43 Hen- by people who belong to one church, and are rici III., &c., several times printed. 3. Vitæ under the particular charge of its minister. The duoruin Offarum, Merciæ regum, S. Albani fun- word comes from napoikia, habitation; or of datorum. 4. Gesta 22 abbotum S. Albani. 5. near, and ouros, house. Du Cange observes that Additamenta Chronicorum ad Hist. Majorem : the name rapolkia was anciently given to the printed. 6. Historia Minor, sive Epitome Ma- whole territory of a bishop, and derives it from joris Historiæ ; MS. Besides many other things neighbourhood ; because the primitive Christians, in MS.

not daring to assemble openly in cities, were Paris, in botany, herb paris, or true-love, a forced to meet secretly in neighbour houses. In genus of the order trigynia, and class octandria; the ancient church there was one large edifice in natural order eleventh, sarmentaceæ: Cal. tetra- each city for the people to meet in; and this they phyllous; petals four, narrow in proportion ; the called parochia, parish. But the signification of berry quadrilocular. There is but one species, the word was afterwards enlarged, and meant a growing naturally in woods and shady places diocese, or the jurisdiction of a bishop, consistboth in Scotland and England. It has a single ing of several churches. Du Pin observes that naked stem, greenish blossoms, and bluish black country parishes had not their origin before the berries. The leaves and berries are said to par- fourth century; but those of cities are more take of the properties of opium; and the juice of ancient. Alexandria is said to have been divided the berries is useful in inflammations of the eyes. into parishes. In the early ages of Christianity, Linnæus says that the root will serve as an emetic in this island, parishes were unknown, or at as well as ipecacuanha, but must be taken in least signified the same that a diocese now does. double the quantity. Goats and sheep eat the There was then no appropriation of ecclesiastical plant; cows, horses, and swine, refuse it. dues to any particular church; but every man Paris, PLASTER OF. See PLASTER.

was at liberty to contribute his tithes to any PA'RISH, n. s. & adj. 1 Fr. paroisse; Ital., priest or church he pleased, but he was obliged

PARISH'IONER, n. S. Span., Port. and Barb. to do it to some; or, if he made no special apLat. parochia ; Gr. Tapoukia, i. e. hapa near, propriation, they were paid to the bishop, to dis

ouros, a house. "A multitude of neighhours tribute them among the clergy, and for other pertaining to one church.' says Minsheu : hence pious purposes. Sir Henry Hobart maintains the particular charge of a secular priest,' ac- that parishes were first erected by the council of cording to Dr. Johnson; a particular district of Lateran, held A.D. 1179. Bui Selden proves land; and, as an adjective, belonging to, ap- that the clergy lived in common, withont any pointed over, or maintained by, a parish: a pa- division of parishes, long after the time menrishioner is one who belongs to a particular tioned by Camden (A. D. 636); and it appears, parish.

from the Saxon laws, that parishes were in being Dametas came piping and dancing, the merriest long before the council of Lateran in 1179. The man in a parish.

Sidney. distinction of parishes occurs in the laws of king I praise the Lord for you, and so may my parishi. Edgar about 970. It seems pretty clear and ceroners ; for their sons are well tutored by you.

tain, says Blackstone, that the boundaries of Shakspearo.

parishes were first ascertained by those of a Hail, bishop Valentine, whose day this is, All the air is thy diocese ;

manor or manors; because it very seldom hap

pens that a manor extends itself over more than And all the chirping choristers And other birds, are thy parishioners.

one parish, though there are often many manors At every point that concerns himself

, the good in one parish. The lords, he adds, as Christianity parishioner turns down a leaf in his heart ; and re- spread, began to build churches upon their own joiceth that God's word hath pierced him, as hoping demesnes or wastes, to accommodate their tenants that whilst his soul smarts, it heals. Fulier. in one or two adjoining lordships; and, that they

In the greater out-parishes, many of the parishioners, might have divine service regularly performed through neglect, do perish.

therein, obliged all their tenants to appropriate By the Catholick church is meant no more than their tithes to the maintenance of the one officiatthe common church, into which all such persons as ing minister, instead of leaving them at liberty belonged to that parish, in which it was built, were

to distribute them among the clergy of the diocese

in general; and this tract of land, the tithes of The tythes, his parish freely paid, he took ; But never sued, or cursed with bell or book.

which were so appropriated, formed a distinct Dryden.

parish ; and this accounts for the frequent interA parish priest was of the pilgrim train, mixture of the parishes one with another. For An awful, reverend, and religious man.

if a lord had a parcel of land detached from I have deposited thirty marks, to be distributed the main of his estate, but not sufficient to forin among the poor parishionert.

Addison's Spectator. a parish of itself, it was natural for him to en.




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wherein regard hould chietly be directed to the crafts to this disruver of such an inton, misht value of the pasture, and where the pasturing fall in with that man that is of a pertine purity with animals are sheep, horses, oven, die.; and, se

Hal. condly, such as, belonging to splendid mansions, Their actement in ever.tial characters mannin ra- demnand more especially wrandeur of character ther an identity than ? parity.

and distribution. In the former species, the Survey the total set of animals, and we mas, in surface of the ground should receive its princitheir less or oryans of progression, observe an equa- pal characteristic from groups of trees, or gentle lity of length and jority of numeration : not any to have an odd ler, or the movers of one side not ex.

walks, conducting the promenader from vista to actly answered by the other.

viia, so as to produce is great a variety of etBy an exact prity of reason, we may argue, if a

feers as the nature of the scenery around, and the man has no sense of those hindnesses that pass upon contracted pace the artist has to work in, will him, tiom one like himself, whom he sees and browsi

, possibly admit. Indeed, by circuitons paths, how much less shall his heart be affected with the and skiltul disposition of trees, this kind of park grateful sense of his favours whom he converses will often decene the eve of the spectator with with only by imperfect speculations, by the discourses l'espect to its actual extent. A level and monotoof reason, on the discoveries of faith! South.

nous surface, such as we frequently are comPARIUM, in ancient geography, a noble city pelled to notico, containing a walk round, and of Mysia Minor, with a port on the l'roponus; dotted with sophisticateul-looking clumps, at called Adrastia by Homer, according to Plinyi mezular distances, can, it will be obvious, never according to others, it is tine Paustos of Homer. appear larger than it really is; but a very few It was the birth place of leoptolemus, surnamed incres, led out in the manner hintul at by us Glossograplus.--Strabo. Here would it Cupid, above', mey mein be made to appear almost equal in workmanship to the Cnidian lae boundle"; overy.sup presenting a novel combi

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