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der their leader Phalantus, they settled in Magna of brick round its root, to prevent the water Græcia, and built Tarentum, A.A.C. 707. Jus- from pressing down the earth too much. tin, Strabo, Paus. Plut.
PARTIENTUS, in geography, a mountain of PARTHENIUM, in botany, bastard fever- Arcadia, where Telephus had a temple, and on few, or kiu-hoa of the Chinese, a genus of the which Atalantis was exposed. Paus. viii. 54. pentandria order, belonging to the mono-cia Elian 13. class of plants; and in the natural method rank- PARTHENON, Hapdevos, a virgin, in ancient ing under the forty-ninth order. compositæ. The architecture, the appellation given to the celeMALE CAL. is common and pentaphyllous; the brated Grecian temple of Minerva, who was often florets of the disk monopetalous: the rEmALE herself designated lapāɛvos, or virgin, and worhas five florets of the radius, tach with two male shipped with the most profound adoration in the florets behind it: the intermediate female supe- citadel of Athens. The temple thus called was rior; the seed is naked. It has been inueh neg- built during the splendid era of Pericles; and lected in Europe, baving on account of its smell the expenses of its erection were estimated at been banished from our parterres. It is therefore 6000 talents. It was built upon a spot elevated indebted for its culture io the distinguished rank on all sides above the town and citadel; of the it holds among the Chinese flowers. The skill Doric order; constructed of Pentelican marble ; of the Horists, and their continual care, have and from its breadth (100 Greek feet) was debrought this plant to so great perfection that nominated by the ancients Hecatompedon. Europeans scarcely know it. The elegance and The Parthenon was 220 Greek feet in length, lightness of its branches, the beautiful indent- and about sixty-nine in height. Its portico was ation of its leaves, the splendor and duration of double at the two fronts, and single at the sides. its flowers, seem indeed to justify the Horimania On the exterior façade of the nave was repreof the Chinese for this plant. They have, by sented a procession in honor of Minerva. The their attention to its culture, procured more than two architects employed by Pericles in the 300 species or varieties of it: every year pro- building of this superh and elegant edifice were duces a new one.
Parthenium is propagated in Callicrates and Ictinus. This magnificent temChina by seeds, and by suckers, grafts, and slips. ple bad resisted all the outrages of time; had When the Morists have a tine plant, they suffer been in turn converted into a Christian church the seeds to ripen, and about the end of autumn and a Turkish mosque; but still subsisted ensow them in well-prepared earth. Some keep tire when Spon and Wheeler visited Attica in them in this manner auring winter, others sow 1676. It was in the year 1687 that the Venethem in spring. Provided they are watered after tians besieged the citadel of Athens under the the winter, they shoot forth, and grow rapidly. command of General Kenigsmarck. A bomb After the parthenium is flowered, all its branches fell most unluckily on the devoted Parthenon, are cut three inches from the root, the earth set fire to the powder which the Turks had shut is hoed around, and a little dung is mixed with up therein, and thus the roof was entirely de it; and, when the cold becomes severe, the plant stroyed, and the whole building almost reduced is covered with straw, or an inverted pot. Those to ruin. The Venetian general, being afterwards that are in vases are transported to the green- desirous of carrying off the statue of Minerva house, where they are uncovered and watered, which had adorned the pediment, had it removed, and they shoot forth a number of stems; of these thereby assisting in the defacement of the place some florists leave only two or three, others pull without any good result to himself—for the group up the stalk, together with the whole root, and fell to the ground and was shattered to pieces. divide it into several portions, which they trans. Since this period every man of taste must have plant elsewhere. Some join two slips of ditierent deplored the demolition of this noble structure, colors, each of which, towards the bottom, and the enlightened travellers who have visited they make a long notch, almost to the pith, and the spot have successively published engravings afterwards tie them together with packthread, of its remains. One of the first of these was Le that they may remain closely united: by these Roy, in his Ruins of Greece; after him came means they obtain beautiful Powers, variegated Stuart, who, possessing greater pecuniary means, with whatever colors they choose. Parthenium surpassed his predecessor in producing a beaurequires a good exposure, and fresh moist air tiful and interesting work on the Athenian Anthat circulates freely : when shut up closely, it tiquities. Chandler, and other travellers in soon languishes. The earth in which it is planter Greece, have also described what came under ought to be rich, moist, and loamy, and prepared their eye of the remains of the Parthenon, of with great care. For refreshing it, the Chinese which many models have likewise been executed. use only rain or river water; and in spring they J. Cassas (says Millin) has a very fine one in mix with this water the excrements of silk- his valuable cabinet of models of antique temworms, or the dung of poultry; in summer they ples and other monuments. There is another in leave the feathers of ducks or fowls 10 infuse in the Galerie d'Architecture au Palais des Arts, at it for several days, after having thrown into it a Paris, &c. &c. little saltpetre; but in autumn they mix with the But, not content with these artistical labors water a greater or smaller quantity of dried ex- and publications, more recent travellers have encrement reduced to powder, according as the riched their country and themselves with the plant appears more or less vigorous. During the actual spoils of the Parthenon. The foremost of great heats of summer
, they water it morning these is our fellow-countryman lord Elgin, who, and evening; but they moisten the leaves only about the year 1800, removed a variety of the in the morning : they also place sinall fragments matchless friezes, statues, &c., which were pur
chased of him by parliament on the part of the II., who, entering Media, made himself master nation, and now form the most valuable and in- of that country, while Antiochus the Great was teresting portion of the British Museum. See engaged in a war with Antiochus Euergetes king Elgin Marbles. A part of his lordship's pre- of Egypt. Antiochus, however, was no sooner cious treasure was, however, to the regret of all disengaged from that war than he marched with lovers of the fine arts, lost in the passage to all his forces against Arsaces, and at first drove England.
him quite out of Media. But he soon returned PARTHIA, a celebrated empire of antiquity, with an army of 100,000 foot and 20,000 horse, bouuded on the west by Media, north by lyr- with which he put a stop to the further progress cania, east by Aria, south by Carmania the desert; of Antiochus ; and a treaty was soon after consurrounded on every side by' mountains, which cluded, in which it was agreed that Arsaces still serve as a boundary, though its name is now should remain master of Parthia and Hyrcania, changed to Eyrac or Irac; and, to distinguish it upon condition of his assisting him in his wars from Chaldea, to that of Irac Agemi. By Ptolemy with other nations. Arsaces II. was succeeded it is divided into five districts, viz. Caminsine or by his son Priapatius, who reigned fifteen years, Gamisene, Rarthyene, Choroane, Alticene, and and left three sons, Phrahates, Mithridates, and Tabiene. The ancient geographers enumerate Artabanus. Phrahates, the eldest, succeeded to many cities in this country. Plolemy reckons the throne, and reduced under his subjection the twenty-five large cities; and it certainly must Mardi, who had never been conquered by any have been very populous, since we have accounts but Alexander the Great. After him, his broof 2000 villages, besides a number of cities in ther Mithridates was invested with the regal this district being destroyed by earthquakes. Its dignity. He reduced the Bactrians, Medes, Percapital was named Hecatom polis, from the cir- sians, Elymeans, and over-ran all the east, pecumstance of its having 100 gates. It was a netrating beyond the boundaries of Alexander's noble and magnificent place; and, according to conquests. Demetrius Nicator, who then reigned some, it still remains under the name of Ispahan, in Syria, endeavoured to recover these provinces, the capital of the present Persian empire. but his army was entirely destroyed, and himself
Parthia is by some supposed to have been first taken prisoner, and kept captive till his death ; peopled by the Phetri or Pathri, often mentioned after which Mithridates made himself master of in Scripture, and will have the Parthians to be Babylonia and Mesopotamia, so that he now descended from Pathrusim the son of Misraim. commanded all the provinces between the EuBut however true this may be with regard to the phrates and the Ganges. Mithridates died in ancient inhabitants, yet it is certain that those the thirty-seventh year of his reign, and left the Parthians who were so famous in history descend- throne to his son Phrahates II. who was scarcely ed from the Scythians, though from what tribe settled in his kingdom when Antiochus Zidetes we are not informed. The history of the ancient marched against him at the head of a numerous Parthians is totally lost. All we know is, that army, under pretence of delivering his brother they were first subject to the Medes, afterwards Demetrius, who was still in captivity. Phrato the Persians, and lastly to Alexander the hates was defeated in three pitched battles; in Great. After his death the province fell to consequence of which he lost all the countries Seleucus Nicator, and was held by him and his conquered by his father, and was reduced within successors till the reigo of Antiochus Theos, the limits of the ancient Parthian kingdom. Anabout A. A. C. 250. At this time the Parthians tiochus did not, however, long enjoy his good revolted, and chose one Arsaces for their king. fortune; for his army, on account of their numThe immediate cause of this revolt was the lewd- ber, amounting to no fewer than 400,000, being ness of Agathocles, to whom Antiochus bad com- obliged to separate to such distances as prevented mitted the care of all the provinces beyond the them, in case of any sudden attack, from joining Euphrates. This man made an infamous attempt together, the inhabitants, whom they had most on Tiridates, a youth of great beauty; which so cruelly oppressed, taking advantage of this sepaenraged his brother Arsaces that he excited his ration, conspired with the Parthians to destroy countrymen to revolt; and, before Antiochus had them. This was accordingly executed ; and the leisure to attend to the rebellion, it became too vast army of Antiochus, with the monarch himself, powerful !o be crushed. Seleucus Callipicus, were slaughtered in one day, scarcely a single the successor of Antiochus Theos, attempted to person escaping to carry the news to Syria. reduce Arsaces; but the latter, having had so Elated with his success, Phrahates now promuch time to strengthen himself, defeated and posed to invade Syria ; but in the mean time, drove him out of the country. Seleucus soon happening to quarrel with the Scythians, he was after undertook another expedition against Arsa- by them cut off with his whole army, and was ces, but was still more unfortunate; being not succeeded by his uncle Artabanus; who enjoyed only defeated in a great battle, but taken prisoner; his dignity but a very short time, being, a few and he died in. captivity. The day on which days after his accession, killed in another battle Arsaces gained this victory was ever after ob- with the Scythians. Ile was succeeded by Paserved among the Parthians as an extraordinary corus I., who entered into an alliance with the festival. Arsaces being thus fully established in Romans; and he by Phrabates III. This mohis new kingdom, reduced Hyrcania and some narch took under his protection Tigranes the son other provinces under his power; and was at last of Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia, gave killed in a battle against Ariarathes IV. king of him his daughter in marriage, and invaded the Cappadocia
kingdom with a design to place the son on the Arsaces I. was succeeded by his son Arsaces throne of Armenia ; but, on the approach vi Vol. XVI.
Pompey, he retired, and sonn after renewed the proof against the Roman darts, and their offensive treaty with the Romans. Phrabates was mur- weapons so sharp that no buckler was proof dered by his sons Mithridates and Orodes; and against them, &c. Crassus looked upon all this soon after the former was put to death by his only as the effects of cowardice ; but the soldiers, brother, who thus became sole master of the Par- and even many of the officers, were so disheartthian empire. In his reign happened the memo- ened, that Cassius, the same who afterwards conrable war with the Romans under Crassus. This spired against Casar, and most of the legionary was occasioned, not by any breach of treaty on tribunes, advised Crassus to suspend his march, the side the Parthians, but through the shame- and consider better of the enterprise before he ful avarice of Crassus. The whole Roman em- proceeded farther in it. But Crassus obstinately pire had been divided between Cæsar, Pompey, persisted in his former resolution, being encouand Crassus; and the eastern provinces had raged by the arrival of Artabazus king of Armefallen to the lot of Crassus. No sooner was he nia, who brought with him 6000 horse, and proinvested with this dignity than he resolved to carry mised to send 10,000 cuirassiers avd 30,000 foot the war into Parthia, to enrich himself with the whenever he should stand in need of them. At spoils of that people, who were then very the same time he advised him not to march his wealthy. Some of the tribunes opposed him, as army through the plains of Mesopotamia, but to the Parthians had religiously observed the treaty; take his route over the mountains of Armenia, as but Crassus having, by the assistance of Pom- in every respect much safer. This salutary adpey, carried every thing before him, left Rome vice, however, was rejected, and Crassus entered in the year 55 B. C., and pursued his march to Mesopotamia with an army of about 40,000 Brundusium, where he inmediately embarked The Romans had vo sooner crossed the his troops, though the wind blew very high ; and Euphrates than Cassius advised Crassus to adafter a difficult passage, where he lost many of vance to some of those towns in which the garrihis ships, he reached the ports of Galatia. From sons yet remained, to halt and refresh his troops ; Galatia Crassus bastened to Syria, and, passing or to march along the Euphrates to Seleucia; and through Judca, plundered the temple at Jerusa- thus to prevent the Parthians from surrounding lem. Ile then marched with great expedition to him, at the same time that he would be plentithe Euphrates, which he crossed on a bridge of fully supplied with provisions. Of this advice boats; and, entering the Parthian, dominions, Crassus approved, but was dissuaded by Abgabeyan hostilities. As the enemy had not ex- rus king of Edessa, whom the Romans took for pected an invasion they were quite unprepared an ally, but who was in reality a traitor sent hy for resistance ; and therefore Crassus overran all Surenas to bring about their destruction. Under Mesopotamia; and, if he had taken advantage of this faithless guide the Romans entered a rast the consternation which the Parthians were in, green plain divided by many rivulets. Their might have also reduced Babylonia. But instead march proved at first very easy, but the farther of this, early in autumn, he repassed the Eu- they advanced the worse the roads became, insophrates, leaving only 7000 foot and 1000 horse much that they were at last obliged to climb up to garrison the places he hail reduced ; and, put- rocky mountains, which brought them to a dry ting his army into winter quarters in Syria, gave and sandy plain, where they could neither find bimself totally up to his favorite passion of food nor water. Abgarus then began to be susamassing money, Early in spring he drew his pected by the tribunes and other officers, who forces out of their winter quarters, in order to earnestly intreated Crassus not to follow him any pursue
the war with vigor; but, during the win- longer, but to retreat to the mountains; at the ier, Orodes had collected a very numerous army, same time an express arrived from Artabazus, and was well prepared to oppose him. Before acquainting the Roman general that Orodes had he entered upon action, however, the Parthian invaded his dominions with a great army, and monarch sent ambassadors to Crassus to expos- that he was obliged to keep his troops at home, tulate with him on his injustice in attacking an
to defend his own dominions. The same mes. ally of the Roman empire; but Crassus only senger advised Crassus to avoid by all means returned for answer that they should have his the barren plains, where his army would certainly answer at Seleucia.' Orodes, finding that a war perish with hunger and fatigue, and to approach was not to be avoided, divided his army into two Armenia, that they might join their forces against bodies. One he commanded in person, and the common enemy. But Crassus, instead of marched towards Armenia, in order to oppose hearkening either to the advice of the king or his the king of that country, who had raised a con- own officers, first few into a violent passion with siderable army to assist the Romans. The other the messengers of Artabazus, and then told his he sent into Mesopotamia, under Surenas, a most troops that they were not to expect the delights experienced general, by whose conduct all the of Campania in the most remote parts of the cities which Crassus had reduced were quickly world. Thus they continued their march across retaken. On this some Roman soldiers, who a desert, the very sight of which was sufficient made their escape, and fled to the camp of Cras- to throw them into despair ; for they could not sus, filled the minds of his army with terror at the perceive the least tree, plant, or brook, not so accounts of the number, power, and strength of much as a single blade of grass ; nothing all the enemy. They told their fellow-soldiers that around them but huge heaps of burning sand. the Parthians were very numerous, brave, and The Romans had scarcely got through this desert well disciplined; that it was impossible to over- when word was brought them by their scouts take them when they fled, or escape when they that a numerous army of Parthians was advancing pursued ; that their defensive weapons were full speed to attack them; for Abgarus, under pretence of going out on parties, had often con- did great execution, the legionaries being drawn ferred with Surenas, and concerted measures up in such close order that it was impossible for with him for destroying the Roman army. Upon the enemy to miss their aim. As their arrows this advice, which occasioned great confusio-i in were of an extraordinary weight, and discharged the camp, the Romans being quite exhausted with incredible force and impetuosity, nothing with their long march, Crassus drew up his men was proof against them. The two wings advanced in battalia, following at first the advice of Cas- in good order to repulse them, but to no effect; sius, who was for extending the infantry as wide for the Parthians shot their arrows with as great as possible, that they might take up the more dexterity when their backs were turned as when ground, and thus prevent the enemy from sur- they faced the enemy; so that the Romans, wherounding them; but, Abgarus 'assuring the pro- ther they kept their ground or pursued the flying consul that the Parthian forces were not so nu- enemy, were equally annoyed with their fatal merous as was represented, he changed this dis- arrows. The Romans, as long as they had any position, and drew up his troops in a square, hopes that the Parthians, after having spent their which faced every way, and had on each side arrows, would either betake themselves to fight, twelve cohorts in front. Near each cohort he or engage them hand to hand, stood their ground plared a troop of horse to support them, that with great resolution and intrepidity; but when they might charge with the greater security and they observed that there were many camels in boldness. Thus the whole army looked more their rear loaded with arrows, and that those who like one phalanx than troops drawn up in mani- emptied their quivers wheeled about to fill them fuli, with spaces between them, after the Roman anew, they began to lose courage, and to commanner. The general himself commanded in plain of their general for suffering them thus to the centre, his son in the left wing, and Cassius stand still, and serve only as a butt to the enein the right. In this order they advanced to the my's arrows. Hereupon Crassus ordered his hanks of the Balissus, the sight of which was son to advance, and to attack the enemy with very pleasing to the soldiers, who were much 1300 horse, 500 archers, and eight cohorts. But harassed with drought and heat. Most of the the Parthians no sooner saw this choice body officers were for encamping on the banks of this (for it was the flower of the army) marching up river, to give the troops time to refresh them- against them, than they wheeled about, and be. selves; but Crassus, hurried on by the inconsi- took themselves, according to their custom, to derate ardor of his son, only allowed the legions light. Hereupon young Crassus, crying out, to take a meal standing, and, before this could They fly before us, pushed on full speed after be done by all, he ordered them to advance, not them, not doubting but he should gain a comslowly, and halting now and then after the Ro- plete victory; but when he was at a great distance man manner, but as fast as they could move, from the main body of the Roman army, he pertill they came in sight of the enemy, who, con- ceived his inistake; for those who before had ded, trary to their expectation, did not appear either facing about, charged him with incredible fury. so numerous or so terrible as they had been re- Young Crassus ordered his troops to halt, hoping presented; but this was a stratagem of Surenas, that the enemy, upon seeing their small number, who had concealed his men in convenient would not be afraid to come to a close fight: but places, ordering them to cover their arms, lest herein he was likewise greatly disappointed; for their brightness should betray them, and starting the Parthians, contenting themselves to oppose up at the first signal to attack the enemy on all bis front with their heavy armed horse, surroundsides. The stratagem had the desired effect; for ed him on all sides, and, keeping at a distance, Surenas no sooner gave the signal than the Par- discharged incessant showers of arrows upon the thians, rising as it were out of the ground with unfortunate Romans, thus surrounded and pent dreadful cries and a most frightful noise, ad- up. The Parthian cavalry, in wheeling about, vanced against the Romans, who were greatly raised so thick a dust that the Romans could surprised and dismayed at that sight ; and much scarcely see one another, far less the enemy. In a more so when the Parthians, throwing off the short time the place where they stood was covered covering of their arms, appeared in shining with dead bodies. Some of the unhappy Rocuirasses, and helmets of burnished steel, finely mans finding their entrails tort, and many overmounted on horses covered all over with armour come by the exquisite torments they suffered, of the same metal. At their head appeared rolled themselves in the sand and expired. Others young Surenas, in a rich dress, who was the first endeavouring to tear out by force the bearded who charged the enemy, endeavouring with his points of the arrows, only increased their pain. pikemen to break through the first ranks of the Most of them died in this manner; and those Roman army; but finding it too close and impe- who outlived their companions were no more in netrable, the cohorts supporting each other, he a condition to act; for when young Crassus exfell back, and retired in a seeming confusion; but horted them to march up to the enemy, some the Romans were much surprised when they saw showed him their wounded bodies, others their themselves suddenly surrounded on all sides, hands nailed to their bucklers, and some their and galled with continual showers of arrows. feet pierced through and pinned to the ground; Crassus ordered his light-armed foot and archers so that it was equally impossible for them to atto advance, and charge the enemy; but they tack the enemy or defend themselves. The young were soon repulsed, and forced to cover them- commander, therefore, leaving his infantry to the selves behind the heavy armed foot. Then the mercy of the enemy, advanced at the head of the Parthian horse, advancing near the Romans, dis- cavalry against their heavy armed horse. The charged showers of arrows upon them, which thousand Gauls whom he had brought with him
from the west charged the enemy with incredible only the last, who had escaped with great diftiboldness and vigor; but their lances did little culty, arrived safe, and informed bim that his
men armed with cuirasses, and son was lost if he did not send him an immediate horses covered with tried armour: however they and powerful reinforcement. This news threw behaved with great resolution; for some of them Crassus into the utmost consternation; but the taking hold of the enemy?: spears, and closing desire he had of saving his son and so many with them, threw them of their horses on the brave Romans who were under his command, ground, where they lay without being able to made him immediately decamp, and march to stir by the great weight of their armor; others, their assistance. lle was not gone fır before dismounting, crept under the enemy's borses, he was met by the Parthians, who, with loud and, thrusting their swords into their bellies, shouts, and songs of victory, gave, at a distance, made then throw their riders. Thus the brave the unhappy father notice of his misfortune. Gauls fought, though greatly harassed with heat They had cut off young Crassus's head, and, and thurst, which they were not accustomed to having fixed it on the pomt of a lance, were bear, till most of their horses were killed, and advancing full speed to fall on the father. As their commander dangerously wounded. They they drew near Crassus was struck with the disthen thought it advisable to retire to their in- mal sight, but behaved like a hero ; for he had fantry, which they no sooner joined than the the presence of mind to stifle his grief, and to Parthians invested them anew, making a most cry out to his dismayed troops, “ This misfortune dreadful havock of them with their arrows. In is entirely mine; the loss of one mau cannot this desperate condition Crassus, spying a rising affect the victory : Let us charge, let us tight ground at a small distance, led the remains of like Romans : If you have any compassion for his detachment thither, with a design to defend a father who has lost a son whose valor you adhimself in the best manner be could, till suc- mired, let it appear in your rage and resentment cours should be sent him from his father. The against these insulting barbarians.' Thus CrasParthians pursued him; and, having surrounded sus strove to reanimate his troops; but their him in his new post, continued showering arrows courage was quite sunk, as appeared from the upon his men, till most of them were either faint and languishing shout which they raised, killed or disabled, without being able to make according to custom, before the action. When use of their arms, or give the enemy proofs of the signal was given, the Parthians, keeping their valor. Young Crassus bad two Greeks to their old way of fighting, discharged clouds with him, who had settled in the city of Carrhæ. of arrows on the legionaries, without drawing These, touched with compassion at seeing so near them ; which did such dreadful execution brave a man reduced to such straits, pressed him that many of the Romans, to avoid the arrows, to retire with them to the city of Ischnes, which which occasioned a loug and painful death, threw had declared for the Romans; but the young themselves in despair on the enemy's heavyRoman rejected their proposal, saying that he armed horse, seeking from their spears a more would rather die a thousand times than abandon speedy death. Thus the Parthians continued so many valiant men, who sacriticed their lives plying them incessantly with their arrows till for his sake. He then embraced and dismissed night, when they left the field of battle, crying them, giving them leave to retire and shift for out that they would allow the father one night themselves. As for bimself, having now lost all to lament the death of his son. This was a hopes of being relieved, and seeing most of his melancholy night for the Romans. Crassus kept men and friends killed around him, he gave way bimself concealed from the soldiers, lying not to his grief; and, not being able to make use of in the general's tent, but in the open air, and on his arm, which was shot through with a large the bare ground, with his head wrapped up in barbed arrow, he presented his side to one of his his military cloak; and was, in that förlorn conattendants, and ordered him to put an end to his dition, says Plutarch, a great example to the vul. unhappy life. This example was followed by gar of the instability of fortune ; to the wise, a Censorius a senator, by Megabaccus an expe- still greater, of the pernicious effects of avarice, rienced and brave officer, and by most of the temerity, and ambition. Octavius, one of his nobility who served under him: 500 soldiers lieutenants, and Cassius, endeavoured to raise were taken prisoners, and the rest cut in pieces. him up and console him : but seeing him quite
The Parthians, having thus cut off or taken sunk under his affliction, and deaf to all comfort, the whole detachment commanded by young they summoned a council of war, composed of Crassus, marched without delay against his father, all the chief officers ; in which it was unaniwho, upon the first advice that the enemy fled mously resolved that they should decamp before before his son, and were closely pursued by him, day-break, and retire to Carrhæ, which was held had taken heart, the more because those who had by a Roman garrison. Agreeably to this resoremained to make head against him seemed to lution they began to march as soon as the counabate much of their ardor, the greater part of them cil broke up; which produced dreadful outcries having marched with the rest against his son. among the sick and wounded, who, perceiving Wherefore, having encouraged his troops, he had that they were to be abandoned to the mercy of retired to a small hill in his rear, to wait there the enemy, filled the camp with their complaints till his son returned from the pursuit. Young and lamentations : but their cries did not stop Crassus had despatched frequent expresses to the march of the others, which indeed was very his father, to acquaint him with the danger he slow to give the stragglers time to come up. was in; but they had fallen into the enemy's There were only 300 light horse, under the comhands, and been by them put to the sword: mand of one Egnatius, who pursued their march