« PreviousContinue »
Bishop of Durham; and in the entrance to the staircase are busts of the late eminent Physicians, Dis, Frewin and Lee. Fronting the stairease is an elegant statue of Dr. Robinson, the late Primate of Ireland; and upon a pedestal, in the recess on the north side of the upper apartment, is an admirable statue of Mr. Locke, formerly Student of this House, by Roubilliac.
Canterbury Court, once Canterbury College, is now most elegantly rebuilt, from a plan suitable to Peckwater, with a superb gateway, under the direction of Mr. Wyat, by the munificence of Dr. Robinson, late Primate of Ireland, and other Benefactors.
The Chaplains' Court is situated south-east of the grand quadrangle, on the north side whereof is a large building of new chambers; the walls of which was the Hall or Refectory of St. Frideswide's Priory.
The Court of the Grammar School is south of the great quadrangle, having the Hall on the north side of it: under part of the Hall is the spacious Common Room, in which is an excellent bust, by Rysbrack, of Dr. Busby, formerly Master of Westminster School; and a considerable Benefactor to the College. Round the room are the pictures of several of the Masters of the same School, and other eminent members of the Society. On the south side is the new Anatomical Theatre, erected and endowed by the late Dr. Lee, Physician to King George II. at the expence of 20,0001. with a proper stipend to the Lecturer, &c. In it is a fine collection of anatomical preparations and injections. The Wide Gravel Walk, shaded on each side with elms, deserves our notice, being a quarter of a mile in length, and of a proportionable breadth. It commands a sight of Lord Harcourt's seat, a pleasant prospect of the Meadows, the Thames, and some adjacent villages.
This College was founded by Cardinal Wolsey, upon the place where formerly stood the Priory of St. Frideswide, which, and several other religious foundations, were dissolved, in order to endow the new College intended by the Cardinal. The design was far from being completed at the time of the Cardinal's disgrace, little more being built than the east, south, and part of the west sides of the great quadrangle, and the Kitchen. And as to the foundation itself, whatever it might be at that time, it is certain it was afterwards lessened, and the form of it altered two or three times by the King. The disgrace of the Cardinal happened in the year 1529, when the King seized upon this College, as well as the other estates belonging to the Cardinal. In the year 1532, at the instance of Lord Cromwell, the King new-modelled the foundation, and gave it the name of King Henry the Eighth's College. This was suppressed in 1545, and in the year following the Episcopal see was removed from Oseney to this College, and the Church of St. Frideswide constituted a Cathedral, by the name of Christ's Church.
This foundation has continued in the same form ever since. It consists of a Dean, eight Canons, 101 Students, part of which are elected annually from Westminster School; and the other vacancies, as they happen, are filled up fey the Dean and Canons; eight Chaplains, eight Singing-Men, and as many Choristers, a Schoolmaster, an Organist, &c. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth, this College has largely experienced the bounty of several benefactors, particularly Bishop Fell, who left ten Exhibitions of 101. per ann. to Commoners, to be held for ten years from the time they were nominated to them. The 101st Studentship was added by William Thurston, Esq. 1663. Several Exhibitions were given by Lady Holford, for Scholars educated at the Charter-House, and more by other benefactors. Visitor. The King.
PEMBROKE College, so called from the Earl of Pembroke, Chancellor of the University at the time it was founded, is situated near St. Aldate's Church, in a direct line from the grand Gate of Christ Church, and consists of two small courts. The quadrangle is uniform, having the Hall at the north-west angle, in which are pictures of the Founders and some Benefactors, and a Bust of Dr. Johnson, by Bacon. The chapel is a small, elegant building, of the Ionic order, with a beautiful Altar-piece, a copy, by Cranke, from Rubens's picture at Antwerp of our Saviour after his Resurrection. In the Garden, which is west of the Chapel, is a pleasant Common Room, and a Terrace-walk. The Master's Lodgings, which join to the College on the north, is a modern edifice.
This College, formerly Broadgate Hall, was founded anno 1620, by Thomas Tesdale, of Glympton, Esq. and Richard Whitwick, S.T. B. Rector of Ilsley, Berks, for a Master, ten Fellows, and ten Scholars. Four of Mr. Tesdale's Fellows to be chosen out of his relations, and the rest to come from Abingdon Free-School.
As to Mr. Whitwick's benefaction, two of the Fellows and two Scholars to be of his kindred, and the rest from Abingdon School.
King Charles I. granted to this Society the perpetual advowson of St. Aldate's Church, and certain lands for the maintenance of one Fellow, to be chosen from Guernsey or Jersey.
Archbishop Abbot, Juliana Stafford, and Francis Rous, were the next Benefactors; and Dr. George Morley, Bishop of Winchester, founded five Scholarships for the natives of Guernsey and Jersey.
Queen Anne annexed a Prebend of Gloucester to the Mastership. Lady Holford gave two Exhibitions of 201. a year each; Dr. Hall, Master of this College, and Bishop of Bristol, built the Master's Lodgings; Sir John Bennet, Lord Ossulstone, endowed two Fellowships and Scholarships; Mr. Townshend gave eight Exhibitions to young Scholars from Gloucestershire; and Sir John Philips, Bart, in 1749, founded one Fellowship and one Scholarship.
The present members are, a Master, fourteen Fellows, thirty Scholars and Exhibitioners; the whole number of Students usually about 70.
Visitor. The Chancellor of the University.
Five Halls or Academical Houses, not incorporated, are still remaining. Originally the Students lived chiefly in Halls or Hotels, where Professors and Tutors resided. But when the Colleges were founded, and still more when the Reformation took place, the liberal education now in use brought the Students to the more convenient accommodation in Colleges. These Societies are not endowed, though they have