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on the roof, is upwards of 50 feet. Thus is the elevation of the centre of this building an hundred feet and upwards.
In the eastern wing is contained, in three rooms, a complete set of Astronomical Instruments, fixed in the plane of the Meridian, made by the late unrivalled artist, Mr. John Bird, at the expence of above 11001. consisting of two Quadrants, each of eight feet radius; a Transit Instrument of eight feet, and a Zenith-Sector of twelve.
In the western wing is placed a set of smaller instruments, for the use of such Students as choose to apply themselves to practical Astronomy.
The Dwelling-House for the Professor is very commodiously connected with the eastern wing of the Observatory by a covered way.
In the lower part of the field is a small circular building, with a moveable roof, in which is placed an Equatorial Sector, for the purpose of observing the places of the heavenly bodies at any distance from the meridian.
As company would interrupt the business of the Observatory, it is not shewn to strangers, and improper intrusion into the grounds is prevented by the Porter at the gate.
THE PHYSIC Or BOTANICAL GARDEN
is situated on the south of Magdalen College. This was the donation of Henry D'Anvers, Earl of Danby, who purchased a lease of the ground (containing five acres) of Magdalen College, surrounded it with a lofty wall, and erected, next to the street, a parapet with iron palisades.
The Gateway is justly esteemed an elegant piece of architecture. The design is ascribed to Inigo Jones; nor is it unworthy of that architect. It was executed by Nicholas Stone, senior. In the centre over the arch is a bust of the founder, Lord Danby. On the left hand of the entrance is a statue of Charles I. and on the right one of Charles II. On the face of the corona and the frize is the following inscription: viz. Gloria Dei Opt. Max. Honori Caroli I. Regis in Usum Acad, et Reipub. Henricus Comes Danby, D. D. anno 1632. This inscription is likewise on the garden front.
The Garden is divided into four quarters, with a broad walk down the middle. Near the entrance are two elegant and useful Greenhouses, built for Exotics, of which there is a considerable collection. In the quarters is the greatest variety of such plants as require no artificial heat to nourish them, all ranged in their proper classes, and numbered.
Eastward of the Garden, without the walls,, is an excellent Hot-house; where tender plants are raised and brought to great perfection; viz. the Anana or Pine-Apple, the Plantain, the Coffee Shrub, the Caper-tree, the Cinnamon, the Creeping Cereus, and many others. The Caper and Coffee Shrub bear well. This useful foundation has been much improved by Dr. Sherard, who, in 1728, provided a salary for the Professor, and brought from Smyrna a valuable collection of plants: and the late learned Professor, Dr. Sibthorpe, who also resided some years in the East, enriched the collection with many new articles. The assistant to the Professor is provided by the University; he is generally ready to attend such persons as wish to be minutely informed as to the more scarce and curious plants.
We proceed next to describe and give some account of the several Colleges; and as Magdalen College is the nearest to the place we last mentioned, and the first we meet with in the road from London, it may be most convenient to begin with that College.
The College of St. Mary Magdalen is situated near the river Cherwell, at the east end of the city. The first thing worthy attention is the west entrance into the Chapel; over which are five small figures, of elegant sculpture. That on the right, in a kneeling posture, represents the Founder; the next, William of Wykeham, the Founder of the two St. Mary Winton Colleges; that in the middle, St. Mary Magdalen, to whom the College is dedicated; the next, in a kneeling posture, King Henry III. who refounded the Hospital which was converted into this College; and that on the left, St. John the Baptist, to whom the said Hospital was dedicated.
The building on the left hand is the President's Lodgings. Near the entrance, on the right hand, is the Chapel, which is a well-proportioned edifice, in form of a Roman T inverted. A new roof has been placed on this Chapel, after an elegant design (in 1793); and the whole is now one of the most finished Chapels in the place. In the Ante-chapel, on the left of the organ-loft, is a Monument erected to the memory of two Brothers of the name of Lyttelton, who were drowned in the river Cherwell, one by endeavouring to save the other. The Ante-chapel has been adorned with an elegant new pulpit, lecturer's seat, and new paving.
The west Window, painted in claro obscuro, was done after a design of Schwartz, as appears by a print engraved by Sadelar from the original. It represents the last Judgment. But having