« PreviousContinue »
been greatly damaged by the high wind which happened in 1703, it was after a long interval restored to its original excellence by Mr. Eginton, of Handsworth, near Birmingham, in 1794. Till the time of the Civil Wars, all the windows were painted in the same manner. Those now in the Chapel were removed thither from the Ante-chapel in 1741; but not being a sufficient number to glaze the whole, two new ones were afterwards added. And in the year 1797, the Society was at the expence of setting up in the Ante-chapel eight painted windows, designed and executed by the above-mentioned ingenious artist. They are adorned with the figures of the two patron saints, St. John Baptist and St. Mary Magdalen; of Kings Henry III. and VI. by the former of whom St. John Baptist's Hospital was, as we have observed, refounded, and by the latter of whom it was, together with its possessions, conveyed to the College; of William Waynflete the Founder, and William Wykeham, Founder of New College, to which Society Waynflete is conjectured to have belonged; of Bishop Fox, Founder of Corpus Christi College, and Cardinal Wolsey, the Founder of Cardinal College, afterwards refounded with the appellation of Christ Church, both of whom had been Fellows of this Society. The other compartments of the windows are enriched with designs of Christ's Baptism, and of the Adoration at the • c 5
sepulchre, with the College-arms, and those of the above-mentioned kings and prelates, and with other ornaments remarkable for the correctness of the style in which they are executed.
The Altar-piece was painted by Isaac Fuller, an English history-painter, about 150 years ago; who, having studied and admired the muscular manner of Michael Angelo, seems to have neglected the graceful elegance of Raphael: for although many of the figures may justly be deemed excellent anatomical drawings; yet, for want of that easy and natural disposition peculiar to the last-mentioned great master, and better colouring, the whole appears crude, and perhaps had not the last finishing. Underneath this piece of the last Judgment, is an admirable picture of our Saviour bearing his cross, long supposed to have been painted by Guido, but now generally attributed to Moralez, a Spanish artist who flourished in the sixteenth century. It was at Vigo, and brought into England by the late Duke of Ormond; but afterwards falling into the hands of William Freman, Esq. of Hamels in. Hertfordshire, he gave it to the College. To this Gentleman the College is likewise chiefly obliged for an excellent Organ, two additional Bells to the peal of eight, and other considerable benefactions.
The altar was built, in the present manner, about the year 1730. The design is elegant, and the workmanship well performed: besides the common embellishments of the Corinthian Order, there are festoons over every pannel, extremely well carved, which greatly enrich it.
Each window contains six Figures nearly as large as the life, representing the Apostles, primitive Fathers, Saints, and Martyrs. Cathedral service is performed here every day at ten and between three and four, except Sundays and Holidays, when the morning prayers begin at eight, on account of the University sermon.
From hence, on the right, we pass into the Cloister, which remains in its primitive state; the whole making the most venerable appearance of any College in Oxford, having undergone the fewest alterations of any since it was founded. On the south side are the Hall and Chapel; on the west the Library; and on the north and east, the Lodgings of the Fellows, Demies, &c. At the south-east corner of the Cloister is the way up to the Hall, which is a very spacious room, handsomely fitted up, and adorned with six whole-length portraits, viz. of the Founder, Dr. Butler, formerly President, William Freman, Esq. Abp. Boulter, Prince Henry, and Prince Rupert; four half-lengths, viz. Bp. Wilcocks, Bp. Hough, Bp. Warner, a great benefactor to the Library, and Dr. Hammond.
The interior part of this Cloister is ornamented with Hieroglyphics, of which we shall here give a particular, and, we trust, a rational account, from a Latin' manuscript in the Library of this College.
'Beginning therefore from the south-west cor'ner, the two first figures we meet with are the 'Lion and the Pelican. The former of these is the emblem of Courage and Vigilance; the latter, of parental Tenderness and Affection. Both of them together express to us the complete character of a good governor of a College. Accordingly they are placed under the window of those lodgings which originally 'belonged to the Pre'sident, as the instructions 'they convey ought particularly to regulate his 'conduct.
'Going on to the right hand, on the other side 'of the gateway, are four figures, viz. the Sckool'master, the Lawyer, the Physician, and the Di'vine. These are ranged along the outside of the Library, and represent the duties and busi'ness of the Students of the house. By means of learning in general, they are to 'be intro
• This piece is entitled CEdipus Magdalenensis: Explicatio viz. Imaginum, et Figurarum, qua apud Magdalenenses in interior* Collegii Quadrangulo Tiliicinibus imposita visuntur. It was written by Mr. William Reeks, some time Fellow of this College, at the request of Dr. Clerk, who was President from the year 1671 to 1687, and to whom it is inscribed. It is divided into two parts. In the first, the general doctrine of Hieroglyphics is very learnedly discussed. In the latter, he descends to a particular consideration of the Hieroglyphics at Magdalen; and from this part the account here given is extracted.
'duced to one of the three learned professions; 'or else, as hinted to us by the figure with Cap 'and Bells in the corner, they must turn out 'Fools in the end.
'We come now to the north side of the Qua
• drangle: arid here the three first figures repre4 sent the History of David, his conquest over 'the Lion and Goliath; from whence we are taught, not to be discouraged at any difficulties 'that may stand in our way, as the Vigour of 'Youth will easily enable us to surmount them. The next figure to these is 'that of the Hippo 'potamos, or River-Horse, carrying his young one upon his shoulders. This is the emblem
* of a good tutor, or fellow of a College, who is set to watch over the youth of the society, and by whose prudence 'they are to be led through the dangers of their first entrance into the world. The figure immediately following re'presents Sobriety or 'Temperance, that most ne'cessary virtue of a collegiate life. The whole remaining train 'of figures are the vices we are instructed to 'avoid. Those next to Temperance are the 'opposite vices of Gluttony and Drunk'enness. Then follow the Lucanthropos, the Hy'ana, and Panther, representing Violence, Fraud, 'and Treachery; the Griffin representing Covet'ousness, and the next figure, Anger or Morose'ness.The Dog, the Dragon, the Deer, Fiat'tery,Envy, and Timidity; and the three last,