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activitatis, which is but at such a distance. But this way “ hath no bounder, if the vessels be strong enough; for I s have taken a piece of a whole cannon, whereof the end was “burst, and filled it three quarters full of water. Stopping “ and scruing up the broken end, as also the touchhole, and “making a constant fire under it, within 24 hours it burst s and made a great crack. So that having a way to make

my vessels, so that they are strengthened by the force “ within them, and the one to fill after the other, I have seen " the water run like a constant fountaine-stream forty foot

high; one vessel of water rarified by fire driveth up forty 6 of cold water. And a man that tends the work is but to “ turn two cocks, that one vessel of water being consumed, “ another begins to force and re-fill with cold water, and so

successively, the fire being tended and kept constant, which “ the selfsame person may likewise abundantly perform in “ the interim between the necessity of turning the said cocks."

“ 98. An engine so contrived, that working the primum mobile forward or backward, upward or downward, circularly “ or corner-wise, to and fro, streight, upright or downright, “yet the pretended operation continueth, and advanceth[:] “none of the motions above-mentioned, hindering, much less

stopping the other; but unanimously and with harmony

agreeing, they all augment and contribute strength unto " the intended work and operation : and therefore I call this “ a semi-omnipotent engine, and do intend that a model thereof 66 be buried with me.

“ 99. How to make one pound weight to raise an hundred as high as one pound falleth, and yet the hundred pound “ descending doth what nothing less than one hundred pound can effect.

“ 100. Upon so potent a help as these two last mentioned “ inventions, a waterwork is by many years' experience and “ labour so advantageously by me contrived, that a child's “force bringeth up an hundred foot high an incredible “ quantity of water, even two foot diameter, so naturally, « that the work will not be heard even into the next room ; “ and with so great ease and geometrical symmetry, that though it work day and night from one end of the year to “ the other, it will not require forty shillings reparation to " the whole engine, nor hinder 'ones day-work. And I may

boldly call it the most stupendious work in the whole world : “ not onely with little charge to drein all sorts of mines, and * furnish cities with water, though never so high seated, as “ well to keep them sweet, running through several streets, " and so performing the work of scavingers, as well as fur

nishing the inhabitants with sufficient water for their private “ occasions, but likewise supplying rivers with sufficient to “ maintaine and make them portable from towne to towne, and “ for the bettering of lands all the way it runs; with many

more advantageous, and yet greater effects of profit, ad“ miration, and consequence. So that deservedly I deem this “ invention to crown my labours, to reward my expences, “ and make my thoughts acquiesce in way of further “ inventions."

In these extracts are contained the principal reasons for posterity supposing the Marquis to have been acquainted with the power of steam, and able to apply it to some useful purpose. It is true that in the same extraordinary work, if we are to believe its noble author, many great inventions of more modern days, as well as some which still lie hid in the future, were antieipated. Within the compass of a few very small duodecimo pages, the Marquis enumerates “A way how to “ make a Boat work itself against Wind and Tide, yea, both “ without the help of man or beast;”—“How to make “ Pistol to discharge a dozen times with one loading, and “ without so much as once new Priming requisite;" —“How “to make a man to fly; which I have tried with a little Boy “ of ten years old in a barn, from one end to the other, on

an Hay-mow;"—“A Watch to go constantly, and yet needs “no other winding from the first setting on the Cord or

Chain, unless it be broken;"_“An Engine whereby one “ man may take out of the water a Ship of 500 Tun, so that “ it may be calked, trimmed and repaired without need of " the usual way of stocks, and as easily let down again;"“ An Instrument whereby an ignorant person may take any


" thing in Perspective, as justly, and more than the skilfullest “Painter can do by his eye;" &c. &c. &c.

All of these, and of the ninety other articles of which the Century' is made up, wanted only one condition to be complied with by their author, to satisfy the world that they were not the mere idle dreams of a mechanical visionary, or the impudent boasts of a pseudo-scientific braggart.. But that condition is certainly an important one; viz. that he should have executed all, or at least some of the more important of the various machines which he thus describes. And on this point, in the case of the Marquis, there is unfortunately considerable room for doubt; although the little • Century'closes with an account of his “meaning to leave to “ Posterity a Book, wherein under each of these Heads the

means to put in execution and visible trial all and every of these Inventions, with the shape and form of all things “ belonging to them, shall be printed by Brass-plates.” This was published in 1663, and the Marquis lived for four years afterwards ; but, as the promised work never appeared, it is perhaps not very unfair to suppose, as some authors have done, that he either was unable, or never seriously intended, to make such a further publication.

Still it is but just towards his memory to mention some circumstances, which, at least in so far as the “water" eommanding engine" is concerned, seem to afford grounds for supposing that, whatever might be the true nature of the power by which it acted, or of the effects which it was able to produce, such an engine was actually constructed and set to work.

On the 16th of March, 1663,--the same year in which, as already stated, appeared the Century of Inventions,'—a Bill was brought into Parliament “to enable Edward Marquess “ of Worcester to receive the benefit and profit of a water“ commanding engine by him invented; one tenth part “ whereof is appropriated for the benefit of the King's

Majesty, his heirs and successors," during a term of ninetynine years; and this Bill was passed into an Act on the 3rd of June following, not, as Lord Orford erroneously supposed, on the simple affirmation by the Marquis of his having made such a discovery, but after repeated meetings of committees on the subject, in both Houses, at which several amendments were made on the Bill.* Besides the passing of the Act, and the publication of the Century,' the principal circumstances that seem to show that the Marquis did more than merely imagine the construction of such an engine, are the following :

(1.) It is expressly provided in the Act, “ that a model " thereof” [i. e. of the engine] “ be delivered by the said Mar

quess or his assigns, to the Lord Treasurer or Commis“sioners for the Treasury for the time being, at or before the “ nine-and-twentieth day of September, one thousand six hun“dred sixty-three, and be by him or them put into the " Exchequer and kept there.” Unfortunately, we are not in a condition to prove that this model ever was so deposited. The Act was passed prior to the publication of the Century, for in the Dedication prefixed to the latter, "To the Right " Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and to the Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses of the Honourable House “ of Commons, now assembled in Parliament,” the Marquis speaks of “the Act of the Water-commanding Engine (which so chearfully you have past).” Yet in the whole course of the work he does not say either that the model had been deposited as directed, or that the engine was in course of construction on a great scale; although he does speak very confidently of the feats he intended to perform, with the help of one “Caspar Kaltoff's hand,” an “unparallelled work

The following history of the date Read a second time, and referred of the introduction of the Bill, and of to a Committee of fifty-one members, its progress through Parliament, which

4 April. We have taken from the Journals of Committee reported several amendthe respective Houses, will, we be- ments, which were agreed to, and lieve, be found a more correct one. further proviso recommended, 13

The Marquis of Worcester's Engine April. Bill was brought into the House of Bill with amendments and proviso Lords, and there read a first time, on agreed to, 5 May; and Lord Herbert the 16th of March, 1663.

directed to carry the same up to the Bill read a second time 19 March, Lords. and referred to a Committee of twenty- Bill with amendments brought up two Peers.

to the House of Lords, 7 May. The Committee reported certain The Lords acquaint the Commons alterations on the Bill, which were that they agree to the amendments read twice, and the Bill was re-com- and alterations in the Bill; message mitted, 28 March.

received by the Commons, 12 May. Further report from the Committee, The Royal Assent given by Comof a proviso to be added : proviso read mission to the Act, 3 June, 1663. twice and agreed to, and Bill ordered It will thus be seen that the Act to be engrossed, with the proviso, 30 in question was not passed without March.

formal, and apparently careful delibeBill read a third time, and passed, ration; though we still are uninformed 31 March

as to how far evidence may have been Sent to the House of Commons, 2 called for, before either of the ComApril.

mittees, as to the reality and the Read a first time in the House of specific particulars of the invention Commons, 3 April.

affirmed to have been made.

man both for trust and skill, who hath been these five-and

thirty years as in a school under me imployed, and still “at my disposal, in a place by my great expences made fit “ for publick service;"—expenses which he afterwards estimates at 10,0001. His expectations of realising a fortune by his engine were evidently exuberant; and, with a heroic boldness not unworthy of the rest of his character and proceedings, he professes his design of first paying his debts, next of settling a competency to himself to live according to his birth and quality, and lastly, of dedicating the rest to the service of his king and country ;-who, however, fared little the better for that "bright reversion !”

(2.) In a letter to the Marchioness of Worcester from her confessor, dated 1670, which was three years after the death of her lord, the writer remonstrates with her ladyship for allowing her thoughts to be too much set “on the title of “ Plantagenet, and of disposing yourself for that greate dig“ nity by getting of greate sums of money from the King to “pay your deceased lord's debts, and enriching your selfe by “ the great machine and the like.” All of which ideas the priest, Walter Travers, declares to be motives employed by the devil, “ to make his suggestions the more prevalent:” very piously advising the Marchioness, “insteede of temporall, “ to seeke after eternall riches and honors,” but very ungallantly adding, “ which your age doth assure you are not “ far off.”

Along with this letter may be taken another still more curious document, preserved, like it, by the Beaufort family, and published in 1825 in Mr. Partington's edition of the

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