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and steam-pipe, to any purpose of utility; and in all probability he never either executed them on a great scale, or attempted to regulate the force which on a small scale he may have been able so to exert. The engine devised by Lord Worcester, on the other hand, if we are to believe the concurrent testimony of his own description and prayer,—of the correspondence between his widow and her confessor, of the panegyric of his servant Rollock,--and of the account given by Duke Cosmo de Medicis and his Secretary Magalotti,—would appear to have been at last executed on a scale large enough to produce very considerable hydraulic effects; and, although we must probably ever remain ignorant of the precise manner in which it acted, still there is no doubt that the language used by all parties in regard to it could best be explained, by supposing that steam, in some one or more of its manifold ways of operation, was its moving power.

Considering the uselessness of the contrivance of De Caus, and the doubtfulness existing as to that of the Marquis, it is, perhaps, rather surprising that “the invention of the steam“ engine” should have been attributed to either of them, with such great confidence as both French and English writers have alternately shown. So long, however, as the little national rivalry was characterised by a due regard to controversial fairness, there was nothing either unpleasing in its aspect, or likely to prove hurtful in its consequences. But in all such controversies, whether scientific or literary, where either national or personal glory is concerned, the first requisite is that they be conducted with a strict regard to truth and justice; that no false weapons be used, no foul blows dealt, nor unfair advantage taken ; and, as a natural corollary from such propositions,—where these rules have been infringed, defeat and ignominy deserve to be the result. These remarks may appear severe; but we shall leave our readers to judge, after having perused the following statement, whether they are uncalled for.

In a work entitled “A Summer amongst the Bocages and the Vines,' published in 1840, by Miss Louisa Stuart Costello, a lady very favourably known to the world by several of her writings, appears the following letter, which she states, without hinting a suspicion of the truth of the statement, to have been written by Marion de l'Orme, in 1641, to M. de Cinq-Mars. Mademoiselle de l'Orme, we need scarcely inform our readers, was a lady whose ; name only too frequently occurs in the scandalous annals of the Court of Louis XIII. ; and Cinq-Mars was the hapless d'Effiat, at one time the youthful favourite of that monarch, but also too well known by the recklessness of his life, and the tragic fate which early befell him. There is, we believe, little doubt that between d'Effiat and Marion de l'Orme there were certain passages of love, of which many curious anecdotes have been preserved; and so far there appeared to be some foundation on which the superstructure of the following letter might fairly rest :—“ Paris, Feb. 1641. My dear Effiat,— While you are

forgetting me at Narbonne, and giving yourself up to the “ pleasures of the Court and the delight of thwarting M. le

Cardinal de Richelieu, I, according to your express desire,

am doing the honours of Paris to your English lord, the “ Marquis of Worcester; and I carry him about, or, rather, “ he carries me, from curiosity to curiosity, choosing always “ the most grave and serious, speaking very little, listening “ with extreme attention, and fixing on those whom he inter“ rogates two large blue eyes, which seem to pierce to the “ very centre of their thoughts. He is remarkable for never “ being satisfied with any explanations which are given him; " and he never sees things in the light in which they are “shown him: you may judge of this by a visit we made “ together to Bicêtre, where he imagined he had discovered a genius in a madman.

“ If this madman had not been actually raving, I verily “ believe your Marquis would have entreated his liberty, and “ have carried him off to London, in order to hear his extra

vagances, from morning till night, at his ease. We were “ crossing the court of the mad-house, and I, more dead than " alive with fright, kept close to my companion's side, when " a frightful face appeared behind some immense bars, and “ a hoarse voice exclaimed, “I am not mad! I am not mad! “ • I have made a discovery which would enrich the country « « that adopted it.' • What has he discovered?' I asked of “our guide. 'Oh,' he answered, shrugging his shoulders,

something trifling enough; you would never guess it; it " " is the use of the steam of boiling water.' I began to “ laugh. “This man,' continued the keeper, “is named Salo6 « mon de Caus; he came from Normandy, four years ago, “« to present to the King a statement of the wonderful effects " • that might be produced from his invention. To listen to “ him, you would imagine that with steam you could navi

gate ships, move carriages, in fact, there is no end to the « miracles which, he insists upon it, could be performed. « « The Cardinal sent the madman away without listening to “ • him. Salomon de Caus, far from being discouraged, fol“ • lowed the Cardinal wherever he went, with the most “ • determined perseverance; who, tired of finding him for “ • ever in his path, and annoyed to death with his folly, “ ordered him to be shut up in Bicêtre, where he has now “ been for three years and a half, and where, as you hear, “ he calls out to every visitor that he is not mad, but that " " he has made a valuable discovery. He has even written

a book on the subject, which I have here.' “ Lord Worcester, who had listened to this account with "much interest, after reflecting a time, asked for the book, “ of which, after having read several pages, he said, “ This man is not mad. In my country, instead of shutting him

he would have been rewarded. Take me to him, for “I should like to ask him some questions.' He was ac

cordingly conducted to his cell, but after a time he came “ back sad and thoughtful. He is, indeed, mad now,' said “he; misfortune and captivity have alienated his reason; “ • but it is you who have to answer for his madness : when

you cast him into that cell, you confined the greatest “genius of the age. After this we went away, and, since " that time, he has done nothing but talk of Salomon de Caus.

"' up,

* Here Miss Costello, in a note, adds the title of De Caus' book, "Les • Raisons des Forces Mouvantes.'

“Adieu, my dear friend and faithful Henry. Make haste “and come back, and pray do not be so happy where you are “ as not to keep a little love for me.


To us, we confess, it always appeared that this letter savoured very strongly of having been written in the nineteenth century; and we now beg to inform those of our readers who might at first have been disposed to think differently, that it is, throughout, an imposture. So far from

your English lord, the Marquis of Worcester,” having then been in Paris, dangling at the apron-string of Mademoiselle de l'Orme, and choosing to appear everywhere in public with so virtuous a young lady, “ listening with extreme attention,” “ fixing on those whom he interrogates two large blue eyes,” reading the book of De Caus, of which the keeper of the madhouse so naturally had a copy in readiness for accidental visitors, &c. &c. &c., there was not, and there never had been, at the date of the letter in question, either in France or in England, any such person as a Marquis of Worcester at all, nor was there any such title as that Marquisate in existence. Further, the first peer who bore that title was not the Marquis of Worcester of steam-engine fame; and the latter did not become either Earl or Marquis of Worcester for nearly six years after the date of the alleged interview with De Caus, from which “ he returned" so “sad and thoughtful !”

Henry Somerset, fifth Earl of Worcester, was not created a Marquis till 1642, when his son Edward, the author of the • Century of Inventions,' was known as Lord Herbert. Edward, Lord Herbert, was created Earl of Glamorgan in 1645; and on the death of his father, the first Marquis, who died in December, 1646, at the venerable age of eighty-five years," he succeeded to the Earldom and Marquisate of Worcester. The second Marquis died, we may add, (although that date is not material to our present purpose), on the 3rd of April, 1667, and is interred in the cemetery of the Beaufort family in Ragland church. Were further proofs wanting of the incorrectness of the story, they would be found in the facts that De Caus, so far from having been persecuted by Cardinal Richelieu, in the dedication of one of his works gratefully acknowledges the patronage he received from him; and that while the letter, as we have seen, is dated 1641, De Caus is recorded, on the back of his portrait preserved at Heidelberg, to have died in 1630.

*"He defended his castle of Raglan long after surrendered his life also, " against the predominant party of the in custody of the Parliament's Black

Long Parliament, which, being the Rod, in Covent Garden, London, in " last garrison of the King's that held " the month of December in the same

out in England, was at last delivered year 1646, and was interred in the “ up upon honourable terms in the “ vault at Windsor the Christmas fol" month of August, 1646. But these “ lowing.”—Sandford's 'Genealogical "conditions being basely violated, • History of the Kings of England.' “this first Marquess of Worcester not

We are far from accusing Miss Costello of having been an accomplice in the literary fraud which we have thus had the satisfaction of exposing as it deserves. That lady will no doubt now regret having been an involuntary instrument in giving currency to the document we have quoted, which is said to have first appeared in the · Musée des Familles' for 1834, and thence to have been copied into a work entitled • Rouen et les Rouennais,' where she found it: as she thereby stamped it with an apparent mark of truth, which it might otherwise never have received.

An Edinburgh Reviewer * talks of “ Solomon de Caus, “ who, as his countrymen say, communicated the discovery “ of the steam-engine to the Marquis of Worcester.” Sydney Smith, who thought the letter “most curious and interesting," fancied there was some reason to believe it authentic.” † Hans Christian Andersen, the well-known author of many lively Danish tales, has shared in a like credulity, and says that “Solomon de Caus, the discoverer of steam, was a “ remarkable man, far before the age he lived in, and there“ fore confined in a madhouse;" | the authority for De Caus’ lunacy and imprisonment being just the same as for the Marquis of Worcester having been in Paris, in company

* Edinburgh Review, No. 171, for by Lady Holland, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 387. January, 1847, Review of Lurine's I.To Be or Not to Be.' Transwork · Les Rues de Paris.'

lated from the Danish by Mrs. Bushby, † Memoir of the Rev. Sydney Smith 1857, p. 187.

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