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Would stand between me and thy Father's ire
(Whose ire I dread more than the fire of hell,)
A shelter, and a kind of shading cool
Interposition, as a summer's cloud.
If I then to the worst that can be haste,
Why move thy feet so slow to what is best,
Happiest, both to thyself and all the world,
That tliou, who worthiest art, should'st be their

king!

Perhaps thou lingerest in deep thoughts detained
Of the enterprise so hazardous and high:
No wonder; for though in thec be united
What of perfection can in man be found,
Or human nature can receive, consider,
Thy life hath yet been private, most part spent
At home, scaree viewed the Galilean towns,
And once a year Jerusalem, a few days'
Short sojourn; and what thence could'st thou ob-
serve?

The world thou hast not seen, much less her glory,
Empires and monarehs, and their radiant courts,
Best school of best experience, quickest insight
In all things that to greatest actions lead.
The wisest, unexperienced, will be ever
Timorous and loth, with novice modesty,
(As he who, seeking asses, found R kingdom,)
Irresolute, unhardy, unadventurous:
But I will bring thec where thou soon shall quit
Those rudiments, and see before thine eyes
The monarehies of the earth, their pomp and state;
Sufficient introduction to inform
Thee, of thyself so apt, in regal arts,
And regal mysteries, that thou may'st know
How bcs,t their opposition to withstand."
With that (such power was given him then) he

took

The Son of God up to a mountain high.
It was a mountain at whose verdant feet
A spacious plain, outstretehed in cireuit wide,
Lay pleasant; from his side two rivers flowed,
The one winding, th' other straight, and left be-
tween

Fair champaign with less rivers interveined,
Then meeting joined their tribute to the sea;
Fertile of corn the glebe, ol oil, and wine;
With herds the pastures thronged, with flocks the

hills:

Huge cities and high towered, •hat well might seem
The seats of mightiest monarehs; and so large
The prospect was, that here and there was room
Pot barren desert, fountainless and dry.
To this lugh mountain top the Tempter brought
Oar Saviour, and new train of words began.

"Well have we speeded, and o'er hill and dale,
Forest and field and flood, temples tmd towers,
But shorter many a league, here thou behold'st
Asvrria, and her empire's aneient bounds,
Araxes and the Caspian lake; thence on
As far as Indus east, Euphrates west,

And oft beyond: to south the Persian bay

And, inaecessible, the Arabian drought:

Here Nineveh, of length within her wail

Several days' journey, built by Minus old.

Of that first golden monarehy the seat,

And scat of Salmanassar, whose suecess

Israel in long captivity still mourns;

There Babylon, the wonder of all tongues.

As ancient, but rebuilt by him who twice

Judah and all thy father David's house

Led captive, and Jerusalem laid waste,

Till Cyrus set them free; Persepolis,

His city, there thou seest, and Bactra there i

Eebatana her structure vast there shows,

And HecaUmipyios her hundred gates;

There Susa by Choaspes, amber stream,

The drink of none but kings; of later fame,

Built by Emathian or by Parthian hands,

The great Seleucia, Nisibis, and there

Artaxata, Tererlon, Ctesiphon,

Turning with easy eye thou mayest behold.

All these the Parthian (now some ages pott

By great Arsaecs led, who founded first

That empire) under his dominion holds,

From the luxurious kings of Antioch won.

And just in time thou comest to have a view

Of his great power; for now the Parthian king

In Ctes.iphon hath gathered all his host

Against the Scythian, whose incursions wild

Have wasted Sogdiana; to her aid

He marehes now in haste; see, though from far,

His thousands, in what martial equipage

They issue forth, steel bows and shafts their arms

Of equal dread in flight, or in pursuit;

Al l horsemen, in which fight they most excel:

See how in warlike muster they appear,

In rhombs, and wedges, and half-moons, and

wings.'

He looked, and saw what numbers numberleM The city gates outpourod, light armed troops, In coats of mail and military pride; In mail their norses clad, yet fleet and strong, Prancing their riders bore, the flower and choice Of many provinces from beund to bound; From Arachosia, from Candaor cast, And Margiana to the Hyreanian cliffs Of Caucasus, and dark Iberian dales; From Atropatia and the neighbouring plams Of Adiabene, Media, and the south Of Susiana, to Balsara's haven. He saw them in their forms of battle ranged, How quick they wheeled, and, flying, behind thea

shot

Sharp sleet of arrowy showers against the face
Of their pursuers, and overeame by flight;
The field all iron cast a gleaming brown;
Nor wanted clouds of foot, nor on each him
Cuirassiers all in steel for standing fight,
Chariots, or elephants indorsed with towon

Of aimers; nor of labouring pioneers
A multitude, with spades and axes armed
To lay hills plain, fell woods, or valleys fill,
Or where plain was raise hill, or overlay
With bridges riven proud, as with a yoke;
Mules after these, camels and dromedaries,
And wagons, fraught with utensils of war.
Such forces met not, nor so wide a camp,
When Agncan with all his northern powers
Besieged Albracea, as romances tell,
The city of Gallaphrone, from whence to win
The fairest of her sex Angelica,
Hi s daughter, sought by many prowest knights,
Both Paynim and the peers of Charlemagne.
Such and so numerous was their chivalry:
At sight whereof the fiend yet more presumed,
And to our Saviour thus his words renewed.

"That thou may'st know I seek not to engage
Thy virtue, and not every way secure
On no slight grounds thy safety; hear, and mark
To what end I have brought thee hither, and shown
All this fair sight: thy kingdom, though foretold
By prophet or by angel, unless thou
• Endeavour, as thy father David did,
Thou never shalt obtain; prediction still
In all things, and all men, supposes means;
Without means used, what it predicts revokes.
But say thou wert possessed of David's throne,
By free consent of all, none opposite,
Samaritan or Jew; how couldst thou hope
Long to enjoy it quiet and secure,
Between two such enclosing enemies,
Roman tnd Parthian ! therefore one of these
Thou must make sure thy own; the Parthian first
By my advice, as nearer, and of late
Found able by invasion to annoy
Thy country, and captive lead away her kings,
Antigonus and old Hyrcanus, bound,
Maugre the Roman: it shall be my task
To render thec the Parthian at dispose,
Choose which thou wilt, by conquest or by league:
By him thou shalt regain, without him not,
That which alone can truly rcinstal thee
In David's royal seat, his true suceessor,
Deliverance of thy brethren, those ten tribes,
Whose offspring in his territory yet serve,
In Habor, and among the Meiles dispersed:
Ten sons of Jacob, two of Joseph, lost
Thus long from Israel, serving, as of old
Their fathers in the land of Egypt served,
This offer seta before thee to deliver.
Tin -. if from servitude thnu shalt restore
To their inheritance, then nor till then,
Thoi on the throne of David in full glory,
From kgypt to Euphrates nnd beyond,
Shalt reign, and Rome or Cesar need not fear."
To whom our Saviour answered thus, unmoved:

"Much ostentation, vain of fleshy arm
And fragile arms, much instrument of war,
Long in prepartng, soon to nothing brought,
Before mine eyes thou hast set ^ and in my ear
Vented much policy, and projects deep
Of enemies, of aids, battles and leagues,
Plausible to the world, to me worth nought.
Means I must use, thou say'st; prediction else
Will unpredict, and fail me of the throne:
My time, I told thee, (and that time for thee
Were better farthest off) is not yet come:
When that comes, think not thou to find me nisci
On my part aught endeavouring, or to need
Thy |».ldr maxims, or that cumbersome
Luggage of war there shown me, argument
Of human weakness rather than of strength.
My brethren, as thou call'st them, those teu tribes
I must deliver if 1 mean to reign
David's true heir, and his full sceptre sway
To just extent over all Israel's sons.
But whence to thee this zeall Where was it thei,
For Israel, or for David, or his throne,
When thou stood'st up his tempter to the pride
Of numbering Israel, which cost the lives
Of threescore and ten thousand Israelites
By three days' pestilence? such was thy zeal
To Israel then; the same that now to me!
As far those captive tribes, themselves were the>
Who wrought their own captivity, fell off
From God to worship calves, the deities
Of Egypt, Baal next and Ashtaroth,
And all the idolatries of heathen round,
Besides their other worse than heathenish critnes
Nor in the land of their captivity
Humbled themselves, or penitent besought
The God of their forefathers; but so died
Impenitent, and left a race In-hind
Like to themselves, distinguishable scarce
From Gentiles, but by circumeision vain,
And God with idols in their worship joined.
Should I of these the liberty regard,
Who, freed, as to their ancient patrimony,
Unhurnbled, unrepentant, unrefomied,
Headlong would follow; and to their Gods perhaps
Of Bethel and of Dan; no; let them serve
Their enemies, who serve idols with God.
Yet he at length, (time to himself best known,}
Elememhering Abraham, by some wondrous ca,i
May bring them back, repentant and sincere,'
And at their passing cleave the Assyrian flood,
While to their native land with joy they haste.
As the Red Sea and Jordan once he cleft,
When to the promised land their fathers pusvod.
To his due time and providence I leave them."
So spake Israel's true king, and to the fiend
Made answer meet, that made void all his wile*.
So fares it when with truth falsehood cunt,'tuls.

BOOK IV.

THE ARGUMENT.

Satan persisting in 1t,e temptation of our Lord, shows him Knrerial Rome in its greatest pomp and splendour, as a power which he probnbly would prefer before that of tite Parthian?; and tells him that ho nuL-la with the greatest ease expel Tibestus, restore the Romans to their liberty, and make himself anaster not only of the Roman empire, but by Bo doing of the whole world, and inclusively of the throne of David. Our Lord, in reply, expresses his contempt of grandeur and worldly power, notices the luxury, vanity, and profligacy of the Romans, declaring how liltle they merited to be restored to that liberty, which they had lost by their misconduct, and briefly refers to the greatness of his own future kingdom. Satan, now desperate, to enhance the value of his prcflired gifts, professes that the only terms, on which he will bestow them, are our Saviour's falling down and worshipping him. Our Lord expresses a firm but temperate Indignation at such a proposition, and rebukes the Tempter by the title of "Satan for ever damned." Satan, abashed, attempts to Iustify himself; he then assumes a new ground of temptation, and, proposing to Jesos the Intellectual gratifications of wisdom and knowledse, points out to him the celebrated seat of ancient learning, Athens, its schools, and other various resorts of learn•d teachers and their disciples; aecompanying the view with a highly-finished panegyric on the Grecian musicians, poets, orators, and philosophers nf the different sects. Jesus replies, by showing the vanity ,,nd insufficiency of the boasted Heathen phtl'wphy; and prefers to the musie, poetry, eloquence, and dtdactic policy of the Greeks, those of the inspired Hebrew writers. Satan, irritated at the failure of all his attempts, upbraids the indiseretion of our Saviour In reIecting his offers; and having, in ridicule of his expected kingdom, foretold the suflerings that wtr fx,nl was to undergo, carries him hack into the wilderness, and leaves him there. Night comeson: Satan raises a tremendous storm, and attempts further to alarm Jesus with frigl,'fui nreams,and terrifie threatening spectres; which however have no effect upon him. A calm, bright, beautiful morning sncrc«ls to the hnrntrs of the night. Satan again presents hinwlf in our blessed I.ord,nnd, from noticing the storm of the prrmli, !•_' nizlu ::..' pointed chiefly at him, takes oecasion once more to insult him with an aecount of the sufferings which he was certainly to undenro. This n:tly draws from our Ix,nl a brit-f rebuke. Satan, now at the heiglu of his deseeration, confesses that he hatl frequently watehed Jesvin from his birth, purpnsrly to discover if he was the true Mtwiah; and, collecting from what passed at the river Jordan that he most prxbably was so, he had from that time more assiduously followed him, in hopes of gaining some advantage over htm, which wo,dd most effectually prove that he was not really that IV,vine Person cestined to be his "fatal Enemy." In this he acknowledges that he has hitherto completely failed; but still determines to make one more trial of him. Acc1trd!ngly he conveys him to the Temple at Jerusalem, and, placing him on a pointed eminence, requlres him to prove his Divinity euher by -rtandinc there, or costing himsclfdown with safety. Our I/tnl reproves the TemIKer, and at the same lime manifests his own Divinity by standing on this dangerous point. Ka,an, amazed and terrified, instantly falls; and repairs lo his Infernal comoeers, to relate the bad suecess of his enterprise. \ngeb in the mean time convey our blessed I/,rd to a beautiful valley, nnd, wtnte they miniver to him a repast of celestiai t wJ, celebrate hia victory in a triumphant hymn.

Perplexed ainl troubled at his bad suceess The tempter stood, nor had what to reply,

Discovered in his fraud, thrown from his hope
So oft, and the persuasive rhetoric
That sleeked his tongue, and won so much on Era,
So little here, nay lost; but Eve was Eve;
This far his overmateh, who, self-deceived
And rash, beforehand had no better weighed
The strength he was to cope with, or his own
But as a man, who had been matehless held
In cunning, overreached where least he thought,
To salve his eredit, and for very spite,
Still will be tempting him who foils him -.t ill.
And never cease, though to his shame the more,
Or as a swarm of flies in vintage time,
About the wine press where sweet must is poured
Beat ofl' , returns as oft with humming sound;
Or surging waves against a solid rock,
Though all to shivers dashed, the assault renew,
[Vain battery!) and in froth or bubbles end;
So Satan, whom repulse upon repulse
Met ever, and to shameful silence brought,
Yet gives not o'er, though desperate of suceess,
And his vain importunity pursues.
He brought our Saviour to the western side
Of that high mountain, whence he might behold
Another plain, long, but in breadth not wide,
Washed by the southern sea, and, on the north,
To equal length backed with a ridge of hills,
That sereened the fruits of the earth, and seats a

men,

From cold septentrion blasts; thence in the mids
Divided by a river, of whose banks
On each side an imperial city stood,
With towers and temples proudly elevate
On seven small hills, with palaces adorned,
Porches, ami theatres, baths, aqueducts;
Statues, and trophies, and triumphal area,

ardrns and groves presented to hia eyes.
Above the height of mountains interposed .
'By what strange parallax, or optic skill
Of vision, multiplied through air, or glass
Of telescope, were curious to inquire:)
And now the Tempter thus his silence broke

"The city which thou seest no other deem
Than great and glorious Rome, queen of the earth,
So far renowned, and with the spoils enriched
Of nations; there the capitol thou seest;
Above the rest lifting his stately head
On the Tarpcian rock, her citadel
Impregnable; and there mount Palatine.
The imperial palace, compass huge, and higt
The constructure, skill of noblest architects,
With gilded battlements conspicuous far,
Turrets, and terraces, and glittering spire*
Many a fair edifice besides, more like
Houses of gods, (so well I have disposed
My airy mieroscope,) thou mayest behuid.
Outside and inside both, pillars and roott,
Carved work, the hand of mtned artificers,
In crdat, malJIc. iv. ry, u. gold.

Thet.ce to the gates cast round thine eye, anu see

What conflux issuing forth, or entering in;

Praters, proconsuls to th'eir provinces

Hasting, or on return, in robes of stnte;

Lictora and rods, the ensigns of their power,

Legions and cohorts, turms of horse and wines:

Or embassies from re>kons far remote;

In various habits, on the Appian road,

Or on the Emilian; some from farthest south,

Syer.e, and where the shadow both way falls,

Meroe, Nilotic isle, and, more to west,

The realm of Bocehus to the Black-moor sen,

From the Asian kings, and Parthian among these;

From India and the golden Chersonese,

And utmost Indian isle Taprobane,

Dusk faces with white silken turbans wreathed;

From Gallia, Gades, and I he British west;

Germans, and Sythians, and Sarmatians, nnr>h

Beyond Danubius to the Tauric pool.

All nations now to Rome obedience pay;

To Rome's great emperor, whose wide domain,

In ample territory, wealth, and power,

Civility of manners, arts, and arms,

And long renown, thou justly mayest prefer

Before the Parthians. These two thrones except,

The rest are barbarous, and scarce worth the sight,

Shared among petty kings too far removed;

These having shown thee, I have shown thee all

The kingdoms of the world, and all their glory.

This emperor hath no son, and now is old,

Old and lascivious, and from Rome retired

To Caprere, an island small, but strong,

On the Campanian shore, with purpose there

His horrid lusts in private to enjoy,

Committing to a wicked favourite

All public cares, and yet of him suspicious;

Hated of all, and hating. With what ease,

Indued with regal virtues as thou art,

Appearing, and beginning noble deeds,

Might'st thou expel this monster from his throne,

Now made a sty; and, in his plare ascending,

A victor people free from servile yoke!

And with my help thou mayest; to me the power

Is given, and by that right 1 give it thec.

Aim therefore at no less than all the world;

Aim at the highest; without the highest attained,

Will be for thec no sitting, or not long,

On David's throne, be prophesied what will."

To whom the Son of God, unmoved, replied. tt P<or doth this grandeur and majestic show Ofl'ixury, though called magnificence, Mote than of arms before, allure mine eye, Much less my mind ; though thou shouldst add to

tell

Their sumptuous gluttonies, and gorgeous feasts
On citron tables or Atlantic stone,
(For I have also heard, perhaps have read,)
Thetr wines of Setia, Cales, and Falerne,
Olnos, and Crete, and how they quaff in gold,

Crystal, and myrrhine cups, emlxMsed with gems

And studs of pearl; to me should'st tell, whothint

And hunger still. Then embassies thou showest

From nations far and nigh: what honour that,

But tedious waste of time, to sit and hear

So many hollow compliments and lies,

Outlandish flatteries? Then proceed'st to talk

Of the emperor, how easily subdued,

How gloriously: I shull, thou sayest, expel

A brutish monster; what if I withal

Expel a devil who first made him such?

Let his tormentor conscience find him out;

For him I was not sent; nor yet to free

That people, victor once, now vile and base;

Deservedly made vassal, who, onec just,

Frugal, and mild, and temperate, conquered well,

But govern ill the nations under yoke,

Peeling their provinces, exhausted all

By lust and rapine; first ambitious grown

Of triumph, that insulting vanity;

Then eruel, by their sports to blood inured

Of fighting heasts, and men to beasts exposed;

Luxurious by their wealth, ainl greedier still,

And from the daily scene effeminate.

What wise and valiant man would seek to free

These, thus degenerate, by themselves enslaved 7

Or could of inward slaves make outward free?

Know therefore, when my season comes to sit

On David's throne, it shall be like a tree

Spreading and overshadowing all the earth;

Or as a stone, that shall to pieces dash

All monarchies besides throughout the world,

And of my kingdom there shall be no end;

Means there shall bo to this; but what the means,

Is not for thee to know, nor me to tell."

To whom the Tempter, impudent, replied.
"I see all offers made by me how slight
Thou valuest, because offered, and n-jcetest:
Nothing will please the difficult and nice,
Or nothing more than still to contradict:
On the other side know also thou, that I
On what I offer set as high esteem,
Nor what I part with mean to give for nought;
All these, which in a moment thou behold'st,
The kingdoms of the world, to thee I give,
(For, given to me, I give tu whom I please,)
No trifle; yet with this reserve, not else,
On this condition, if thou wilt fall down,
And worship me as thy superior lord,
(Easily done,) and hold them nil of me;
For what can less so great a gift desorvet"

Whom thus our Saviour answered with disdain.
"I never liked thy talk, thy offers less;
Now both abhor, since thou hast dared to utter
The abominable terms, impious condition:
But I endure the time, till which expired
Thou hast permission on me. It is written.
The firstof all commandments, Thou shall worship
The Lord thy God, and only him shall serve;

And darest thou to the Son of God propound To worship thee aecursed, now more aecursed For this attempt, bolder than that on Eve, And more blasphemous? which expert to rue. The kingdoms of the world to thee were given? Permitted rather, and by thee usurped; Other donation none thou canst produce. 'If given, by whom but by the King of kings God over all supreme? if given to thee, By thee how fairly is the giver now Repaid! But gratitude in thee is lost Long since. Wert thou so void of fear or shame, As offer them to me, the Son of God? To me my own, on such abhorred pact, That I fall down and worship thee as God? Get thee behind me; plain thou now appearest That evil one, Satan for ever damned."

To whom the Fiend, with fear abashed, replied: "Be not so sore offended, Son of God, Though Sons of God both angels are and men, If I, to try whether in higher sort Than these thou bearest that title, have proposed What both from men and angels I receive, Tetrarehs of fire, air, flood, and on the earth, Nations beside from all the quartered winds, God of this world invoked, and world beneath: Who then thou art, whose coming is foretold To me most fatal, me it moot concerns. The trial hath endamaged thee no way, Rather more honoured left and more esteem; Me nought advantaged, missing what I aimed. Therefore let pass, as they are transitory, The kingdoms of this world; I shall no more Advise thee; gain them as thou canst, or not. And thou thyself seem'st otherwise inclined Than to a worldly erown, addicted more To contemplation and profound dispute, As by that early action may be judged, When slipping from thy mother's eye, thou went'st Alone into the temple, there wast found Among the gravest Babbles, disputant On points and questions fitting Moses' chair, Teaching, not taught; the childhood shows the ir:nn As morning shows the day. Be famous then By wisdom; as thy empire must extend, So let extend thy mind o'er all the world In knowledge, all things in it comprehend. All knowledge is not couched in Moses' law, The Pentateuch, or what the Prophets wrote; The Gentiles also know, and write, and teach To admiration, led by nature's light, And with the Gentiles much thou must convene, Ruling them by persuasion as thou meanest; Without their learning how wilt thou with them, Or they with thee, hold conversation meet? How wilt thou reason with them, how refute Their idolisms, traditions, paradoxes? Error by his own arms is best evinced. Look once more, ere we leave this specular mount,

Westward, much nearer by south-west, behold

Where on the Egean shore a city stands,

Built nobly, pure the air, and light the soil,

Athens, the eye of Greece, and mother of arts

And eloquence, native to famous wits

Or hospitable, in her sweet recess,

City or suburban, studious walks and shades.

See there the olive grove of Academe,

Plato's retirement, whore the Attic bird

Trills her thick-warhlnl notes the summer long;

There flowery hill Hymettus, with the sound

Of bees' industrious murmur, oft invites

To studious musing; there Ilissus rolls

His whispering stream: within the walls, the*

view

The schools of ancient sages; his, who bred
Great Alexander to subdue the world,
Lyeeum there, and painted Stoa next:
There shall thou hear and learn the seeret powtf
Of harmony, in tones and numbers hit
By voice or hand; and various measured verse,
jEolian charms and Dorian lyric odes,
And his who gave them breath, but higher sung
Blind Melesigenes, thence Homer called,
Whose poem Phoebus challenged for this own:
Thence what the lofty grave tragedians taught
In Chorus or Iambie, teachers best
Of moral prudence, with delight received
In brief sententious precepts, while they treat
Of fate, and chance, and change in human life,
High actions and high passions best describing:
Thence to the famous orators repair,
Those ancient, whose resistless eloquence
Wielded at will that fieree demoeratie,
Shook the arsenal, and fulmined over Greece
To Maecdon and Artaxerxes' throne:
To sage philosophy next lend thine ear,
From Heaven descended to the low-roofed house
Of Soerates; see there his tenement,
Whom well inspired the oracle pronounced
Wisest of men; from whose mouth issued forth
Mellifluous streams, that watered all the schools
Of Academies old and new, with those
Surnamed Peripateties, and the sect
Epicurean, and the Stoic severe;
These here revolve, or, as thou likest, at home,
Till time mature thee to a kingdom's weight •
These rules will render thee a king complete
Within thyself, much more with empire joined."

To whom our Saviour sagely thus replied:
"Think not but that I know these things, or thins
I know them not; not therefore am I short
Of knowing what I ought: he who receives
Light from above, from the fountain of light.
No other doctrine needs, though granted true.
But these are false, or little else but dreams.
Conjectures, fancies, built on nothing firm.
The first and wisest of them all professed
To know this only, that he nothing knew

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