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Transports our adversary? whom no bounds
Prescribed, no bars of hell, nor all the chains
Heaped on him there, nor yet the main abyss
Wide interrupt can hold; Bo bent he seems
On desperate revenge, that shall redound
Upon his own rebellious head. And now,
Through all restraint broke loose, he wings his


,1for far off Heaven, in the precincts of light,
Directly towards the new ereated world,
And man there placed, with purpose to assay
If him by force he can destroy, or, worse,
By some false guile pervert; and shall pervert:
For man will hearken to his glozing lies,
And easily transgress the sole command,
Sole pledge of his obedience: so will loll
He and his faithless progeny: whose fault 1
Whose but his own? Ingrale, he had of me
All be could have; I made him just and right,
Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall.
Such I ereated all the ethereal powers
And spirits, both them who stood and them who


Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell.
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere
Of true allegiance, constant faith or love,
Where only what they needs must do appeared,
Not what they would' what praise could they re-

What pleasure I from such obedience paid,
When will and reason (reason also is choice)
Useless and vain, of freedom both despoiled,
Made passive both, hod served necessity,
Not me'! They, therefore, as to right belonged
So were ereated, nor can justly aceuse
Their Maker, or their making, or their fate,
As if predestination overruled
Their will, disposed by absolute deeree
Or high fort-knowledge; they themselves deereed
Their own revolt, not 1; if I foreknew,
Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault,
Which had no less proved certain unforcknown.
So without least impulse or shadow of fate,
Or aught by me immutably foreseen,
They trespass, authors to themselves in all
Both what they judge and what they choose; for so
I formed them free, and free they must remain,
Till they inthraI themselves; I else must change
Their nature, and revoke the high deeree
Unchangeable, eternal, which ordained
Their freedom; they themselves ordained their fall.
The first sort by their own suggestion fell,
Self-tempted, self-depraved: man falls, deceived
By the other first: man therefore shall find grace,
The other none: in mercy and justice both,
Through heaven and earth, so shall my glory ex-
But mercy first and last "hall brightest shine."

Thus while Uod spake, ambrosial fragrance

filled ,

All Heaven, and in the blessed spirit elect
Sense of new joy ineffable diffused:
Beyond compare the Son of God was seen
Most glorious; in him all his Father shone
Substantially expressed; and in his face
Divine compassion visibly appeared,
Love without end, and without measure grace,
Which uttering, thus he to his Father spake:
"O Father, gracious was that word which

closed •

Thy sovereign sentence, that man should find


For which both Heaven and earth shall high 1 \i „
Thy praises, with th' innumerable sound
Of hymns and saered songs, wherewith thy thronv
Incnmpassed shall resound thee ever blest.
For should man finally be lost, should man,
Thy ereature late so loved, thy youngest son
Fall circumvented thus by fraud, though joined
With his own folly? that be from thee far,
That far be from thee, Father, who art judge
Of all things made, and judgest only right.
Or shall the adversary thus obtain
His end, and frustrate thine? shall he fulfil
His malice, and thy goodness bring to nought,
Or proud return, though to his heavier doom,
Yet with revenge aceomplished, and to hell
Draw after him the whole race of mankind,
By him corrupted? or wilt thou thyself
Abolish thy ereation, and unmake,
For him, what for thy glory thou hast made?
So should thy goodness and thy greatness both
Be questioned and blasphemed without defence.*

To whom the great Creator thus replied,
"O Son, in whom my soul hath chief delight,
Son of my bosom, Son who art alone
My word, my wisdom, and effectual might,
All hast thou spoken as my thoughts are, all
As my eternal purpose hath deereed:
Man shall not quite be lost, but saved who will,
Yet not of will in him, but grace in me
freely vouchsafed; once more I will renew
Bis lapsed powers, though forfeit and inthralled
By sin to foul exorbitant desires;
Upheld by me, yet once more he shall stand
On even ground against his mortal foe,
8y me upheld, that he may know how frtll
His fallen condition is, and to me owe
All his deliverance, and to none but me.
Some I have chosen of peculiar grace,

,hv! above the rest; so is my will:
The rest shall hear me call, and oft be wameu
Their sinful state, and to appease betimes
Th' incensed Deity, while offered grace
Invites; for I will clear their senses dark,
What may suflice and soften <tenv hearts

To pray, repent, and bring obedience due.

To prayer, repentance, and obedience due,

Though but endeavoured with sincere intent,

Mine car shall not be slow, mine eye not shut.

And I will place within them as a guide

My umpire Conscience, whom if they will hear,

Light after light well used they shall attain,

And to the end persisting, safe arrive.

This my long sufferance and my day of graco

They who neglect and scorn shall never taste;

But hard be hardened, blind be blinded more,

T.h. I they may stumble on, and deeper fall;

And none but such from merey I exclude.

But yet all is not done; man disobeying,

Disloyal, breaks his fealty, and sins

Against the high supremacy of Heaven,

Affecting Godhead, and, so losing all,

To expiate his treason hath naught left,

But to destruction saered and devote, •

He with his whole posterity must die, •

Die be or justice must: unless for him

Some other able, and as willing, pay

The rigid satisfaction, death for death.

Say, heavenly powers, where shall we find such

love? .

Which of ye will be mortal to redeem
Man's mortal crime, and just lh' unjust to save?
Dwells in all heaven charity so dear?"

He asked, but all the heavenly choir stood


A nd silence was in Heaven; on man's behalf
Patron or intereessor none appeared,
Much less that durst upon his own head draw
The deadly forfeiture, and ransom set.
And now without redemption all mankind
Must have been lost, adjudged to death and hell
By doom severe, had not the Son of God
In whom the fulness dwells oflbve divine,
His dearest mediation thus renewed.

"Father, thy word is past, man shall find grace; And shall grace not find means, that finds her


The speediest of thy winged messengers,
To visit all thy ereatures, and to all
Comes unprevented, unim-lored, unsought?
Happy for man, so coming, he her aid
Can never seek, once dead in sins, and lost;
Atonement for himself or offering meet,
Indebted and undone, hath none to bring:
Behold me then; me for him; life for life
I oiler on me let thine anger fall;
Ar> ount me man; I for his sake will leave
Thy bosom, and this glory next to thee
F-eely put off, and for him lastly die
Well pleased; on me let Death wreak all his


0 ntler his gloomy power I shall not long :.>0 vanquished, thou hast given me to possess Lite in mya-lf foi evor: by thee I live.

Though now to Death I yseld, and am his due
AU that of me can die; yet that debt paid
Thouftrilt not leave me in the loathsome grave
His prey, nor suffer my unspotted soul
For ever with corruption there to dwell;
But I shall rise victorious, and subdue
My vanquisher, spoiled of his vaunted spoi,;
Death his death's wound shall then receive, ant


Inglorious, of his mortal sting disarmed,
I through the ample air in triumph high
Shall lead hell captive, maugre hell, and show
The powers of darkness bound. Thou, at til-
Pleased, out of Heaven shall look down ana


While, by thee raised, I ruin all my foes,
Death last, and with his careass glut the grave:
Then with the multitude of my redeemed
Shall enter Heaven, long absent, and retura,
Father, to see thy face, wherein no cloud
Of anger shall remain, but peace assured
And reconcilement: wrath shall be no more
Thenceforth, but in thy presence joy entire."
His words here ended, but his meek aspect
Silent yet spake, and breathed immortal love
To mortal men, above which only shone
Filial obedience: as a saerifiee
Glad to be offered, he attends the will
Of his great Father. Admiration seized
All Heaven, what this might mean, and wluthet


Wondering; but soon th' Almighty thus replied. "O thou, in Heaven and earth the only peace Found out for mankind under wrath! O thou, My sole complacence! well thou knowest how


To me are all my works, nor man the least,
Though last ereated; that for him I spare
Thee from my bosom and right hand, to save,
By losing thee awhile, the whole race lost.
Thou, therefore, whom thou only canst redeem,
Their nature also to thy nature join;
And be thyself man among men on earth,
Made flesh, when time shall be, of virgin seed,
By wondrous birth: be thou, in Adam's room,
The head of all mankind, though Adam's son.
As in him perish all men, so in thee,
As from a second root, shall be restored
As many as are restored, without thee none.
His crime makes guilty all his sons; thy mcnt.
Imputed, shall absolve them who renounce
Their own both righteous and unrighteous i'irrds
And live in thee transplanted, and from thee
Receive new life. So man, as is most just,
Shall satisfy for man, be judged and die,
And dying rise, and rising with him raire
His brethren, ransomed with his own dear life.
So heavenlv love shall outdo hellish hate.

Giving to deatl , and dying to redeem,
So dearly to redeem what hellish hate
So easily destroyed, and still destroys a
In those who, when they may, aceept not grace.
Nor shalt thou, by descending to assume
Man's nature, lessen or degrade thine own.
Because thou hast, though throned in highest bliss
Equal to God, and equally enjoying
Godlike fruition, quitted all to save
A world from utter loss, and hast been found
By meritrnore than birthright Son of God,
Found worthiest to be so by being good,
Far more than great or. high; because in thee
Love hath abounded more than glory abounds;
Therefore thy humiliation shall exalt
With thee thy manhood also to this throne:
Here shalt thou sit incarnate, here shall reign
Both God and man, Son both of God and man,
Anointed universal King; all power
I give thee; reign for ever, and assume
Thy merits; under thee, as head supreme,
Thrones, princedoms, powers, dominions I reduce:
All knees to thee shall bow, of them that bide
In Heaven, or earth, or under earth in hell.
When thou, attended gloriously from Heaven,
Shalt in the sky appear, and from thee send
The summoning archangels to proclaim
Thy dread tribunal, forthwith from all winds
The living, and forthwith the cited dead
Of all past ages to the general doom
Shall hasten, such a peal shall rouse their sleep.
Then, all thy saints assembled, thou shalt judge
Bad men and angels; they, arraigned, shall sink
Beneath thy sentence; hell, her numbers full,
Thenceforth shall be for ever shut. Meanwhile
The world shall burn, and from her ashes spring
New Heaven and earth, wherein the just shall


And, after all their tribulations long,
Sec golden days, fruitful of golden deeds,
With joy and love triumphing, and fair truth.
Then thou thy regal sceptre shalt lay by, \
For regal sceptre then no more shall need,
God shall be all in all. But, all ye gods,
Adore him, who to compass all this dies;
Adore the Son, and honour him as me."

No sooner had the Almighty ceased, but all
The multitude of angels, with a shout
Loud as from numbers without number, sweet
As from blest voices, uttering joy, Heaven rung
With julnlee, and loud hosannas filled
The eternal regions: lowly reverent
Towards etther throne they bow, and to the ground
With solemn adoration down they cast
Their erowns inwove with amaranth and gold;
Immortal amaranth, a flower which once
In Paradise, fast by the tree of life,
Began to bloom; but soon for man's offence

To Heaven removed, where first it grew, thrare


And flowers, aloft, shading the fount of life,
And where the river of bliss through mi.l.-t of


Rolls o'er Elysian flowers her ambe' stream:
With these that never fade the spirits elect
Bind their resplendent locks inwreathed with


Now in loose garlands thick thrown off, the bright
Pavement, that like a sea of jasper shone,
Impurplud with celestial roses smiled.
Then, erowned again, their golden harps they took,
Harpa ever tuned, that, glittering by their side,
Like quivers hung, and with preamble sweet
Of charming symphony they introduce
Their saered song, and waken raptures high;
No voice exempt, no voice but well could join
Melodious part, such concord is in Heaven.
Thee, Father, first they sung, omnipotent
Immutable, immortal, infinite,
Eternal King; the Author of all being,
Fountain of light, thyself invisible
Amidst the glorious brightness where thou sittest
Thronetl inaceessible, but when thou shadI, st
The full blaze of thy beams, and through a cloud
Drawn round about thee like a radiant shrine,
Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear,
Yet dazzle Heaven, that brightest seraphim
Approach not, but with both wings veil their eyes
Thee next they sang, of all ereation first,
Begotten Son, divine similitude,
In whose conspicuous countenance, without cloud
Made visible, the Almighty Father shines,
Whom else no creature can behold; on thee
Impressed the effulgence of his glory abides,
Transfused on thee his ample spirit rests.
He Heaven of Heavens, and all the powen


By thee created, and by thee threw down
The aspiring dominations: thou that day
Thy Father's dreadful thunder didst not spare,
Nor stop thy flaming chariot wheels, that shook
Heaven's everlasting frame, while o'er the necks
Thou drovest of warring angels disarrayed.
Back from pursuit thy powers with loud acelaim
Thee only extolled, Son of thy Father's might,
To execute fierce vengeance on his foes.
Not so on man; him, through their malice fallen.
Father of mercy and grace, thou didst not doom
So strictly, but much more to pity incline:
No sooner did thy dear and only Sou
Perceive thee purposed not to doom frail man
So strictly, but much more to pity inclined,
He, to appease thy wrath, and end the stnfu
Of mercy and Iustice in thy face discerned,
Regardless of the bliss wherein he sat
Second to thee, offered himself to dio

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For man's offence. O unexampled love,
Love no whore to be found less than divine!
Hail, Son of God, Saviour of men ! thy name
Shall be the copious matter of my song
Henceforth, ejid never shall my harp thy praise
Forget, nor from thy Father's praise disjoin.

Thus they in Heaven, above the starry sphere,
Their happy hours in joy and hymning spent.
Meanwhile upon the firm opacious globe
Of this round world, whose first convex divides
Their luminous inferior orbs, inclosed
From Chaos and th' inroad of Darkness old,
.-..!in alighted walks: a globe far nil'
It seemed, now seems a boundless continent,
Dark, waste, and wild, under the frown of Night
Starless exposed, and ever-threatening storms
Of Chaos blustering round, inclement sky;
Save on that side which from the wall of Heaven,
Though distant far, some small reflection gains
Of glimmering air, less vexed with tempest loud:
Here walked the fiend at large in spacious field.
As when a vulture, on Imaus bred,
Whose snowy ridge the roving Tartar bounds,
Dislodging from a region scaree of prey
To gorge the flesh of lambs or yearling kids,
Oil hills where flocks are fed, flies towards the


Of Ganges or Hydaspes, Indian streams;
Put in his way lights on the barren plains
Of Sericana, where Chineses drive
With sails and wind their cany wagons light;
So, on this windy sea of land, the fiend
Walked up and down alone, bent on his prey;
Alone, for other ereature in this place,
Living or lifeless to be found was none;
None yet, but store hereafter from the earth
Up hither like aerial vapours flew
Of all things transitory and vain, when sin
With vanity had filled the works of men;
Both all things vain, uml all who in vain things
Kuilt their fond hopes of glory or lasting fame,
Or happiness in this or the other life j *
All who have their reward on earth, the fruits
Of painful superstition and blind zeal,
Nought seeking but the praise of men, here find
V'i' retribution, empty as their deeds;
All the unaecomplished works of Nature's hand,
AlKirtive, monstrous, or unkindly mixed,
Dissolved on earth, fleet hither, and in vain,
Till final dissolution wander here,
Nut in the neighb'ring moon, as some have


Those nigent fields more likely habitants,
7 ranslated saints, or middle spirits, hold
Betwixt the angelical and human kind.
I lither, of ill-joined sons and daughters born,
First from the ancient world those giants came
With many a vain exploit though then renowned:
Tor builders next of Babel on the plain

Of Sennasr, and still with vain design

New Babels, had they wherewithal would bui.d:

Others came single: he who, to be deemed

A god, leaped fondly into -Hi n-i flames,

Empedocles; and he who, to enjoy

Plato's elysium, leaped into the sea,

Cleombrotus; and many more too long,

Embryos, and idiots, eremites, and friars

White, black, and gray, with all their trumpery

Here pilgrims roam, that strayed so far to seek

In Golgotha him dead, who lives in Heaven;

And they who, to be sure of Paradise,

Dying put on the weeds of Dominie,

Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised;

They pass the planets seven, and pass the fixed,

And erystalline sphere, whose balance weighs

The trepidation talked, and that first moved:

And now saint Peter at Heaven's wicket seems

To wait them with his keys, and now at foot

Of Heaven's ascent they lift their feet, when lo

A violent eross wind from either coast

Blows them transverse ten thousand leagues awry

Into the devious air; then might ye see

Cowls, hoods, and habits, with their wearers to*t

And fluttered into raifs; then reliques, beads,

Indulgences, dispenses, pardons, bulls,

The sport of winds: all these, upwhirled aloft,

Fly o'er the backside of the world far off

Into a limbo large and broad, since called

The Paradise of fools, to few unknown

Long after, now unpeopled, and untrod.

All this dark globe the fiend found as he passrJ,

And long he wandered till at last a gleam

Of dawning light turned thitherward in haste

His travelled steps: far distant he deseries,

Ascending by degrees magnificent

Up to the wall of Heaven, a structure high;

At top whereof, but far more rich, appeared

The work as of a kingly palace gate,

With frontispiece of diamond and gold

Embellished; thick with sparkling orient gems

The portal shone, inimitable on earth

By model, or by shading pencil drawn.

The stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw

Angels ascending and descending, bands

Of guardians bright, when he from Esau flod

To Padan-Aram, in the field of Lu*

Dreaming by night under the open sky,

And waking eried, " This is the gate of Heaven."

Each stair mysteriously was meant, nor stood

There always, but drawn up to Heaven sometime*

Viewlest; and underneath a bright sea flowej

Of jaspf i, tr of liquid pearl, whereon

Who aflei came from earth, sailing arrived

Wafted by angels, or flew o'er the lake

Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds.

The stairs wen' then let down, whether to

The fiend by easy ascent, or aggravate

His sad exclusion from the doora of kliii

Direct against which opened from beneath,

Just o'er the blusnil seat of Paradise,

A passage down to th' earth, a passage wide,

Wider by far than that of aftertimes

Over mount Sion, and, though that were large

Over the promised land to God so dear:

By which, to visit oft those happy tribes,

On high behests his angels to and fro

Passed frequent, and his eye with choice regard

From Panean, the fount of Jordan's flood,

To Beersaba, where the Holy Land

Borders on Egypt and the Arabian shore;

So wide the opening seemed, where bounds were


To darkness, such as bound the ocean wave.
Satan from hence, now on the lower stair,
That scaled by steps of gold to Heaven gate,
Looks down with wonder at the sudden view
Of all this world at once. As when a scout,
Through dark and desert ways with peril gone
All night, at last by break of cheerful dawn,
Obtains the brow of some high-climbing hill,
Which to his eye discovers unaware
The goodly prospect of some foreign land.
First seen, or some renowned metropolis
With glistering spires and pinnacles adorned,
Which now the rising sun gilds with his beams:
Such wonder seized, though after Heaven seen,
The spirit malign, but much more envy seized,
At sight of all this world beheld so fair.
Round he surveys, (and well might, where he stood
So high above the cireling canopy
Of night's extended shade) from eastern point
Of Libra to the fleecy star that bears
Andromeda far oil' Atlantic seas
Beyond the horizon; then from pole to pole
He views in breadth, and without longer pause
Downright into the world's first region throws
His flight precipitant, and winds with case
Through the pure marble air, his oblique way
Amongst innumerable stars that shone,
Stars distant, but nigh hand seemed other worlds:
Or other worlds they seemed, or happy isles,
Like those Hesperean gardens fumed of old,
Fortunate fields, and groves, and flowery vales,
Thrice happy isles; but who dwelt happy there
He stayed not to inquire; above them all
The golden sun, in splendour likest Heaven,
Allured his eye; thither his course he bends
Through the calm firmament (but up or down,
By centre, or eecentrie, hard to tell,
Or longitude,) where the great luminary,
^loof the vulgar constellations thick
Tiiat from his lordly eye keep distance due,
Dispenses light from far: they, as they mo•'e
Their starry dance, in numbers that compute
Days, months, and years, i twards his all-cheering

tami Turns swill their various motions, or are tun.ed

By his magnetic beam, that gently warms
The universe, and to each inward part
With gentle penetration, though unseen,
Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep;
So wendrously was set his station bright.
There lands the fiend, a spot like which pethap*
Astronomer in the sun's lucent orb,
Through his glazed optic tube, y..t never saw.
The place he found beyond expression bright.
Compared with aught on earth, metal or stone;
Not all parts like, but all alike informed
With radiant light, as glowing iron with fire;
If metal, part seemed gold, part silver clear;
If stone, carbuncle most or chrysolite,
Ruby or topaz, to the twelve that shone
In Aaron's breastplate, and a stone besides
Imagined rather oft than elsewhere seen,
That stone, or like to that which here below
Philosophers in vain so long have sought,
In vain, though by their powerful art they biml
Volatile Hermes, and call up unbound
In various shapes old Proteus from the sea.
Drained through a limbec to his native form.
What wonder then if fields and regions here
Breathe forth elixir pure, and rivers run
Potable gold, when with one virtuous touch
The areh chymic sun, so far from us remote,
Produces, with terrestrial humour mixed,
Here in the dark so many precious things
Of colour glorious, and effect so rare?
Here matter new to gaze the Devil met
Undazzled; far and wide his eye commands;
For sight no obstacle found here, nor shade,
But all sunshine, as when his beams at noon
Culminate from the equator, as they now
Shot upward still direct, whence no way round
Shadow from body opaque can fall; and the air
No where so clear, sharpened his visual ray
To objects distant far, whereby he soon
Saw within ken a glorious angel stand,
The same whom John saw also in the sun:
His back was turned, but not his brightness hid
in' beaming sunny rays a golden tiar
Cirrled bis head, nor less his locks behind
Illustrious on his shoulders fledged with wings
Lay waving round; on some great charge employed
He seemed or fixed in cogitation deep
Glad was the spirit impure, as now in hope
To find who might direct his wandering Hight
To Paradise, the happy seat of man,
His journey's end, and our beginning wo.
But first he casts to change his proper shape,
Which else might work him danger or delav:
And now a stripling cherub he appears,
Not of the prime, yet such as in his face
Youth smiled celestial, and to every limb
Suitable grace diffused, so well he feigned.
Under a coronet his flowing hair
In curls on either check played; wings he wnts

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