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Of many a co.oured plume, sprinkled with gold;
His habit fit lor speed suceinct, and held
Before his decent steps a silver wand.
H* drew not nigh unheard; the angel bright,
Ere he drew nigh, his radiant visage turned,
A Imonislu'd by llis ear, and straight was known
The archangel Uriel, one of the seven
Who in God's presence, nearest to his throne,
Stand ready at command, and are his eyes
That run through all the Heavens, or down to the

earth

Bear his Bwift errailds over moist and dry,
O'er sea and land: him Satan thus aceosts.

"Uriel, for thou of those seven spirits that stand
In sight of God's high throne, gloriously bright,
The f,rst art wont his great authentic will
Interpreter through highest Heaven to bring,
Where all his sons thy embassy attend;
And here art likeliest by supreme deeree
Like honour to obtain, and as his eye
To visit oft. this new ereation round;
Unspeakable desire to sec and know
All these his wondrous works, but chiefly man,
His chief delight and favour, him for whom
All these hu work so wondrous he ordained,
Hath brought me from the choirs of cherubim
Alone thus wandering. Brightest seraph, tell
In which of all these shining orba hath man
His fixed eeat, or fixed scat hath none,
But all these shining orbs his choice to dwell;
That I may find him, and with seeret gaze
Or open admiration him behold,
On whom the great Creator hath bestowed
Worlds, and on whom hath all these graces poured;
That both in him and all things, as is meet,
The universal Maker we may praise;
Who justly hath driven out his rebel foes
To deepest hell, and to repair that loss
Created this new happy race of men
To serve him better: wise are all his ways."

So spake the false dissembler unperceived; F-ir neither man nor angel can discern Hypocrisy, the only evil that walks Invisible, except to God alone, l!\ his permissive will, through Heaven and earth: An'l oft, though wisdom wake suspicion sleeps At wisdom's gate, and to simplicity Uestgns her charge, while goodness thinks no ill Where no ill seems: which now for once beguiled Urtel, though regent of the sun, and held The sharpest-sighted spirit of all in Heaven; Who to the fraudulent impostor foul, In his uprightness, answer thus returned.'

"Fair angel, thy desire, which tends to know Tim works of God, thereby to glorify Th1i great Worktnaster, leads to no excess fhnt reaches blame, but rather merits praise The more it seems excess, that led thee hither Fr •>>1 lUy empyreal mansion thus alone,

To witness with thine eyes what some perhaps
Contented with report, hear only in Heaveu:
For wonderful indeed are all his works,
Pleasant to know, and worthiest to bs all
Had in remembrance ahvavs with delight;
But what ereated mind can comprehend
Their number, or the wisdom infinite
That brought them forth, hut hid their causes deepl
I saw when at his word the formless mass,
This world's material mould, came to a heap:
Confusion heard his voice, and wild uproar
Stood ruled, stood vast infinitude confined;
Till at his second bidding darkness fled,
Light shone, and order from disorder sprung:
Swift to their several quarters hasted then,
The cumbrous elements, earth, flood, air,fire;
And this ethereal quintessence of Heaven
Flew upward, spirited with various forms,
That rolled orbicular, and turned to stars
Numberless, as thou seest, and how they move;
Each had his place appointed, each his course;
The rest in circuit walls this universe.
Look downward on that glolie, whose hither side
With light from hence, though but reflected,shines*
That place is earth, the scat of man, that light
His day, which else, as the other hemisphere,
Night would invade; but there the neighbouring

moon

(So call that opposite fair star) her aid
Timely interposes, and her monthly round
Still ending, still renewing, through mid Heaven,
With borrowed light her countenance triform
Hence fills and empties to enlighten the earth,
And in her pale dominion checks the night.
That spot to which I point is Paradise,
Adam's abode; those lofty shades, his l,ower.
Thy way thou can'st not miss, me mine requires."
Thus said, he turned; and Satan, bowing low
As to superior spirits is wont in Heaven,
Where honour due and reverence none neglects,
Took leave, and toward the coast of earth beneath
Down from th' ecliptie, sped with hoped suceess,
Throws his steep flight in many an airy wheel;
Nor stayed, till on Niphates' top he lights.

BOOK IV.

THE ARGUMENT.

Satan, now In prospect of Eden, and nigh the place wlterc he roust now attempt the bold enterprise which he undenauh alone against God and man, falls into many Ooubts with himself, and mnny passions, fear, envy, and despair; hut at le^h confirms hunself in evil; journeys on to Pamdise . vhosc omward prospect and situation is deseribed; overleaps tlw bounds; sits in the shape of a cormorant on the u«e vt life, is highest in the garden, to look about him. The garden deeeiihed; Satan's first eight of Adam and Eve; his wonder nt , Vir excellent form and happy state, bul with resolution ui Wovk their fall: overhears their discourse, thence gathers D,al the tree of knowledge was Ibrbidden them to eat of, under p 'i ut; of death; and thereon intends to found hi1 umpudcn, by se,hlctng them to transgress; then leaves them awhile, to know further of tl,clr sta'-e tiy eome other mrans Meanwhile Uriel, descending on a sun-beam, warns ftubriel, who had in charge the gate of Paradise, that some evil spirit had escaped the deep, and passed at noon by his sphere, in the shape of a good tngeI, down tu Paradise, discovered after by his furious gestures in the mount Gubriel promises to find him ere mornmIr. Niit,l coming on, Atl un and Eve discourse of going to their rest; their bower deseribed; their evening worship, Gabriel, drawing forth hls bands of nightwateh to walk the round of Paradise, appoints two strong angels to Adam's bower, lest the evil spirit should be there doing some harm to Adam or Eve slceping; there they find him at the ear of Eve, tempting her in a dream, and bring him, though unwilling, to Gabriel; by whom questioned, he scornfully answers, prepares resismnce, but, hindered by a sign from Heaven, flies cut of Paradise.

0 For that warning voice, which he who saw Th' Apocalypse heard ery in Heaven aloud, Then when the dragon, put to second rout, Came furious down to be revenged on men, Wo to lli inhabitants on earth! that now, 'While time waa, our first parents had been warned The coming of their seeret foe, and 'scaped. Haply so 'scaped his mortal snare: for now Satan, now first inflamed with rage came down, The tempter ere the aceuser of mankind, To wreak on innocent frail man his loss Of that first battle, and his flight to tell: Vet not rejoicing in his speed, though bold Far o.'i'and fearless, nor with cause to lxiast, Begins his dire attempt, which, nigh the birth, Now rolling boils in lIi- tumultuous breast, And like a deviluh engine back recoils Upon himself; horror and doubt distract His troubled thoughts, and from the bottom stir The hell within him; for within him hell He brings, and round about him, nor from hell One step, no more than from himself, can fly By change of place: now conscience wakes despair, That slumbered, wakes the bitter memory Of what he was, what is, and what must be Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue. Sometimes towards Eden, which now in his view Lay pleasant, hid grieved look he fixes sad; Sometimes towards Hcaven,and the full blazingsun, Which now sat high in his meridian tower: Then, much revolving, thus in sighs began—

"O thou, that with surpassing glory erowned, Lookest from thy sole dominion like the God Of this new world; at whose eight all the stars Hide their diminished heads; to thec I call, But with no friendly voice, and add thy name,

0 Sun! to tell thec how 1 hate thy beams, That bring to my remembrance from what state

1 fell, how glorious once above thy sphere;
Till pride and worse ambition threw me down
Warnng in Heaven against Heaven's matehless

Ktng;
Ah! wherefore! he deserved no such return

From me, whom he ereated what I was
In that bright eminence, and with his good
Upbraided none; nor was his service hard.
What could be less than to afford him praise,
The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks,
How due! yet all his good proved ill in me
And wrought but malice; lifted up so high
I 'sdained subjection, and thought one step highe
Would set me highest, and in a moment quh
The debt immense of endless gratitude,
So burdensome still paying, still to owe,
Forgetful what from him I still received,
And understood not that a grateful mind
By owing owes not, but still pays at once
Indebted and discharged; what burden then?
O had his powerful destiny ordained
Me some inferior angel, I had stood
Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised
Ambition! Yet why not? some other power
As great might have aspired, and me, though mean,
Drawn to his part; but other powers as great
Fell not, but stand unshaken, from within
Or from without, to all temptations armed.
Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand?
Thou hadst: whom hadst thou then or what to

aceuse,

But Heaven's free love dealt equally to all?
Be then this love aceused, since love or hate,
To me alike, it deals eternal wo.
Nay, cursed be thou; since against his thy will
Chose freely what it now so justly run
Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?
Which way I fly is hell; myself am hell;
And, in the lowest deep, a lower deep
Still threatening to devour me opens wide,
To which the hell I sufler seems a Heaven.
O then at last relent: is there no place
Left for repentance, none for pardon left:
None left but by submission; and that word
Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame
Among the spirits beneath, whom I seduced
With other promises and other vaunts
Than to submit, boasting I could subdue
Tht Omnipotent. Ay me! they little know
How dearly I abide that boast so vain,
Under what torments inwardly I groan,
While they adore me on the throne of hell.
With diadem nnd sceptre high advanced,
The lower still I fall, only supreme
In misery; such joy ambition finds.
But say I could repent, and could obta,n,
By act of grace, my former state; how soon
Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsa)
What feigned submission swore! ease would teranl
Vows made in pain, as violent and void:
For never can true reconcilement crow
Where wounds of deadly hate hs>-? pierced so flit-p,
Which would but lead me to a worse relapse

And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear
Short intermission bought with double smart.
This knows my Punisher; therefore as far
From granting he, aa I from begging peace:
All hope excluded thus. behold, in stead
Of us outeast, exiled, his new delight,
Mankind erented, and for him this world.
So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear,
Farewell remorse! all good to me is loot;
Evil, he thou my good! by thec at least
Divided empire with Heaven's King I hold,
By thee, and more than half perhaps will reign;
As man ere long, and this new world, shall know."
Thus while he spake, each passion dimmed his

face

Thrice changed with pale, ire, envy, and despair;
Which marred his borrowed visage, and betrayed
Him counterfeit, if any eye beheld:
For heavenly minds from such distempers foul
Are ever clear. Whereof he soon aware,
Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm,
Artificer of fraud; and was the first
That practised falsehood under saintly show,
Deep malice to conceal, couched with revenge:
Yet not enough had practised to deceive
Uriel once warned; whose eye pursued him down
The way he went, and on the Assyrian mount
Saw him disfigured, more than could be.fal
Spirit of happy sort: his gestures fierce
He marked, and mad demeanour, then alone,
As he supposed, all unobserved, unseen.
So on he fares, and to the border comes
Of Eden, where delicious Paradise,
Now nearer erowns with her inclosure green,
As with rural mound, the champaign head
Of a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides
With thicket overgrown. grotesque and wild,
Aceess denied; and over head up grew
Insuperable height of lotliest shade,
Cedar, and pine, and fir, and branching palm
A sylvan scene, and, as the ranks ascend
Shade above shade, a woody theatre
Of stateliest view. Yet higher than their tops
The verdurous wall of Paradise upsprung:
Which to our general sire gave prospect largo
Into his nether empire neighbouring round.
And higher than that wall a circling row
Of goodliest trees, loaden with fairest fruit,
Blossoms and fruits at once of golden hue,
Appeared, with gay enamelled colours mixed:
On which the sun more glad impressed his beams
Than in fair evening cloud, or humid bow,
When God hath showered the earth: so lovely

seemed

That landscape: and of pure now purer air
IVIeets his approach, and to the heart inspires
Vernal delight and joy, able to drive
All sadness but despair: now gentle gales,
Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispenm

Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole

Those balmy sIi,ils. As when to them who sajl

Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past

Mozambie, off at eea northeast winds blow

Sabean odours from the spicy shore

Of Araby the blest: with such delay

Well pleased they slack their course, and many I

league

Cheered with the grateful smell,'old Ocean smiles: So entertained those odorous sweets the fiend. Who came their bane, though with them bettrf

pleased

Than Asmodfus with the fishy fume
That drove him, though enamoured, from the

spouse

Of Tohit's son, and with a vengeance sent
From Medea post to Egypt, there fast bound.
Now to th' ascent of that steep savage hill
Satan had journeyed on, pensive and slow;
But further way found none, so thick entwined,
As one continued brake, the undergrowth
Of shrubs and tangling bushes had perplexed
All path of man or beast that passed that way:
One gate there only was, and that looked east
On th' other side: which when tht arch-felon saw
Due entrance he disdained, and, in contempt,
At one slight bound high overleaped all bound
Of hill or highest wall, and sheer within.
Lights on his feet. As when a prowling \v,,!!".
Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey,
Watehing where shepherds pen their flocks at

eve,

In hurdled cotes amid the field secure.
Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold:
Or as a thief, bent to unhoanl the cash
Of some rich burgher, whose substantial doom,
Cross-barred and bolted fast, fear no assault,
In at the window climbs, or o'er the tiles:
So clomb this first grand thief into God's fold;
So since into his church lewd hirelings climb.
Thence up he flew, and on the tree of life,
The middle tree and highest there that grew,
Sat like a cormorant; yet not true life
Thereby regained, but Bat devising death
To them who lived; nor on the virtue thought
Of that life-giving plant, but only used
For prospect, what, well used, hail been the pledge
Of immortality. So little knows
Any, but God alone, to value right
The good before him, but perverts best thing!
To worst abuse, or to their meanest use.
Beneath him with new wonder now he views,
To all delight of human sense exposed,
In narrow room Nature's whole wealth, yea rr.irn,
A Heaven on earth; for blissful Paradise
Of God the garden was, by him in the east
Of Eden planted; Eden stretehed her line
From Auran eastward to the royal lowers
Of great Scleucia, built by Grecian kings

I It where the sons of Eden long before
Dwelt tn Telassar: in this pleasant :-»il
1lis rar mt re pleasant garden God ordained ,
Out of the fertile ground he caused to grow
All trees of noblest kind Cor sight, smell, taste;
And all amid them stood the tree of life,
High eminent, blooming ambrosial fruit
Of vegetable gold; and next to life,
Our death, the tree of knowledge grew fast by,
Knowledge of good bought dear by knowing ill.
Southward through Eden went a river large,
Nor changed his coune, but through the shaggy

bdl

Passed underneath ingulphed; for God had thrown
That mountain as his garden mould high raised
Upon the rapid current, which, through veins
Of porous earth, with kindly thirst updrawn,
Rose a fresh fountain, and with many a rill
Watered the garden; thence united fell
Down the steep glade, and met the nether flood.
Which from his darksome passage now appears
And now, divided into four main streams,
Runs diverse, wandering many a famous realm
And country, whereof hero needs no aceount;
Bat rather to tell how, if Art could tell,
How from that sapphire fount the erisped brooks,
Rolling on orient pearl and sands of gold,
With mazy error under pendent shades
Ran nectar, visiting each plant, and fed
Flowers, worthy of Paradise, which not nice Art
In beds and curious knots, but Nature boon
Poured forth profuse on hill and dale and plain,
Both where the morning sun first warmly smote
The open field, and where the unpierced shade
Embrowned the noontide bowers: thus was this

place

A happy rural seat of various view;
Groves whose rich trees wept odorous gums and

balm,

Others whose fruit, burnished with golden rind,
Hung amiable, Hesperian fables true,
If true, here only, and of delicious taste:
Betwixt them lawns, or level downs, and flocks
Grazing the tender herb, were interposed,
Or palmy hillock; or the flowery lap
Of some irriguous valley spread her store,
Flowers of all hue, and without thorn the rose:
Another side, umbrageous grots and caves
Of cool recess, o'er which the mantling vine
Lays forth her purple grape, and gently ereeps
Luxuriant; meanwhile murmuring waters fall
Down the slope hills, dispersed, or in a lake,
That to the fringed bank with myrtle erowned
Her erystal mirror holds, unite their streams.
The birds their choir apply; airs, veinal airs,
Sreathing the smell of field and grove, attune
Tim tremblintr leaves, while universal Pan,
Ivnit with the Graces and the Hours, in dance
Lniuf, the eternal spring. Not that fair field

Of Enna, where Proserpine gathering flowers,
Herself a fairer flower, by gloomy Dis
Was gathered, which cost Ceres all that pain
To seek her through the world; nor that Swim

grove

Of Daphne by Orontes, and the inspired
Castalian spring, might with this Paradisa
Of Eden strive; nor that Nyseian isle,
Girt with the river Triton, where old Cham,
Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Lybian Jove,
Hid Amalthea, and her florid son,
Young Bacehus, from her step-dame Rhea's ey* ..
Nor where Abassin kings their issue guard,
Mount Amara, though this by some supposed
True Paradise, under the Ethiop line
By Nilus' head, enclosed with shining rock,
A whole day's journey high, but wide remote
From this Assyrian garden, where the fiend
Saw undelighted all delight, all kind
Of living ereatures, new to sight, and strange.
Two of far nobler shape, erect and tall,
Godlike erect, with native honour clad,
In naked majesty seemed lords of all:
And worthy seemed; for in their looks divine
The image of their glorious Maker shone,
Truth, wisdom, sanctitude severe and pure
(Severe, but in true filial freedom placed,)
Whence true authority in men; though both
Not equal, as their sex not equal seemed;
For contemplation he ami valour formed,
For softness she and sweet attractive grace;
He for God only, she for God in him:
His fair large front and eye sublime declared
Absolute rule; and hyacinthine locks
Round from his parted forelock manly hung
Clustertng, but not beneath his shoulders broad
She, as a veil, down to the slender waist
Her unadorned golden tresses wore
Dishevelled, but in wanton ringlets waved
As the vine curls her tendrils, which implied
Subjection, but required with gentle sway,
And by her yielded, by him best received,
Yielded with coy submission, modest pride,
And sweet, reluctant, amorous delay.
Nor those mysterious parts were then concealed;
Then was not guilty shame, dishonest shame
Of nature's works, honour dishonourable,
Sin-bred, how have ye troubled all mankind
With shows instead, mere shows of seeming pun
And banished from mail's life his happiest life,
Simplicity and spotless innocence >
So passed they naked on, nor shunned the sigh
Of God or angel, for they thought no ill:
So hand in hand they passed, the loveliest paii
That ever since in love's embraces met;
Adam the godliest man of men since turn
His sons; the fairest of her daughters F.vo.
Under atuft of simde, that on a green
Stood whispering soft, by a fresh fountain sirtu

They aat them down; and, after no more toil
Of their sweet gardening labour than sufficed
To recommend cool zephyr, and made case
More easy, wholesome thirst and appetite
More grateful, to their supper fruits they fell,
Nectarine fruits which the compliant boughs
Yielded them, side-long as they sat recline,
On the soft downy bank damasked with flowers:
The savoury pulp they chew, and in the rind
Still as they thirsted scoop the brimming stream;
Nor gentle purpose, nor endearing smiles
Wanted, nor youthful dalliance, as beseems
Fair couple, linked in happy nuptial league,
Alone as they. About them frisking played
All beasts of the earth, since wild, and of all chase,
In wood or wilderness, forester den;
Sporting the lion ramped, and in his paw
Dandled the kid; bears, tigers, ounces, pards,
Gambolled before them; the unwieldy elephant,
To make them mirth, used all his might and

wreathed

His lithe proboscis; close the serpent sly,
Insinuating, wove with Gordian twine,
His braided train, and of his fatal guile
Gave proof unheeded; others on the grass
Couched, and, now filled with pasture, gazing sat,
Or bedward ruminating; for the sun,
Declined, was hasting now with prone career
To the ocean isles, and in the ascending scale
Of Heaven the stars that usher evening rose:
When Satan, still in gaze, as first he stood,
Scarce thus at length failed speech recovered sad.
"O hell! what do mine eyes with grief behold!
Into our room of bliss thus high advanced
Creatures of other mould, earthborn perhaps,
Not spirits, yet to heavenly spirits bright
Little inferior; whom my thoughts pursue
With wonder, and could love, so lively shines
In them divine resemblance, and such grace
The hand that formed them on their shape hath |

poured.

Ah, gentle pair! ye little think how nigh
Your change approaches, when all these delights
Will vanish, and deliver ye to wo,
Mo«e wo, the more your taste u now of joy;
) luppy, but for so happy ill secured
Long to continue, and this high scat your Heaven
1ll fenced for Heaven to keep out such a foe
As now is entered; yet no purposed foe
To you, whom I >iould pity thus forlorn,
Though I unpitisd: league with you I seek,
And mutual amity, so straight, so close,
Tnut I with you must dwell, or you with mo
Henceforth; my dwelling haply may not please,
Like thin fair Paradise, your sense; yet such
Aceept your Maker's work; he gave it me,
Which I as freely give: hell shall unfold,
To sntertain you two, her widest gates,
4 rol snnd forth all her kings; there will be room,

Not like these narrow limits, to rece'ue
Your numerous offspring; if no better pla^,
Thank him who puts me loth to this revenge
On you who wrong me not, for him who wrongeo.
And should I at your harmless innocence
Melt as I do, yet public reason just,
Honour and empire with revenge enlarged,
By conquering this new world, compels me novc
To do what else, though damned, I should ahbor.*

So spake the fiend, and with necessity,
The tyrant's plea, excused his devilish deeds.
Then from his lofty stand on that high tree
Down he alights among the sportful herd
Of those four-footed kinds, himself now one
Now other, as their shape served best his em.
Nearer to view his prey, and unespied
To mark what of their state he more might Icam
By word or action marked: about them round
A lion, now he stalks with fiery glare;
Then as a tyger, who by chance hath spied
In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play,
Straight couches close, then, rising, changes oft
His couchant wateh, as one who chose his ground,
Whence rushing he might surest seize them both,
Griped in each paw: when Adam, first of men,
To first of women Eve, thus moving speech,
Turned him, all ear to hear new utterance flow.

"Sole partner, and sole part, of all these joys, Dearer thyself than all: needs'must the Power That made us, and for us this ample world Be infinitely good, and of his good As liberal and free as infinite; That raised us from the dust, and placed us here I n all this happiness, who at his hand Have nothing merited, nor can perform Aught whereof he hath need: he who requires From us no other service than to keep This one, this easy charge, 'of all the trees In Paradise that bear delicious fruit So various, not to taste that only tree Of knowledge, planted by the tree of life;' So near grows death to life, whate'er death is, Some dreadful thing no doubt: for well thou know

est

God hath pronounced it death to taste that tree,
The only sign of our obedience left,
Among so many signs of power and rule
Conferred upon us, and dominion givsn
Over all other ereatures that possess
Earth, air, and sea. Then let us not think harl
One easy prohibition, who enjoy
Free leave so large to all things else, and choicr
Unlimited of manifold delights:
But let us ever praise him, and extol
His bounty, following our delightful tick.
To prune these growing plants, and tend these

flowers, Which, were it toilsome, yet with thee were sweet."

To whom thus Eve replied:—" Othou for whom

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