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Q. 19. In what way were those baptized who were converted at the house of Cornelius ?
A. Probably by sprinkling or pouring, for this is the natural construction of Peter's language when he says, 'Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized ?' that is, forbid water to be brought, with which to baptize them. (n)
Q. 20. Is there any other evidence that sprinkling, or affusion, is a proper mode of baptism?
A. There are a number of circumstances in favor of it. Baptism, as it is an act of public worship, it would seem, ought to be performed in the house of God. Besides, we never read in the Bible of persons going away from the place of worship to attend upon the ordinance of baptism. On the contrary, it is represented as taking place where they are at the time of worship or conversion. Further, in the Scriptures it is never said, that any are baptized in water, but with water. Again, baptism by immersion cannot always be performed with decency, modesty, and propriety, and in some countries cannot be performed for a great portion of the year by reason of the water's being frozen, and, in some cases, cannot be performed at all on account of the sickness or infirmity of the persons to be baptized. But baptism by sprinkling or affusion may always take place with decency, modesty, and propriety, in every climate, in every season of the year, and in every state of health, May it not, therefore, be concluded from these considerations, that the great Head of the Church, knowing these circumstances, would never have appointed baptism by immersion, especially in all cases?
Q. 21. Ought baptism to be repeated ? Ă. Certainly not. There is no command, example, or permission of re-baptization in Scripture. The meaning of the ordinance forbids it. The repetition of baptism would imply, that the renewing of the soul by the Holy Ghost once was not sufficient unto
what must I do to be saved ? And he took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes; and was baptized, he and all his, straightway.
(n) See Acts x.
salvation. This consideration would be highly derogatory to the character of the Redeemer. As circumcision was not to be administered more than once to the same person, so neither is baptism. In the baptism of an infant, there is the application of water in the name of the Trinity as well as in the baptism of an adult. If the baptism of an infant is not valid, it is because the subject of it did not possess faith. If the want of faith will nullify infant baptism, the want of faith will also nullify adult baptism. But adults may be hypocritical in their profession. This, therefore, would nullify their baptism. If they should ever after experience religion, they ought to be baptized again. On this principle, baptism might be administered again and again, and there would be no end to baptizing, and it would never be known in this world, who were baptized, and, consequently, no Church could be established. Re-baptizing, therefore, whether of one baptized in infancy or adult age, is highly improper, and wholly unwarranted by Scripture.
Q. 22. Ought a difference of opinion respecting the mode and subjects of baptism to prevent the free communion of Churches, and the members of Churches, of our common Lord and Master Jesus Christ?
A. Certainly not; for it is contrary to reason, Christian feeling, and the Word of God. (o)
Lord's Supper. Q. 1. What is to be understood by the Lord's Supper?
(0) 1 Cor. x. 17. For we being many are one bread, and one body, for we are all partakers of that one bread.—1 Cor. xü. 12, 13. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
A. That holy ordinance, in which the sufferings and death of Christ are commemorated.
Q. 2. By whom, and at what time, was this ordinance instituted ?
A. It was instituted by Jesus Christ, on that memorable night in which he was betrayed. (a)
Q. 3. What are the elements used in this institution?
A. Bread and wine. (b)
Ă. The bread broken, and the wine poured out, represent Christ's body broken, and His blood shed, when He died on the cross for the sins of men. (c)
Q. 5. Are the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper to be viewed as the real body and blood of Christ?
A. They are not, but only symbols of them. The doctrine of transubstantiation, or that the bread and wine are literally converted into the body and blood of the Redeemer, is one of the grossest absurdities ever imbibed and propagated. To suppose that Christ's identical human body is present in ten thousand places at once, is the height of superstition.
Q. 6. What are some of the names given to this Christian ordinance ?
A. It is called the Lord's Supper, the Sacrament, the Communion, the Breaking of bread, the Eucharist.
Q.7. Why is it called by these names ?
A. It is called the Lord's Supper, because it was instituted by Him, and is to be celebrated in rememhrance of Him, and is an important and rich repast for the soul. It is called the Sacrament, which means an oath, because in it Christians swear allegiance to Christ, their rightful Lord and Sovereign. It is called
(a) 1 Cor, xi. 23.-25. For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you. That the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread; and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you ; this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood; this do Je as oft as ye drink it in remembrance of me.
(b) See reference (a). (c) See reference (a).
the Communion, because it is a sacred sign of the spiritual fellowship of believers
with one another, and with Christ. It is called the Breaking of bread, because the bread is broken to represent the body of Christ, broken on the cross. It is called the Eucharist, because Christ, when he instituted the ordinance, gave thanks, and Christians, when they partake of it, in grateful remembrance of the Saviour's death, give thanks also.
Q. 8. What are the nature and design of the Lord's Supper?
A. It is of the nature of a commemorating, communicating, and covenanting ordinance. It is a bond of union between Christians, a badge or mark of discipleship to Christ. It is a seal of the covenant of grace, both on the part of Christ and His people. It is a permanent ordinance—it will continue till Christ's second appearance—till he comes to judg ment. - The special design of this institution is to preserve a grateful and affectionate remembrance of the blessed Saviour. It is a memorial of His death It also expresses the guilt and wretchedness of man and the grace of God in his salvation. (d)
Q. 9. What are the obligations to observe tho institution of the Lord's Supper ?
A. Gratitude, personal benefit, the honor and com mand of Christ, and the practice of the Apostles and primitive Christians. All persons are thus bound to partake of the sacrament of the Supper. This is their imperious duty, and their high privilege. (e)
(d) 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26. This do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in re membrance of me.' For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come.—1 Cor. x 16, 17. The cup of blessing, which we bless, is it not the com munion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ ? For we being many are one bread, and one body; for we are all partakers of that one bread.
(e) Ps. cxvi. 12, 13. What shall I render unto the Lord for all his benefits toward me? I will take the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord.—Matt. x. 32, 33. Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in
Q. 10. To whom is the sacrament of the Lord's Supper to be administered ?
A. Not to the grossly ignorant, the idiot, the openly ungodly, or the impenitent; but to all such as have, in the view of charity, experienced religion, having publicly covenanted with God and His people. This ordinance is designed only for visible Christians, females as well as males, in regular church standing, and is, therefore, to be viewed not as a converting ordinance, though in some individual cases it may prove to be such, but as an ordinance instituted for the edification of Christians. (f)
Q. 11. What evidence ought a person to possess which will warrant him in his own view to profess religion, and to come to the table of the Lord ?
A. Preponderating evidence that he is a Christian—more evidence for, than against himself, that he has been renewed by the Spirit of God. Assurance
heaven.-Luke xxii. 19. This do in remembrance of me.--Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow.
(f) Ex. xii. 48. And when a stranger shall sojourn with thee, and will keep the passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.-Is. xliv. 5. One shall say, I am the Lord's ; and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the Lord, and surname himself by the name of Israel.—Matt. x. 32, 33. Whosoever, there. fore, shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father, which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father, which is in heaven.—2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, 16. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers; for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? And what communion hath light with darkness? And what concord hath Christ with Belial ? or what part hath be that believeth with an infidel ? And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols ? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.--Ps. I. 16. But unto the wicked God saith, What hast ihou to do to declare my statutes, or that thou shouldst take my covenant in thy mouth ? --Prov. xv. 8. The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord; but the prayer of the upright is his delight.