Victim Organisations and the Politics of Reparation: A Case-study on Rwanda
Reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations is a contemporary issue gaining increased attention in both national and international politics. Post-conflict societies have to face the legacies of the dark past and dealing with a large group of victims is one of them. Transitional justice mechanisms trying to cope with the past should not overlook the issue of reparation. This research demonstrates how reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations differs from reparation for isolated violations. The Rwandan case study unveils the role of victim organisations in and the competition and politicisation of the reparation debate. Although reparation for victims is a crucial element in transitional justice, it becomes clear that the way in which the reparation debate unfolds does not necessarily contribute to the peaceful future of a post-conflict society. This study argues that remedying the process and debate of the search for reparation will lead to an improved and more constructive reparation policy. Heidy Rombouts is a legal and social scientist (1997, Master of Laws; 1999, Master in Social and Political Sciences, Catholic University of Leuven). In 2004 she obtained a PhD degree in Social and Political Sciences at the University of Antwerp for her research on victim organisations and the politics of reparation. For several years she has been conducting research on transitional justice, human rights and post-conflict situations, including extensive field research in South Africa and Rwanda.
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THE POLITICS OF REPARATION AND VICTIM
What is reparation about?
four basic options
a process approach to reparation
two theoretical approaches
Towards a more detailed research question
Victim organisations and bridging networks
Victim associations and other 1994 victims
2002 FIND draft AERG Akimuhana AOCM ASOGM ASRG Avega Barakabaho beneficiaries Benimpuhwe Benishyaka Butare Byumba c’est chapter collaboration compensation conflict context court crimes d’Ibuka DBPG discourse ethics discussed donors Duhozanye Est-ce ethnicity être example FARG faut FPR victims framework fund gacaca gacaca tribunals genocide victims Gisenyi Gitarama gross and systematic Habermas human rights violations Hutu Ibuka ICTR indemnification individual interest groups international community Interviewee Ibuka inyangamugayo issues Kibuye Kigali kinyarwanda LIDR massacres membership Minijust moderate Hutu n’est non-rescapés notion of rescapé participation perpetrators personne peut politics of reparation principle problems procedural qu’il qu’on recognition refers regard reparation claims reparation for victims reparation measures reparation policies rescapés of genocide réunion role Rwanda Rwandan genocide Rwandan government Rwandan victim associations social specific systematic human rights target group tion transitional justice Tutsi victim associations victim organisations victimhood victims of genocide widows