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and inspired confidence, he announced to me better and more happy times; fully convinced that the heavy dispensation that had befallen our country, if well turned and bravely borne, would prove the means and way to greater prosperity than ever. “ If, in those awful times, big with the fate of Prussia, when all

appeared dark and gloomy, I doubted, and fretfully asked after the how, where, and when the good man displayed in the most amiable manner his discontent-took hold of the button of my coat, patted me on the shoulder, shook me by the hand, and spoke with the earnestness and dignity of a Nathan— You must learn to believe. It happens to man according to his faith.' All this was factly and personally new to me; so had I never been addressed before. Such was the conduct of this peculiarly excellent man towards me in every situation ; even when I was most dejected, and would fain have been alone, his visits were ever new and agreeable to me. I have no one so greatly to thank for my Christian knowledge and strength as that good man.” (17).

The principles thus implanted and firmly rooted by adversity grew and multiplied, and brought forth fruit abundantly, until the termination of the king's life; and his last will, drawn up only a short time before his death, is a most satisfactory evidence of religion being all in all in the mind of Frederick. And his religion, being based on the Scriptures, and wrought into the mind by careful study of Luther and the Reformers, appears in everything he did or said concerning education, and morals, and affairs of State. There is much that we would gladly transcribe, but can only commend this very interesting narrative to our readers, limiting ourselves to one more extract

“On God's blessing all depends; I hold to that truth firmly; I know it and have experienced it. In the years 1806-7-8, a heavy curse was on us, and everything miscarried. In the years 1813-14, God's blessing returned, and everything succeeded. Even the errors then committed, the repulses we experienced, the misunderstandings that occurred, the confusions which arose, fell out, through a marvellous combination of fortunate circumstances, to our advantage, and led to the most unexpected and favourable results, so much

that we were surprised and astounded. The important victory at Culm--so beneficial in its consequences-common report, indeed historical works, have attributed to my insight and orders, but the truth is quite otherwise. My ally, the Emperor Alexander, and myself, had taken our stand, on the day of the battle, on the castle-hill, near Toplitz, whence we could survey the whole field of conflict. The balance fluctuated indeed, was inclining towards the French—when at mid-day, at the very deciding moment, General Von Kleist appeared on the heights of Nollendorf with his corps, which ensured us the victory. His arrival was by no means part of an arranged plan, but a fortunate circumstance ; for, in reality, General Von Kleist was in full flight from the unfortunate affair near Dresden, followed by the French, and had constrainedly chosen the route through Bohemia, for bis retreat towards Silesia—that it was which brought him to the right spot, at the right moment, where help was needed. We knew nothing of him, neither did he know anything of us-nothing was agreed upon. That he did not make his appearance earlier, nor later, nor more to the left, nor more to the right, but at the eventful hour, in the right place for deciding the battle, was help and salvation from God. My thankfulness and joy were, therefore, more inwardly pure ; and I do not feel inclined to have such sensations disturbed and spoiled, by having attributed to me that which I had no part in—to God be the honour and praise !" (94).

A Word in Season. A Series of Subjects addressed to the

Flock committed to his Charge. By the Rev. J. HOOPER, Rector of Albury. Author of a Tract on “the Doctrine of the Second Advent,” “ The Present Crisis,” &c. One vol.

12mo. London: Painter. 844. The last twelve of the tracts which make


this volume have come out since the publication of our April number, and we have much pleasure in being able to speak as favourably of the whole work as we did of the first six of the tracts in this series. The subjects handled in that part of the work to which we have already directed the attention of our readers were the grand fundamentals of our faith—the Scriptures—the Trinity—the Sacraments—in which great principles of Christian verity

the orthodox have always been agreed ; and we had only the simple duty before us of examining whether Mr. Hooper, in his statements, came up to the standard of orthodoxy, and, finding that he did so, to express our satisfaction thereupon. But we now come to the practical application, in the following tracts, of the principles of the former six—the superstructure upon that foundation which was then laid; and in this part of the work there is room for greater diversity, and place for showing discrimination, and even originality, and yet keeping within the bounds of orthodoxy, and resting upon those first foundations which have been already laid. The very first of the tracts we are now noticing, No. VII., p. 135, explains what we mean; it begins with the necessity of faith—“ without faith it is impossible to please God;" and it applies this declaration to man in all ages of the world and in every period of existence—“ It was not less true in the Adamic or the Abrahamic, than it is in the Christian dispensation.” And the assertion is proved by reference to the eleventh chapter of Hebrews, and the examples of Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abram, &c., all of whom by faith apprehended that portion of the mystery concerning Christ and the Church which God had made known at the time when they respectively lived, and so s served him acceptably in their day and genera


tion. But without faith they could not have pleased him. Neither can we please him without faith, it is impossible. Faith is no new principle with which God has endowed man. Faith is the same in every age, and by whomsoever exercised. It differs not in its nature in any degree. It is the same faculty reaching forth to apprehend the things of God, as he is pleased to present them to his people.” (136). The object appears to be, the pressing upon all men the responsibility of believing that portion of truth which is presented to them, whatsoever it

and to take away the subterfuge, which, by putting faith out of man's power, would virtually remove the blame of infidelity from man and cast it on God. And with the same intention the importance of regarding the spirit of man as a part of his creature constitution is insisted on—the spirit being the region in which faith operates, and likewise the seat of will, love, and those other faculties which are above the region of understanding, and are truly metaphysical, though also natural to man by creation :

“ The spirit of man is as much a part of his being by creation as his soul or body... .It is that part of man's being wherein the resemblance to God (who is a Spirit) consists, to which God can reveal himself, and which is capable of apprehending that revelation-a revelation, indeed, that the understanding cannot fathom, but without which the understanding could not be well informed, and man would become like the beasts that perish. In this intellectual age men have denied this high endowment, and instead of having faith in God, they profess to believe nothing which theycannot understand! So that they would have a religion without mysteries! And, to be consistent, they must deny the very being and existence of God! For who can comprehend the infinite and eternal God? How can the finite comprehend the infinite ?" (138).

We must refer our readers to the volume itself for the working out of the argument, which we should only spoil by attempting to condense; but it forms the key which is necessary for opening and rendering intelligible many of the things which follow. Symbols, for instance, are regarded never as having been conventional forms, invented by man to suggest thoughts to the mind, but always as being objects selected by God, presented to the faith of man, and, through the understanding, imparting to his spirit some divine truth; and, therefore, as not having attained their end if they rest in the understanding merely, and do not reach the spirit. And two very important principles are insisted on concerning the Jewish symbols—first, that they could not attain their end of reaching spirit, and in forming faith in Christ there, until Christ bimself had come to give the explanation of the symbols; and, secondly, that no one symbol can come up to, or adequately represent, the fulness which resides in Christ alone, and of which all symbols, even if taken collectively, must fall inconceivably short: the law made nothing perfect, it was only the bringing in of a better thing:

“As it required the whole creation to tell out God-inasmuch as he could not be fully declared by one part considered abstractedly, but by all conjointly-even so by no single type or symbol can Christ be fully revealed all the types and shadows are necessary to set forth his glory.........So also must the prophecies be considered as a whole, and not in part. It was the attending to detached portions of God's word which brought the Jews into such gross darkness at our Lord's first coming, and which caused that rebuke to his own disciples• O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to have entered into his glory? And, beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.

..For not one jot or tittle shall in anywise pass from the law till all be fulfilled. And when the Christian Church is perfected, then it will be seen that the heavenly things answer to the earthly, as the substance does to the shadow.” (147).

The title of this tract is “ Earthly and Heavenly Things”a title derived from St. Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews, in which portion of the inspired volume we are taught that the earthly tabernacle which Moses was instructed to build was, in all its parts, but a shadow of the heavenly realities of the Christian Church—the temple of God which Christ would build, and order as the Son over his own house, and use as the Head of his body, the Church, and send to bear witness for him to the world, even as he came to bear witness for the Father. And sure we are that this is the only rational and satisfactory way of studying symbols—to take them in that sense which St. Paul and the other inspired writers have given to them, and to reject the fanciful interpretations of men, however ingenious.

The subjects which follow in natural order are, justification by faith, our righteousness under the Gospel, the constitution of the Church, and the Sabbath ; all which are properly doctrinal subjects. And in treating of the Sabbath a difference is shown in the character of the Sabbath, as instituted by God on the seventh day of creation, and as re-instituted or re-enforced at the giving of the law and in commemoration of deliverance from the Egyptian bondage ; inferring that the Lord's-day partakes more of the joyous festal character of the first or creation Sabbath, than of the constraint and bondage common to all the legal ordinances. Mr. Hooper also endeavours to show, and we think successfully, that as a change was introduced into all computations of time, in order to distinguish the Israelites from the surrounding nations, this change had the effect of throwing back their Sabbath to Saturday, Sunday being really the day of the creation Sabbath, and as such retained among the heathen. Of course it is assumed that this was done by the appointment of God, and in preparation for another change which would be required in the Christian dispensation, when, by the resurrection of Christ, the Lord's-day would become the Sabbath, and would thus revert to Sunday, and produce a coincidence in time, as well as in character, between the creation and the Christian Sabbath.

The experiences and prospects of the Church occupy the remaining tracts, all of which are excellent, but are full of matter which does not admit of abridgment. might be inferred from what we have already said, Mr. Hooper understands the prophetic Scriptures literally, and contends for the doctrines of the second advent and the establishing of Christ's kingdom upon the earth. But there is nothing approaching to controversy in these tracts; they are the simple but unambiguous declarations of a man who himself believes the things which he propounds for the belief of others. Yet it is manifest that very considerable pains have been taken to examine all that has been written on the subject, and to come at the real truth. And in the last of these tracts, on the “ Nearness of the Lord's Advent,” the writings of Faber, Cuninghame, and those who have turned their attention to the time when the prophecies referring to the close of the Christian dispensation shall have their accomplishment, have evidently been consulted, and from them the inference is drawn that we are approaching very near the end. The French revolution is regarded as the great landmark, or the point which has conduced most towards settling prophetic chronology—the 1,260 prophetic years of Daniel and St. John terminating with that shock, and so fixing not only that most prominent period, but all the other periods which depend upon or are connected with it—by all these writers. And all that think so must hold the end to be very near indeed-must regard our continuance as only a lengthening for a little while of the day of grace--an existence only by sufferance, as it were, till the world's iniquity shall be fuil. And in the fear that the speculation even on the nearness of the advent may turn attention from diligent preparation and constant watchfulness, Mr. Hooper closes with the exhortation,

“ Let us dread a mere theory : let ours be the religion of the heart -an experimental and a practical manifestation of the life and power of godliness, remembering always that doctrine is profitable only so far as it leads to God—that it is good only as a means to an end, and that that end is God." (498).

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