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this subject. The poet or the fictionist--and every great exactly in the style of her other sarcastic speeches, fictionist is a true poet-gives us an image of life at large, while it does not correspond with Proteus's intention. and not of the narrow and stinted probabilities of every

For I had rather wink than look on them"- This day life. But real life teems with events which, unless we knew them to have actually happened, would seem

speech, assigned in the old editions to Thurio, certainly as to be next to impossibilities. So that if you chain

belongs to Julia. down the poet from representing every thing that may That they are out by lease"-Lord Hailes sugseem in dry reasoning to be improbable, you will make gested that Thurio and Proteus meant different things his fiction cease to be a probable picture of Nature." by the word possessions; Thurio referring to his lands, T. CAMPBELL.

and Proteus to his mental endowments. If so, the

point of the answer would be, that as Thurio's mental " - ke steps me to her trencher"—That the daugh- | endowments were “out by lease," he had none of them ter of a duke of Milan should eat her capon from a in his own keeping. This interpretation seems overtrencher, may appear somewhat strange. However, || strained, and the meaning of Proteus may be only, that the Earl of Northumberland, in 1512, was ordinarily Thurio's possessions were let (as Stevens says) on disserved on wooden trenchers; and plates of pewter, advantageous terms. mean as we may now think them, were reserved in his family for great holidays. In the privy-purse expenses

SCENE III. of Henry VIII. there are also entries regarding trenchers; as, for example, in 1530,"Item, paied to the "-- and RECORD my roes"-"To 'record' anciently s'geant of the pantrye for certain trenchors for the king, signified to sing. So, in ‘The Pilgrim,' by Beaumont xxiijs. nijd."

and Fletcher:"A slare that stiLL AN END"-"Still an end," and

O sweet, sweet, how the birds record too. most an end, are old idioms, once used by poets, but

Sir John Hawkins informs me, that to 'record' is a term now retained only in vulgar use, and mean perpetually,

still used by bird-fanciers, to express the first essays of generally.

bird in singing."

."'--STEVENS. " And threw her sun-expelling mask away"—An ex.

Who should be trusted now, when one's right tract from Stubbs's “ Anatomie of Abuses,” (1595,) will

hand"—With Stevens and Collier, this edition follows explain this allusion :-"When they use to ride abroad,

the reading of the folio of 1632: the folio of 1623 omits they have masks or visors made of velvet, wherewith

Malone and other editors read, on their own they cover all their faces, having holes made in them


thus :against their eyes, whereout they look; so that if a man

Who should be trusted, when ne's own right hand. that knew not their guise before should chance to meet

"All that was mine in Silvia I give thce"-" This one of them, he would think he met a monster or a

passage has much perplexed the commentators. Pope, devil; for face he can show (see) none, but two broad

naturally enough, thinks it very odd, that Valentine holes against their eyes, with glasses in them."

should give up his mistress at once, without any reason " - I made her weep A-GOOD"_i. e. In good earnest. alleged; and consequently the two lines, spoken by The expression is common in old English, and corre Valentine, after his forgiveness of Proteus,sponds to the French tout de bon.

And, that my love may appear plain and free,

All that was mine in Silvia I give thee,“— such a colour'd periwig”—It seems, from various contemporary authorities, that false hair was much worn are considered to be interpolated or transposed. Sir W. in Shakespeare's time: the custom, however, had newly

Blackstone thinks they should be spoken by Thurio. arisen. In “Northward Hoe,” (1607,) we find this

But why then, it is said, if the lines are omitted or repassage: “There is a new trade come up for cast gen

moved, should Julia faint ? Now it must be observed, dlewomen, of periwig making. Let your wife set up in

that the stage-direction, Faints, is entirely modern; it the Strand." There is an allusion to the practice in the

is not so old as Rowe's edition. The words, .( me MERCHANT OF VENICE.

unhappy, and, Look to the boy,' do not imply any

fainting. The exclamation of Julia is to draw the at" Her eyes are grey as glass"—"The glass of

tention of Proteus to her story of the rings, after the Shakespeare's time was not of the colourless quality affair of Valentine and Silvia is completed. But how which now constitutes the perfection of glass, but of a

is that completed, according to the present reading? light blue tint; hence as grey as glass. Even as Silvia has not said one word since Valentine has rescued grey as glasse,' in the old romances, expresses the pale her from Proteus. This is almost as unnatural as the cerulean blue of those eyes which usually accompany conduct of Valentine in handing her over to the man a fair complexion-a complexion belonging to the who had insulted her. But let us, with an extremely 'auburn'and yellow'hair of Julia and Silvia.”- Ksight.

slight alteration, put the two disputed lines in the mouth But I can make RESPECTIVE in myself”—Stevens of Silvia, without changing their place. Valentine has interprets “respective" as respectful, respectable ; but

forgiven his false friend :the true meaning of the word, and the context, show

By penitence th' Eternal's wrath's appeas'd. What he respects in her has equal re Silvia then has necessarily something to declare. She lation to myself.”

turns to Valentine, and says,"My substance should be statue in thy stead”-In

And, that my love may appear plain and free,

All that was mine in Silvia I give thee. the time of Shakespeare there was frequently some confusion when writers spoke of statues or paintings ; pos

In other words, • That there may be no doubt of my sibly, becanse it was not unusual to paint statues, in the

choice, I give thee all that is mine to give-I give thee

Silvia ;' the sentiment then is the same as in Moore's same way that our Poet's bust was originally painted at Stratford-upon-Avon; and as the statue of Hermione, in


I give thee all, I can no more, the Winter's Tale, must be supposed to be painted.

Though poor the offering be,-Thus Stowe, speaking of Queen Elizabeth's funeral,

and well becomes a maiden who has forsaken her home. says, “ Her statue or picture upon her coffin.”

Julia, without reference to Silvia, calls out, “O me unACT V.-SCENE II.

happy,'—and, having obtained attention, tells the story

of the rings."-KNIGHT. "But love will not be spurr'd to what it loaths" “ This sudden renunciation of his mistress by ValenThis line is given in the old copies to Proteus ; but, as tine is certainly startling, and perhaps unnatural. But Boswell suggested, it seems to belong to Julia, who we are to consider, that his mind is in the first glow of stands by, and comments on what is said. And this is returning kindness towards his old and dearest friend,

that Julia says,


whose penitence touches him, and whose happiness he

“ It is observable (I know not for what cause) that believes to require the sacrifice. Such romantic gener the style of this comedy is less figurative, and more naosity is not uncommon in fiction, and probably not al tural and unaffected, than the greater part of this together unknown in actual life. One of Goldsmith's author's, though supposed to be one of the first he best serious essays, called • Alcander and Septimius,' is wrote.”-POPE. founded on a similar incident: whether derived from fact, we are not prepared to say. The editor of the “ To this observation of Mr. Pope, which very *Pictorial edition of SHAKESPEARE offers the very in just, Mr. Theobald has added, that this is one of genious suggestion, that these remarkable lines should Shakespeare's worst plays, and is less corrupted than be given to Silvia, and addressed to Valentine ; but, on any other.' Mr. Upton peremptorily determines, that a general view of his character, we have no doubt of the if any proof can be drawn from manner and style, genuineness of the present reading."-Ilust. Shak. this play must be sent packing, and seek for its parent

This is the light in which Charles Lamb and his sis elsewhere. How otherwise,' says he, do painters dister understood the passage, which is thus paraphrased tinguish copies from originals ? And have not authors in the “ Tales from Shakespeare:"

their peculiar style and manner, from which a true “ Proteus was courting Silvia, and he was so much critic can form as unerring judgment as a painter ?” ashamed of being caught by his friend, that he was all I am afraid this illustration of a critic's science will at once seized with penitence and remorse ; and he ex not prove what is desired. A painter knows copy pressed such a lively sorrow for the injuries he had from an original, by rules, somewhat resembling those done to Valentine, that Valentine, whose nature was by which critics know a translation, which, if it be uoble and generous, even to a romantic degree, not only forgave and restored him to his former place in his friend literal, and literal it must be to resemble the copy of a

picture, will be easily distinguished. Copies are known ship, but in a sudden flight of heroism he said, I freely

from originals, even when the painter copies his own do forgive you; and all the interest I have in Silvia, I picture; so, if an author should literally translate his give it up to you.' Julia, who was standing beside her

work, he would lose the manner of an original. master as a page, hearing this strange offer, and fearing

“ Mr. Upton confounds the copy of a picture with Proteus would not be able with this new-found virtue

the imitation of a painter's manner. Copies are easily to refuse Silvia, fainted, and they were all employed in

known; but good imitations are not detected with equal recovering her : else would Silvia have been offended at being thus made over to Proteus, though she could

certainty, and are, by the best judges, often mistaken. scarcely think that Valentine would long persevere in

Nor is it irue, that the writer has always peculiarities this overstrained and too generous act of friendship."

equally distinguishable with those of the painter. The

peculiar manner of each arises froin the desire, natural It is very likely that the young Poet had intended to expand this idea, which would have been much in

to every performer, of facilitating his subsequent work, the taste of the romantic heroism of the poetry of his

by recurrence to his former ideas; this recurrence pro

The age; but that, finding himself too much cramped by

duces that repetition which is called habit. the narrow limits left him in the last act, or for some

painter, whose work is partly intellectual and partly other cause, he was content to leave this slight intima manual, has habits of the mind, the eye, and the hand; tion of his thought as it first occurred to him, without

the writer has only habits of the mind. Yet, some dwelling upon it in detail.

painters have differed as much from themselves, as from

any other; and I have been told, that there is little reBehold her that GAVE AIM lo all thy oaths"-Ste semblance between the first works of Raphael and the vens confounded the phrases of to cry aim (Merry

last. The same variation may be expected in writers; Wives of Windsor, act iii. scene 2) and to give aim, and if it be true, as it seems, that they are less subject both terms in archery. He who“ gave aim” appears to to habit, the difference between their works may be yet have been called the mark, and was stationed near the

greater. butts, to inform the archers how near their arrows fell

“But, by the internal marks of a composition, we to the butt. We are indebted to Mr. Gifford for distin

may discover the author with probability, though selguishing the terms.-(Vide Massinger,” vol. ii.)

dom with certainty. When I read this play, I cannot Julia means to say that she was the mark that gave di

but think, that I find, both in the serious and ludicrous rection to his vows.

scenes, the language and sentiments of Shakespeare. “ VERONA shall not hold thee'-—“Valentine had only It is not, indeed, one of his most powerful effusions-it seen Thurio, till now, in Milan, and Milan ought, per has neither many diversities of character, nor striking haps, to have been the word, and not ‘Verona.' How delineations of life; but it abounds in gnomai, beyond ever, we may imagine Valentine to be thinking of his most of his plays; and few have more lines or passages native city; and, at all events, it is better to leave

which, singly considered, are eminently beautiful. I • Verona' as an oversight of the Poet, (duly pointed am yet inclined to believe, that it was not very successout,) than to make so violent a change as Theobald

ful, and suspect that it has escaped corruption only adopted when he printed

because, being seldom played, it was less exposed to Milan shall not behold thee, etc.

the hazards of transcription.”—Johnson. which quite perverts the moaning of the passage.”— COLLIER.

66 The Two GENTLEMEN OF VERONA ranks above " that I have KEPT WITHAL"-i. e. “With whom

the COMEDY OF ERRORS, though still in the third class I have been living—that I have remained with," ex

of Shakespeare's plays. It was probably the first plains Collier; from which it would seem that this use

English comedy in which characters are drawn at once of keep has become obsolete in England. It is still

ideal and true; the cavaliers of Verona and their lady used, colloquially, in many parts of the United States ;

loves are graceful personages, with no transgression and was common in good English writers as late as Pope

of the probabilities of nature, but they are not exactly and Addison.

the real man and woman of the same rank in England.

The imagination of Shakespeare must have been guided “ – we will INCLUDE all jars"-Hanmer arbitrarily

by some familiarity with romances before it struck out substituted conclude for "include;" but all the old

this play. It contains some very poetical lines. copies agree in the text; and “include" seems used

“ Though this play and the COMEDY OF ERRORS here as Spenser has a similar usage,--“So hut up all

could not give the slightest suspicion of the depth of in friendly love."

thought which LEAR and MACBETH were to display, With triumphs," etc.--This term wa applied, in it was already evident that the name of Greene, and Shakespeare's day, to shows, pageants, and processions even of Marlowe, would be eclipsed, without any necesof a serious nature.

sity for purloining their plumes.”-HALLAM.


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