Chance and Determinism in Avicenna and Averroës
This book examines the question whether medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna (Arabic Ibn S?n? 980-1037) and Averroes (Arabic Ibn Rushd 1126-1198) are determinists. With a focus on physics and metaphysics it studies their views on chance events in nature, as well as matter, in particular prime matter, and divine providence. In addition it sets their positions against the historical/philosophical background that influenced their response, the Greco-Arabic philosophical tradition - Aristotelian and Neoplatonic - on the one hand, and the tradition of Islamic theology ("kal?m") on the other. In comparing their philosophical systems, it lays emphasis on the way in which Avicenna and Averroes use these traditions to offer an original answer to the problem of determinism.
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Chapter One Avicenna on chance
Chapter Two Avicenna on matter
Chapter Three Avicenna on celestial causation and providence
Chapter Four Averroes on chance
Chapter Five Averroes on matter and necessity
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accident accidental cause according to Averroes action actualised actually existing aﬃrms agent Àl Yàsìn al-ˇabì'ì al-Ghazzàlì al-Ilàhiyyàt al-Najàt al-Samà al-Shifà Alexander of Aphrodisias Alfarabi Arabic Aristotelian Aristotle Aristotle’s Ash'arite Avicenna and Averroes Avicenna’s view Bergh Caelo causality celestial bodies celestial spheres chance event chapter comes concept contingent corruptible creation Dànishnàmah deﬁned deﬁnition desire deterministic diﬀerent discussion divine eﬀect eﬃcient cause emanation process essential cause eternal everything evil example exis external causes ﬁnal cause ﬁnd ﬁre ﬁrst God’s determination God’s omnipotence Goichon Hence human Ibid Ibn Rushd Ibn Sìnà inﬁnite inﬂuence intellect Islamic issue ittifàq Kashf Long Commentary matter and form means Metaphysics Michot Middle Commentary motion mover Mu'tazilites natural processes neces necessary Neoplatonic non-existence occur passage passive philosophers Physics position possible potentiality prime matter principle privation qadar rare realm relation sake sense soul speciﬁc sublunar substance supralunary Tahàfut al-tahàfut tence term theory things tion translated