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and valuable colours for their home-spun , in all countries. In Ireland, in particular, yarn; yet those articles are not turned to the bistory of the Cottugers of Glenburnie account as matters of commerce. The com- has been read with peculiar avidity, and mon mallow, nettles, bean-stalks, hop-binds, it has probably done as much good to the &c. yield hemp in considerable quantities, Irish as to the Scotch. While the Irish the first particularly, There is a great have seized and enjoyed the opportunity it demand for seeds of the best meadow afforded of a good-bumoured laugh at their grasses, and plants, for laying down and Scotch weighbours, they have secretly improving pasture and meadow land. seeu, through shades of difference, a reWoods, commons, and even the hedges which semblauce to themselves; and are conscious are tences to meadow-land, produce large that, changing the names, the tale might quantities of those seeds, which have been be told of them. Iu this tale, the difference sold at high prices, and for which there and the resemblance between Scottish aud is uow great demand.
Hibernian faults or foibles are both adIt has been stated that Mr. Salisbury sent vantageous to its popularity in Ireland. a man into Hyde-park last September, who The difference is sufficient to give an air earned in three hours, by collecting seeds of novelty that wakens curiosity, while of meadow-grass, 3s. 6d.
the resemblance fixes attention, and creates A committee was formed, consisting of a new species of interest. Besides this, the Duke of Sussex, the Lord Mayor, Al the self-love of the Hibernian reader dermen Atkins and Bridges, Sir T. Bell, being happily relieved from all apprehen. Hon. W. Shirley, and thirieen olbers. sion that the lesson was intended for him,
his good sense takes and profits by the
advice that is offered to another. The MRS. ELIZABETH HAMILTON. humour in this book is peculiarly suited to (The following account of this interesting the Irish, because it is, in every sense of Lady, now no more, has been copied from an the word, good humour. This satire, if Irish journal, and is understood io have been satire it can be called, is benevolent, its ob. written by Miss EDGEWORTH.)
ject is to mend, not wound the heart. Even She was born at Belfast, in Ireland, and the Scotch themselves, however national. the affection for her country which she they are supposed to be, can bear the Coconstantly expressed proved that she had tagers of Glenburnie. Nations, like indivia true Irish heart. This lady is welliduals, can with decent patience bear to be known to the public as the author of“ The told of their faults, if those faults, instead of Cottagers of Glenburnie, The Modern Phi- being represented as forming their estalosophers, Letterson Female Education," and blished unchangeable character, are con various other works. She has obtained in sidered as arising, as in fact they usually different departments of literature just do arise, from those passing circumstances celebrity, and has established a reputation which characterise rather a certain period that will strengthen and consolidate from of civilization, than any particular people. the operation of time that destroyer of all If our national faults are pointed out as foul that is false or superficial.
indelible stains, inberent in the texture of The most popular of her lesser works is the character, from which it cannot by art “ The Cottagers of Glenburnie," a lively, or time be bleached or purified, we are humorous picture of the slovenly habits, justly provoked and offended; but if a the indolent winna-be-fushed temper, the friend warns us of some little accidental baneful content which prevails among spots which we had perhaps overlooked, some of the lower class of the people in and which we can at a moment's notice parts of Scotland. It is a proof of the efface, we smile and are grateful. great merit of this book, that it has, in In “ The Modern Philosophers," where the spite of the Scottish dialect with which it spirit of system and partly interfered with abounds, been universally read in England the design of the work, it was difficult to and Ireland, as well as in Scotland. It is a preserve throughout the tone of good. 'faithful representaion of human nature in humoured raillery and candour: this could general, as well as of local manners and scarcely have been accomplished by any customs: the maxims of economy and talents or prudence, had uot the habitual industry, the principles of truth, justice, temper and real disposition of the writer and family affection and religion, which it been candid and benevolent. In tbis work, inculcates by striking examples, and by though it is a professed satire upon a exquisite strokes of pathos, mixed with system, yet it avoids all satire of inhumour, are independent of all local pecu- dividuals, and it shows none of that cynical liarity of manner or language, and operate contempt of the human race which sone upon the feelings of every class of readers satirists seem to feel or affect in order to
give poignancy to their wit. Our anthor of morals. She has considered how all that has none of that misanthropy which de- ' metaphysicians know of sensation, abstracrides the infirmities of human nature, and tion, &c. can be applied to the cultivawhich laughs while it cauterizes. There tion of the attention, the judgment, and appears always some adequate object for imaginations of children. No matter how any pain that she inflicts, it is done with little is actually ascertained ou these suba steady view to future good, and with a jects, she has done much in wakening the humane and tender, as well as with a skil- attention of parents, of mothers especially, ful and courageous hand. The object of to future inquiry-she has done much by “ The Modern Philosophers'' was to expose directing their inquiries rightiy-much by those whose theory and practice differ, to exciting them to reflect upon their owo point out the difficulty of applying high- minds, and to observe what passes in the fluwu priociples to the ordinary but neces- minds of their children. She has opened sary concerns of human life, and to shew a new field of investigation to women---a the danger of bringing every man to be field fitted to their domestic habits, to their come his own moralist and logician. When duties as mothers, and to their business this novel first appeared, it was perbaps as preceptors of youth, to whom it belongs more read and admired than any of Mrs. to give ihe minds of children those first Hamilton's works; the name, the character impressions and ideas which remain the of Bridgetina Botheram passed into every longest, and which iufluence them ofteu company, and became a standing jest, a the most powerfully through the whole proverbial point in conversation. The ricourse of life. In recommending to her dicale answered its purpose; it reduced to own sex the study of metaphysics, as far measure and reason, those who, in the as id relates to education, Mrs. Hamilton novelty and zeal of system, bad overleaped has been judiciously careful to avoid all the bounds of common sense.
that can lead to that species of “ vain “ The Modern Philosophers, " The Cotta-debate” of which there is no end. She, gers of Glenburnie," and the “ Letters of the knowing the limits of the human underHindoo Rajah," the first book we be- standing, does not attempt to go beyond lieve that our author published, have all them, into that which can be at best but a been highly and steadily approved by the dispute about terms-she does not aim at public. These works, alike in principle making women expert in the “ wordy and in benevolence of design, yet with war," nor does she teach them to astonish each a different grace of style and inven- the unlearned by their acquaintance with tion, have established Mrs. Hamilton's cha- the various vocabulary of metaphysical sysracter, as an original, agreeable, and suc- tem-makers-such jugglers' tricks she descessful writer of fietion. But her claims to pised: but she has not, on the other hand, literary reputation as a philosophic, moral, been deceived or overawed by those who and religious author, are of a higher surt, would represent the study of the human and rest upon works of a more solid and mind as ove that bends to no practical par. durable nature-upon her works on edu- pose, and that is unfit and unsafe for her cation, especially her “ Letters on Female sex. Had Mrs. Hamilton set ladies on meEducation." In these, she not only shows taphysic ground, merely to show their that she has studied the history of the bu- paces, she would have made herself and man mind, and that she has made herself them ridiculous and troublesome; but she acquainted with all that has been written has shewn how they may, by slow and ceron this subject, by the best moral and me tain steps, advance to a useful object. The taphysical writers, but she adds new value dark, intricate, and dangerous labyrinth, to their knowledge by rendering it practi- she has converted into a clear, straight, praccally useful. She has thrown open to all ticable road-a road not only practicable, classes of readers those metaphysical disco but pleasant, and not only pleasant but what veries or observations which had been is of far more consequence to women, safe. confined chiefly to the learned. To a sort Mrs. Elizabeth Hamilton is well known to of knowledge which had been considered be not only a moral, but a pious writer: and rather as a matter of curiosity than of use, in all her writings, as in all her conversation, she has given real value and actual cur her view of religion was sincere, cheerrency. She has shown how the know-ful, and tolerant, joining in the happiest ledge of metaphysics can be made service manner faith, hope, and charity. All who to the art of education. She has shown, had the happiness to know this amiable for instance, how the doctrine of the asso woman will, with one accord, bear testiciation of ideas may be applied in early mony to the truth of that feeling of afeducation to the formation of the habits, of fection which her benevolence, kindness, temper, and of the principles of taste and and cheerfulness of temper iuspired. She VOL, V. No. 26. Lit. Pan. N. S. Nov. 1.
thought so little of herself, so much of poor-rates are 9 d. in the pound, In ten others, that it was imposssible she could, parisies, where the proportion is somesuperior as she was, excite envy--she put thing under a fourth, poor-rates are ]s. 6d. every body at ease in her company, in good in the pound. In seven parishes, where humour and good spirits with themselves, the proportion is but nearly one-sixth, so far from being a restraint on the youngpoor-rates are 4s. 1d. in the pound. And in and lively, she encouraged by her sympathy thirteen parishes, where few or none have their openness and gaiety-she never flat- cows, poor-rates are 5s. 11d. in the pound. terent, but she always formed the most The poor in this considerable district befavourable opinion that truth and good ing able to maintain themselves without sense would permit, of every individual parish assistance, by means of land, and who came near her; therefore, all instead livestock, and to do it at the same time so of fearing and shunning ber penetration, much by their industry and sobriety, and loved and courted her society. Her loss consistently with an honest conduct, clearly will be long regretted by her private marked by the entire approbation of this friends, her memory will long live in pub- system by the farmers, &c. their neighlic estimation. Much as Mrs. Elizabeth hours, is a circumstance which, well conHamilton hath served and honoured the sidered, does away a multitude of those obcause of female literature by her writings, jections and prejudices which we so often she has done still higher and more essen hear in conversation." tial benefit to that cause by her life, by In the replies to the circular letter of setting the example, through the whole, of 1816, fome notes occur upon this practice, that uniform propriety of conduct, and of of cottagers keeping land, which it is neall those domestic virtues, which ought to cessary here to recite. At Shewart, in characterize her sex, which form the charm Kent, it is remarked by Mr. Curling, that and happioess of domestic life, and wbich a late legal decision, determining that in her united gracefully with that supe. keeping a cow gained a settlement, has riority of talents and knowledge that com deprived many cottagers of that comfort, manded the admiration of the public. as it is properly called; an observation, August 1, 1916.
which, however, does not attach to cottagers having already a settlement.
“ The same mischievous result of that deFURTUOR PARTICULARS ON THE ADVAN- cision is noticed by a Lincolnshire corre
Tages or LAND ALLOTTED TO COTTA- spondent, Mr. Parkinson, who iaments the GERS - Compare pp. 113--118.]
eticets which have flowed from it. Mr. The person employed by the Board, and Gregory, of Harlaxton, in the same county, who examined above forty parishes mi-says, “ I have several coutages, with land nutely, gives the following general result: sutiicient to keep two cows andexed to --"Seven hundred and hfty three cotta- | them; the cottagers who occupy thein live gers have among them 1194 cows, or, on comfortably, and are industrious, useful an average, one and a half and 1-13th cow labourers, and appear to be contented with each. Not one of them receives any thing their situation." In the same county, Mr. from the wish! even in the present scar Barker, steward to Şir 'Robert Sheffield, city. The system is much approved of by has the remarkable declaration, that there the farmers, as it is by the poor people can scarcely be said to be any poor in that themselves. They are declared to be the country, because they all have cows, by most hard-working, diligent, sober, and means of which they are in a comfortable industrious labourers who have land and state, and are generally equally sober, bocows, and a numerous meeting of farmers uest, and industrious. Mr. Goulton, of the signed their entire approbation of the sys same county, also commends this system, tem. In the above-mentioned parishes, as productive of much comfort amongst the sates are, on an average, 17 Ld in the pouud; | poor in this period of distress. The Rev. and, but for exceptions of some families J. Gwillim of the same county :-" All who have not land, and of certain cases that have cows do well, so that we have and expences foreign to the inquiry, they scarcely a pauper." The Rev. John Shiowould not be one penny in the pound. In glar, also of the same county :-" The nine parishes, where the proportion of the poor, though their employment is lessened poor having cows amounts to rather more by the distress of the farmers, have not yet than half the whole, poor-rates are 3 d. in been burthersome; and the reason is, their the pound.
keeping cows." The Rev. H. Basset, of' “la tuelve parishes, where the propor- the same couuty, reports the state of the tion is less than half, but not one-third, poor in his parish to be comfortable, de
BY SIR HUMPHREY DAVY.
they generally keep one or more cows. noise, making an intense flame of the
The following is the extract of a letter | length of five feet. The blowpipe was exreceived from Earl Brownlow. The sih. posed at right angles to a strong wind, and ject of cottager's cows, is one in which the double gauze lamps and single lamps have taken deep interest, and I have in successively placed in it. The double variable continued on my estates the sys gauze lainps soon became red hot at the tem which my father had established, of point of action of the two currents; but attaching land to cottages, to enable the the wire did not burn, nor did it communipoor to keep cows: I have no hesitation cate explosion. The single gauze lamp inl saving, that very essential benefit has did not communicate explosion, as long as been derived from this practice during the it was red hot and slowly moved throngh present period of general distress, inasmuch he currents; but wlien it was fixed at the as soarely any poor family so circum- point of most iutense combustion, it reachstanced, vot more, I should think, than one ed a weidiug heat, the iron wire began to in twenty at the most) has become at all burn with sparks, and the explosion then burthersome to the parishi; while, on the passed. other hand, I have reason to believe, 'that In a second and third set of experiments the labouring poor have suffered great dis
on this violent blowpipe of fire dainp, sintrees, and have universally become objects gle lamps, with slips of tin-plate on the of purochial relief, in-those places where outside or in the inside, to prevent the no such systern is established.
free passage of the current, and double lamps, were exposed to all the circum
stances of the blast, both in the open air ON WIRE GAUZE LAMPS. and in the engine-house where the atmos
phere was explosive to a great extent round The following appears to us to be one
the pipe, and through which there was a
strong current of atmospheric air; but the of the most remarkable experiments ever heat of the wire never approached near made. The immense power and conder the point at which iron wire burns, and tion of the flame, its length, and intensity. the explosion could never be communicat. In short, it seems to be an extreme to which ard roared in the lamps, but did not escape
ed. The fame of the fire-damp flickered Nature can rarely, if at all, carry the prin- from its prison. ciple of ignition and exposition by means There is no reason ever to expect a blowof fire damp
pipe of this kind in a nive; but, if it I have had an excellent opportunity of should occur, the mole of facing it and making experiments on a most violent examining it, with most perfect security, blower, at a mine belonging to J. G.
is shown; apd the larop offers a resource, Lambton, Esq. some of them in the pre
which can never exist in a steel-mill, the sence of Mr. Lambton : in most of them sparks of which would undoubtedly inMr. Buddle assisted. This blower is | Hame a current of this kind. walled od from the mine and carried to Arguments have been strted as to the the surface, where it is discharged with weakness of the lamps. lu a board or great force. It is made to pass through a gallery in the Wallsend colliery, 'Ir. Budleathern pipe, so as to give a stream, of die and mysc/f, with some of the viewers, which the force was felt at about two feet endeavoured to injure a single quze lamp from the aperture in a strong current of by throwing large pieces of coal, upon it, air. The common single working laps and striking it with a pick ; but we never and double gauze lamps were brought perforated the gauze ; and the lamp, after upon this current, both in a free at:pos- these severe trials, burnt with perfect sephere and in a confined air. The gas fired curity in a small explosive atmosphere in the lamps in various trials, but did not made by Mr. Buddle at the bottom of the heat them abově dull redness, and wueo shaft for the parpose of trying the lanips. they were brought far into the siream they I made with Vir. Buddle and his viewers were finally extinguished.
some experiments on the comparative light A brass pipe was now fixed upon the of the lamps, the cominon miner's candle, blower tube, so as to make the whole and the steel mills, in a gallery in the stream pass through an aperture of less Wallsend colliery. We judged of the inthau half an inch in diameter, which of tensity of the light by the square of the codrse formed a most powerful blow-pipe, distance at which a small object was visifrom which the fire damp, when inflamed, ble; and made repeated trials on each spe• howed with great violence and a roaring cies of light.
The light of the miner's candle was 45 5., tivated, the timber cut down, the quantity That of a lamp furnished with a tin of rain diminished, staguaut pools dried, plate reflector for dininishing the
and the rivers contained within their procirculation of the air, and facing per banks, the easterly winds being check
a blower, was .......................... 49 ed by the warmer surface of cultivated That of a single common lamp...... 39 lands, a dusky race of men, nearly black, That of a double copper wire lamp 25 are to be expected in Brazil, about the That of the steel mill, very unequal latitude of Cape St. Roque; for that is the
and uncertain; but at its greatest only part of America in which the prointensity of light
25 gress of industry may darken the skin, It may be proper to observe, without re
notwithstanding the effects of civilization. ference to the superiority of light, that coals may be worked nearly twice as cheap Chickesaw nation, of the bad effects of
We have a remarkable instance, in the by the wire gauze safe lamp, as by the steel mill.
breeding from diminutive parents. Those The pleasure of seeing the wire gauze Soto with a breed of Spanish horses. In
Indians were originally furnished by De safe lamps in general use amongst the miners, and adding to the security and happi- selves, the soil being good and the climate
that country the horses provided for themness of this useful class of men, amply repays me for the labour of twelve months
warm. The Indians, towards the middle devoted to their cause, and for the anxiety of the last century, discovered that their which I have often experienced during the horses were a valuable article of com
merce; they could be exchanged for guns, progress of the investigation.
blankets, and other necessaries; but the Newcastle, Sept. 9, 1816.
traders, in all cases, bought the largest
borses, and the smallest were left to conHints on the races of Men and Animals in for the Chickesaw horses are confessedly
tinue the breed. The effect is obvious, America. From “ Observations on the Climate of America.” By Dr. Hugh Wil smaller than they were fifty years ago. liamson, of New York.
We have no data by which we may The following are merely excerpta from compute the number of years or ages that a curious and learned article. The writer were necessary to abstract so great a body attributes much to the power of tempera- of heat as then existed in the northern ture, and to the course of the winds, wbich lands and ocean; but a long period must in some directions are loaded with humi- natural history more certaiu than that there
have been required, for there is no fact in dity, while in others, they are dry. The was more heat, or less cold, in high northchief references are to America, North or ern latitudes, in the eighth or ninth cenSouth: and the writer concludes that he tury, than there is at present; nor is it has assigned reasons for the black skin of clear that the heat of the air, earth, or wa
ter, in those high latitudes, has yet attained the Negro, the red skin of the American, its lowest degree. and the fair skin of some parts of Europe, It is a curious fact, and in perfect coinci
These observations contain other curious dence with this theory, that when the first suggestions also ;, of wbich our readers will Norwegian colony settled in Greenland,
about one thousand years ago, they found be pleased to peruse a specimen.
no difficulty in approaching the coast, and While America remained a great forest, a regular correspondence was supported inhabited by savages, under the constant with those people for many years. That dominion of westerly wiods, there was not intercourse was entirely neglected during auy climate on the eastern coast in which the dark ages of anarchy and misrule in we could expect a fair skin. By the pro- Europe. Since the revival of learning, gress of cultivation, the general course of within the last two centuries, sundry atthe winds is materially affected ju the mid-tempts have been made to discover the redle and northern states; and in the process mains of that colony, who lived on the of time we may expect such a prevalence eastern part of Greenland: but no landing of easterly winds, near the coast, in those can now be effected on that coast, by reastates, as shall prevent that tendency of son of the vast bodies of ice with which complections to the clear brunet, which it is pressed. From this it is clear, that prevails in temperate climates, in other within the last seven or eigbt hundred parts of the world.
years there has been a great increase of ice When South-America shall be well cul- in high northern latitudes.